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House

(3,655 words)

Author(s): Sievertsen, Uwe (Tübingen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] I. Near East and Egypt In the Near East, the residential ground plan was usually of a rectangular shape containing multiple cells. Clay bricks were the most important building material in Mesopotamia, while stone was more frequently used in Iran, Syria and Asia Minor. The typical Babylonian residential house consists of rooms around a central courtyard. It usually has only one entrance and a main hall located to the south, directed away from the midday sun. The Neo-Assyrian residence, …

Vaults and arches, construction of

(1,257 words)

Author(s): Sievertsen, Uwe (Tübingen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt There is evidence of vaults and arches in western Asia, chiefly in crypts and on canals. There are only few surviving examples of the vaulting of above ground spaces. Both true and corbelled vaults are documented, over quite small or passage-like rooms, posterns, staircase substructures and doorway, gateway and bridge arches. Barrel vaults and domes were comparatively common, primarily on storage spaces and furnaces. For the most part techniques were used in…

Building trade

(3,561 words)

Author(s): Sievertsen, Uwe (Tübingen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] I. Near East and Egypt Near East: the lack of preliminary studies makes a comprehensive account of the Old Oriental building world across several periods impossible; investigations exist for only a few selective periods. It is the Neo-Assyrian period (1st half of the 1st millennium BC), which to date provides the clearest insight because of the availability of extensive source material in respect of the architecture of palaces, temples and fortifications. Royal inscriptions prove the i…

Window

(997 words)

Author(s): Sievertsen, Uwe (Tübingen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt Ancient oriental houses usually had small highly placed window slits. Internal spaces in larger architectural complexes required special lighting by means of a clerestory or openable skylights in the ceiling. Findings in Egypt are in principle similar. Some wider window openings there had richly decorated grilles. Sievertsen, Uwe (Tübingen) Bibliography D. Arnold, s.v. Fenster, Lexicon der ägyptischen Baukunst, 80-82 G. Leick, A Dictionary of Near Eastern Architecture, 1988, 242-244. [German version] II. Greece and Rome As a means of lighting internal spaces of a building or as a constructional measure for allowing a view of the surrounding area, windows gradually become common in the architecture of the Mediterranean lands from the middle of the 2nd millennium onwards and replace formerly cur…

Construction technique

(3,375 words)

Author(s): Sievertsen, Uwe (Tübingen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
I.Near East and Egypt [German version] A. Near East From the earliest times clay was the most important building material in Mesopotamia, along with reeds in the marshlands of the extreme south. With only a few exceptions, stone architecture, in a fairly strict sense of the term, is not found either in Babylon, which was lacking in raw materials other than limestone lodes, or in Assyria. When stone was used it was mainly for functional purposes, e.g. in laying foundations. Only in late Assyrian monumental architecture from the 8th cent. is there any appreciable component of stonemasonry, stemming perhaps from the influence of stonemasons from Phoenician-Syrian border areas of the Assyrian Empire where stone had played a more important role in architecture, just as in Asia Minor (Hittites) and later in Iran (Achaemenids). Little is known about quarries and stone extraction, apart form occasional representations in late Assyrian relief sculptures. The Babylonian method of using reeds in building corresponds very closely to the technique that can still be found in southern Iraq today; even the production of clay bricks has scarcely changed over the millennia. The first, hand-fashioned bricks date from around 8000 BC; bricks shaped in mould are to be found from the second half of the 8th millennium. Brick production consists of several phases: extracting the clay from pits, preparation of the clay mixture, shaping the bricks in wooden moulds and drying them. As large quantities of water were needed to produce the bricks, production centres were generally located in the vicinity of canals or rivers. Chaff was used to thin the mixture out. The preferred time of year for tile manufacture was in May and June: the drying process then took only a few days. July and August were the usual months for construction. Because of the lack of combustible material, fired tiles were expensive and used sparingly, chiefly in areas that were very susceptible to dampness. Wood in Mesopotamia was used principally for roofing. For shorter lengths, indigenous palm trunks or poplars sufficed, but for large columns in monumental architecture suitab…

Architecture

(5,740 words)

Author(s): Sievertsen, Uwe (Tübingen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] A. I. Middle East Since Neolithic times, the most important building material in Mesopotamia has been the unkilned clay brick. A more extensive use of stone can be found in western regions of the Old Orient, in particular Asia Minor, and in Iran during Persian times. The typical New Assyrian house is divided into two sections: a forecourt with utility rooms and an inner courtyard with residential quarters. By contrast, rooms in a Babylonian house as of the 3rd millennium…

Lighting

(723 words)

Author(s): Sievertsen, Uwe (Tübingen) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Near East and Egypt Near East: the lighting in the rooms was generally dim; exterior walls usually only contained windows high up, as documented primarily by architectural drawings, rarely by the original building. Light coming in through the doors probably sufficed for rooms adjacent to courtyards. Interior rooms, in particular larger architectural complexes, required special lighting by means of different roof levels and wall openin…

