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Verkehr

(1,129 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg; Hausleiter, Arnulf | Schneider, Helmuth
Die Überwindung von Distanzen durch Personen und Güter mit Hilfe von V.-Mitteln und auf V.-Wegen. [English version] I. Alter Orient Die ältesten V.-Mittel sind Mensch und Tragtier sowie das Boot. Sie wurden gleichermaßen für den Nah- wie für den Fern-V. eingesetzt, für den Einzel- wie für den Massentransport. Nicht nur im nomadischen Kontext (Nomaden) wurden Esel und später Kamele als unbespannte, ausdauernde und genügsame Transporttiere und V.-Mittel herangezogen. Für den Schwertransport mit begrenzter Reichweite …

Ziegelei

(469 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
[English version] ( figlina). Ziegelsteine (= Zi.) und Dachziegel wurden in der Nähe der Tonvorkommen in Z. hergestellt und dann zu den Baustellen transportiert. Wegen ihres hohen Gewichts versuchte man lange Transportwege zu vermeiden; die Zi.-Herstellung war aus diesem Grund nicht in Produktionszentren konzentriert, sondern über ganz It. verteilt. Immerhin belieferten küstennahe Z., deren Zi. mit dem Schiff transportiert werden konnten, ganze Küstenregionen; Zi. der figlina des Vibius Pansa bei Ariminum finden sich im gesamten nördl. Adriaraum (ILS 8648a-h). Bedingt dur…

Vacuum

(380 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
[English version] Bei den vorplatonischen Denkern - so bei den Pythagoreern (Pythagoreische Schule) oder bei Anaxagoras [2] - findet sich die Vorstellung eines leeren Raumes (τὸ κενόν/ to kenón); bei der Prüfung dieser Auffassung kam Aristoteles [6] zum Ergebnis, daß das Leere nicht existiere. Aus seiner Argumentation geht hervor, daß Anaxagoras Phänomene der Luft experimentell untersucht hat. Für Aristoteles zeigen die Demonstrationen des Anaxagoras, daß Luft ein Stoff ist (ὅτι ἔστι τι ὁ ἀήρ/ hóti ésti ti ho aḗr: Aristot. phys. 213a-214b). Im 3. Jh. v. Chr. konstruierte Ktes…

Blei

(725 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[English version] Metall von einer geringen Härte, einem hohen spezifischen Gewicht (11,34) und einem niedrigen Schmelzpunkt (327°C); das wichtigste in der Natur vorkommende B.-Erz ist der B.-Glanz (Galenit; PbS), der in der Ant. wegen eines Silbergehaltes von bis zu 1% vor allem für die Gewinnung von Silber größere wirtschaftliche Bed. besaß. So wurde etwa das Silber von Laureion durch den Abbau und die Verhüttung von B.-Glanz gewonnen. Wichtige Lagerstätten befanden sich außer in Attika vor alle…

Holzfässer

(211 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[English version] Während im Mittelmeerraum Flüssigkeiten wie Wein und Öl in großen Tonkrügen (πίθος, dolium) gelagert und in Tierhäuten oder Amphoren transportiert wurden, hat man seit dem frühen Prinzipat in den westl. Prov. und in Nordit. für die Lagerung und den Transport von Wein zunehmend auch H. verwendet (Oberit.: Strab. 5,1,8; 5,1,12; Alpen: Plin. nat. 14,132). Wie zahlreiche Reliefs und Grabskulpturen zeigen, wurden Weinfässer mit schweren, von Pferden gezogenen Wagen (Grabreliefs in Langres und Augsburg) oder auf Flüssen wie der Mosel mit …

Hebegeräte

(574 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[English version] Seitdem in Griechenland große Tempel aus Stein errichtet wurden (frühes 6. Jh. v.Chr.), standen die Architekten vor dem Problem, schwere Quadersteine für die Wände oder den Architrav und Säulentrommeln soweit zu heben, wie der Bauplan es notwendig machte. Dabei waren oft Lasten von einem beträchtlichen Gewicht zu bewältigen, denn immerhin wiegt Stein etwa 2,25 t/m3 und Marmor ca. 2,75 t/m3. In archa. Zeit hatten Blöcke für den Architrav ein Gewicht zwischen 10 und 40 t. Die Steine wurden zunächst über eine Rampe an ihren Platz gebrach…