Bautechnik

(2,793 words)

Author(s): Sievertsen, Uwe (Tübingen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
I. Vorderer Orient und Ägypten [English version] A. Vorderer Orient Wichtigstes Baumaterial war in Mesopotamien seit frühesten Zeiten Lehm, daneben in den Sümpfen des äußersten Südens stets auch Schilf. Steinarchitektur im engeren Sinne kommt bis auf wenige Ausnahmen nicht vor, weder im abgesehen von Kalksteinbänken rohstoffarmen Babylonien noch in Assyrien. Wenn Stein verwendet wurde, war dies zumeist funktional motiviert, z.B. bei Fundamentierung. Erst ab dem 8.Jh. findet sich in neuassyr. Monumentalarchitektur ein nennenswerter Anteil von Stei…

Architektur

(4,644 words)

Author(s): Sievertsen, Uwe (Tübingen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[English version] A. I. Vorderer Orient Wichtigstes Baumaterial Mesopotamiens ist seit dem Neolithikum der ungebrannte Lehmziegel. Ausgiebigere Verwendung von Stein begegnet in westl. Regionen des Alten Orients, insbes. in Kleinasien, und im perserzeitlichen Iran. Das typische neuassyr. Wohnhaus ist zweigeteilt in Vorhof mit Wirtschaftsräumen und Innenhof mit Wohnquartieren. Demgegenüber sind die Räume beim babylon. Wohnhaus seit dem 3. Jt. üblicherweise um einen einzigen Zentralhof angeordnet. Größe und Ausstattung variiert je nach Familienstruktur und Wohlst…

Beleuchtung

(642 words)

Author(s): Sievertsen, Uwe (Tübingen) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[English version] …

Haus

(3,195 words)

Author(s): Sievertsen, Uwe (Tübingen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[English version] I. Vorderer Orient und Ägypten Der Wohnhausgrundriß ist im Vorderen Orient üblicherweise in Rechteckbauweise und mehrzellig gestaltet. Wichtigstes Baumaterial sind in Mesopot. Lehmziegel; in Iran, Syrien und Kleinasien findet sich daneben eine stärkere Verwendung von Stein. Das typische babylon. Wohn-H. besteht aus Räumen um einen zentralen Hof. Es besitzt meist nur einen Eingang, der Hauptsaal liegt im Süden, der Mittagssonne abgewandt. Das neuassyr. Wohn-H. ist demgegenüber zweigete…

Bauwesen

(2,908 words)

Author(s): Sievertsen, Uwe (Tübingen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[English version] I. Vorderer Orient und Ägypten Vorderer Orient: Für eine periodenübergreifende Darstellung des altoriental. Bauwesens fehlen Vorarbeiten; nur für wenige Zeitabschnitte gibt es Untersuchungen. Genauere Vorstellungen sind bislang am ehesten für die neuassyr. Zeit (1. H. des 1. Jt.v.Chr.) zu gewinnen, aus der umfangreiches Quellenmaterial zum B. in den Bereichen der Palast-, Tempel- und Festungsarchitektur zur Verfügung steht. Herrscherinschr. zeigen, welch große Bed. die Assyrer der Bau…

Fenster

(901 words)

Author(s): Sievertsen, Uwe (Tübingen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[English version] I. Alter Orient und Ägypten An altoriental. Wohnhäusern gab es zumeist nur kleine hochgelegene F.-Schlitze. Innere Räume größerer Architekturkomplexe erforderten bes. Beleuchtung durch Obergaden oder verschließbare Oberlichter in den Decken. Der Befund in Ägypten ist prinzipiell ähnlich. Weite F.-Öffnungen besaßen dort teilweise reich verzierte F.-Gitter. Sievertsen, Uwe (Tübingen) Bibliography D. Arnold, s.v. F., Lex. der ägypt. Baukunst, 80-82 G. Leick, A Dictionary of Near Eastern Architecture, 1988, 242-244. [English version] II. Griechenland u…

Gewölbe- und Bogenbau

(1,086 words)

Author(s): Sievertsen, Uwe (Tübingen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[English version] I. Alter Orient und Ägypten G. sind in Vorderasien hauptsächlich an Grüften und Kanälen bezeugt. Es gibt nur wenige erh. Beispiele für die Einwölbung überirdischer Räume. Belegt sind sowohl echte als auch Kraggewölbe über kleineren oder gangartigen Räumen, Poternen und Substruktionen von Treppen sowie Bögen an Türen, Toren und Brücken. Vergleichsweise häufig waren Tonnen, Kuppeln vornehmlich an Speichern und Öfen. Meist wurden Techniken verwendet, bei denen sich Gewölbe gegen eine Wan…