Taberna

(88 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth | Uggeri, Giovanni; Ü:H.D.
[English version] [1] Gebäudetyp Lat. Begriff für städtische und ländliche Gebäude, die der Lagerhaltung, der handwerklichen Produktion, dem Verkauf, der Bewirtung und als Herberge, aber auch als Wohnraum dienten. Vorratswirtschaft; Werkstatt; Wirtshaus Schneider, Helmuth [English version] [2] T. Frigida Straßenstation in Etruria an der Via Aemilia Scauri zw. Pisae und Luna am Übergang über den Frigidus (h. Frigido), h. S. Leonardo in Frigido. Uggeri, Giovanni; Ü:H.D. Bibliography L. Banti, Luni, 1937, 71  G. De Santis Alvisi, Questioni lunensi, in: Centro Studi Lunen…

Interest

(3,846 words)

Author(s): Grundmann, Stefan | Bayer, Stefan | Schneider, Helmuth | Kessler, Rainer | Strohm, Christoph | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept – II. Legal Aspects – III. Economics – IV. Non-Christian Antiquity – V. Bible – VI. Christianity – VII. Judaism – VIII. Islam I. Concept Interest is payment in exchange for a right of use or exploitation, typically on a temporary basis and always agreed for a fixed period of time. Money later gained increasing importance as an object of lending and now occupies a dominant position, although other items or rights remain possible as objects of lending, as for example rent. In economics (see III below), this mutual commitment between the conferral…

Economy

(6,870 words)

Author(s): Sautter, Hermann | Rüpke, Jörg | Schneider, Helmuth | Otto, Eckart | Penslar, Derek | Et al.
[German Version] I. The Concept – II. Economic Systems and their Theories – III. Economy and Religion I. The Concept The term economy encompasses the totality of all individual actions and social interactions that serve to produce goods (commodities or services [Service sector]) for the purpose of satisfying human needs (Consumption). As a rule, the “production” of commodities means that human labor and …

Late Antiquity

(1,073 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
[German Version] Ever since C.-L. de Montesquieu and E. Gibbon, Roman history of the 4th and 5th centuries has been viewed primarily as a history of decadence and decline. The centuries preceding the fall of the Roman Empire in the West were interpreted consistently as a period of deterioration that affected architecture, art, and literature as well. In 1764 Johann J. Joachim Winckelmann spoke of a deterioration of sculpture and painting in the period after Commodus, and J. Burckhardt was referring explicitly to architecture, art, and literature when he used such terms as aging, senilit…

Italy

(7,951 words)

Author(s): Beck, Rolf K. | Schneider, Helmuth | Paoli-Lafaye, Elisabeth | Ricca, Paolo | Veltri, Giuseppe
[German Version] I. General – II. History and Sociology I. General Since 1861 (the establishment of the Kingdom of Italy), Italy has been the name of the first unified nation on the Italian peninsula since the Lombard invasion in 568. Following a referendum in 1946, Italy became a republic (Repubblica Italiana) with a bicameral parliament. The president is the representative chief of state; the government is headed by the prime minister. Since 1870, with the dissolution of the Papal States, the capital has been Rome (population 2.7 million in 2000). Italy has an area of 187,179 km2, with…

Weber, Max

(1,440 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
German jurist, sociologist and economist. Born Erfurt 21. 4. 1864, died Munich 14. 6. 1920. School in Berlin; 1882–1886 studied law; 1889 doctorate, 1892 habil. in Berlin. 1893 prof. of economics at Freiburg. 1896–1903 prof. of economics at Heidelberg; 1919–1920 prof. in Munich. Biography and career W.’s father, the jurist Max W., was a paid city councillor in Berlin from 1869, and between 1868 and 1897 he was a National Liberal member of the Prussian Abgeordnetenhaus, and from 1872 to 1884 of the German Reichstag. W. studied law at Heidelberg, Berlin and Göttingen from 1882 to…

Hume, David

(604 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
Scottish philosopher, historian and economist. Born Edinburgh 7. 5. 1711, died there 25. 8. 1776. 1726–1729 studied law at Univ. of Edinburgh, thereafter private study of philosophy. 1735–1737 and 1763–1766 in France. From 1752, librarian at Edinburgh. Worked from 1763 for the British Embassy in Paris, then 1767/68 at the Foreign Office. Thereafter private scholar in Edinburgh. Works and influence H. was the second son of the advocate and landowner Joseph H. From 1735, he worked as a private scholar, devoting himself mostly to the study of philosophy. In…

Polanyi, Karl

(800 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
Austrian-American economic and social historian. Born Vienna 21. 10. 1886, died Pickering (near Toronto) 23. 4. 1964. Studied at Budapest; in Vienna from 1919, then politically and journalistically active in Britain from (emigration in) 1933. 1947–1953 prof. of economic history at Columbia Univ. in New York. Career Born in Vienna, P. grew up in Budapest, the son of a Jewish businessman. He imbibed socialist ideas and theories from a young age. In ¶ 1919, he went to Vienna, where he wrote articles for a financial newspaper ( Der Österreichische Volkswirt) from 1924. Between 1933 and …

Ehrenberg, Victor

(1,135 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
German-British ancient historian. Born Altona (Hamburg) 22. 11. 1891, died London 25. 1. 1976. Studied architecture at TH Stuttgart 1911; 1912–1914 studied classics at Göttingen and Berlin, 1919–1920 atTübingen. Doctorate Tübingen 1921. 1922 habil. in Frankfurt; 1929 prof. of ancient history at the German Univ. of Prague. Emigrated to Britain 1939. 1946 lecturer, then prof. at Bedford College, London. Biography and career Victor E. was the son of Otto E., a leading banker at the Hamburg banking house of Warburg & Co. In 1902, the family moved to Kassel, wh…

Rostovtzeff, Michael

(2,530 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
Also Mikhail Rostovtsev/Rostovtseff. Russian-American ancient historian. Born Mikhail Ivano-vich Rostevtsev, Zhitomir (Kiev), 10. 11. 1870, died New Haven, Connecticut, 20. 10. 1952. School in Kiev. Studied there and St. Petersburg. Taught at the Gymnasium in Tsarskoye Selo. Prof. of Latin at Univ. of St. Petersburg from 1903; 1918 emigration to Britain. Taught at Queen’s College, Oxford; 1920 prof. at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, USA. 1925–1944 prof. of ancient history and archaeology at Yale Univ., New Haven, Connecticut. Biography and career The social rise since the …

Rodbertus, Karl

(588 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
German economic historian and economist. Born Johann Karl R., Greifswald 12. 8. 1805, died Jagetzow (Pomerania) 6. 12. 1875. 1823–1827 studied law at Göttingen and Berlin; 1828–1830 worked for Prussian civil service. From 1835, as owner of the manor of Jagetzow, working as scholarly and political writer. Career, works and influence R., the son of a prof. of Roman law, concerned himself mainly with issues of social policy, both after his studies at Göttingen and Berlin and following his resignation from the civil service. Seeking solutions to the…

Büchsenschütz, Albert Bernhard

(490 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
German ancient historian. Born Berlin 6. 9. 1828, died there 29. 1. 1922. 1848–1851 studied philology at Friedrich-Wilhelms-Univ. Berlin, doctorate 1851. Thereafter teacher, then 1875–1897 Director of Friedrich-Werderschen Gymnasium, Berlin. Background, work and influence B., the son of a teacher, attended the Cöllnisches Gymnasium in Berlin, studied philology at Friedrich-Wilhelms-Univ. from 1848 and obtained his doctorate in 1851 with a dissertation on the Orphic Hymns. He published three books in a period of just two years (1868–1869)…

Finley, Moses I.

(1,440 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
American-British ancient historian. Born 20. 5. 1912 in New York, died Cambridge 23. 6. 1986. 1937–1939, worked at Institute for Social Research in New York; 1948–1952 lecturer and assistant prof. at Rutgers Univ. in New Jersey; 1950 doctorate at Columbia Univ., New York. At Cambridge (England) from 1954; 1970–1979 prof. of ancient history at Cambridge Univ. Knighted 1979. Biography and career F. was born Moses Israel Finkelstein in 1912 in New York. He came from a Jewish family that had produced leading rabbis, and he received a Jewish education himself …

De Ste. Croix, Geoffrey

(676 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
British ancient historian. Born Geoffrey Ernest Maurice (usually G. E. M.) De Ste. C. in Macao 8. 2. 1910, died Oxford 5. 2. 2000. Legal training at Bristol; worked as a lawyer, then active in the Labour movement from 1935; war service from 1940. Studied ancient history at Univ. College London from 1947. Lecturer in ancient economic history from 1950 at the London School of Economics; fellow of New College, Oxford from 1953 and tutor there until 1977. Career, works and influence D. Ste. C., born in China, the son of a British customs official, came from a Huguenot family that…
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