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Circumcelliones

(225 words)

Author(s): Scheid, John (Paris)
[English version] Die aufständische Bewegung der C. (nach Augustinus von

Arvales fratres

(922 words)

Author(s): Scheid, John (Paris)
[English version] A. Kult Die röm. Bruderschaft der A.f. bestand aus zwölf Priestern senatorischen Ranges, die ihr Amt durch Kooptation auf Lebenszeit erhielten. An der Spitze des Kollegiums stand ein jährlich gewählter magister, zu dem jedes Jahr ein flamen trat. Nach ihrem Namen (Varro ling. 5,85) sowie den von ihnen vollbrachten Riten hing der Dienst der A.f. mit der Fruchtbarkeit der Flur zusammen. Sie feierten den Kult der…

Consualia

(128 words)

Author(s): Scheid, John (Paris)
[German version] The two festivals ( feriae) of the  Consus, the C., fell on 21 August and 15 December. On 21 August a form of harvest festival was celebrated: the flamen Quirinalis and the Vestals sacrificed first crops from the harvest at the underground altar of the Consus. Then the priests organized games with draught horses and mules; pastoral games are also mentioned (the rape of the Sabines is said to have taken place during the…

Diana

(1,536 words)

Author(s): Scheid, John (Paris)
[German version] A. Name The name Dĭāna (in older documents sometimes scanned as Dīāna) is derived from dĭus, ‘light as day, shining’; D. is the ‘bright one’. Varro's derivation of the name from Diviana (Ling. 5,68) or Deviana (GRF 226, no. 103) is only of aetiological value. Scheid, John (Paris) [German version] B. Functions Little is known about the original nature of the Italian D. As with all of the goddess' other characteristics, her name is laden with Hellenizing interpretations such that one can hardly approach the original form of Diana. D.…

Consus

(134 words)

Author(s): Scheid, John (Paris)
[German version] is god of the harvest of the grain crop. His name is derived from condere (‘harvest’). His festival was the   Consualia , his underground altar was in the valley of the Circus, south of the foot of the Palatine. The C. inscription transmitted by Tertullian (De spectaculis 5,7) can hardly have come from this altar and does not seem very old. Goddesses involved in protecting the grain crop (Seia, Segetia, Tutilina) were also venerated at the same location. In 272 BC, after his triumph over Tarentum, L. Papirius Cursor constructed a temple [1] on the Aventine to C., whose inaugural festival (

Circumcelliones

(255 words)

Author(s): Scheid, John (Paris)
[German version] The rebellious movement of the Circumcelliones (according to Augustine, from circum cellas vagare ) spread in Numidia around AD 340 in the region of the Donatist Church [1]. The Circumcelliones, about whom reports first appeared around 320, were poor field workers, mainly day labourers, who had given up their work and who were initially also joined by small landowners ruined by debt. Apart from financial problems around 340, the main reason for the movement's existence from 345 onwards was th…

Dea Dia

(95 words)

Author(s): Scheid, John (Paris)
[German version] An otherwise unknown female deity to whom the   Arvales fratres devoted the sacrifice of the month of May; nothing is known about the connection of the Dea Dia (DD) with a Dia from Amiternum (CIL I2 2, 1546) and the Greek Dia. Her name derives from the adjective dius and is connected with the space of heaven, probably the ‘good light of heaven’. The thesis that DD is an indigitation ( Indigitamenta) of Tellus or of Ceres cannot be maintained.…

Arvales fratres

(1,057 words)

Author(s): Scheid, John (Paris)
[German version] A. Cult The Roman fraternity of the Arvales fratres (AF) consisted of twelve priests of senatorial rank who were co-opted to their office for life. At the head of the collegium was a magister elected annually, who each year was aided by a flamen. It appears from their names (Varro, Ling. 5,85) as well as from the rites carried out by them that the duties of the AF were connected to the fertility of the fields They celebrated the cult o…

Diana

(1,384 words)

Author(s): Scheid, John (Paris)
[English version] A. Name Der Name Dĭāna (in älteren Belegen manchmal Dīāna skandiert) kommt von dĭus, “taghell, leuchtend”; D. ist die “Leuchtende”. Varros Ableitung des Namens von Diviana (ling. 5,68) oder Deviana (GRF 226, Nr. 103) hat nur aitiologischen Wert. Scheid, John (Paris) [English version] …

Consus

(125 words)

Author(s): Scheid, John (Paris)

Consualia

(118 words)

Author(s): Scheid, John (Paris)
[English version] Die beiden Festtage ( feriae) des Consus, die C., fielen auf den 21. August und auf den 15. Dezember. Am 21. August wurde eine Art Erntefest gefeiert: Der flamen Quirinalis und die Vestalinnen opferten am unterirdischen Altar des Consus Erstlinge der Ernte. Danach veranstalteten die Priester Spiele mit Zugpferden und Maultieren; man spricht auch von Hirtenspielen (der Raub der Sabinerinnen soll während dieser Spiele geschehen sein). Vom zweiten Festtag wissen wir nichts; wahrscheinlich wurden an diesem Tag die Getreidevorräte rituell geöffnet. Scheid, John (P…

Dea Dia

(89 words)

Author(s): Scheid, John (Paris)
[English version] Eine sonst unbekannte weibliche Gottheit, an welche die Arvales fratres das im Monat Mai stattfindende Opfer richteten; über den Zusammenhang der D.D. mit einer Dia aus Amiternum (CIL I2 2, 1546) und der griech. Dia ist nichts bekannt. Ihr Name wird vom Adj. dius abgeleitet und hängt mit dem Himmelsraum, wahrscheinlich mit dem “guten Himmelslicht”, zusammen. Die These, D.D. sei eine Indigitation (Indigitamenta) der Tellus oder der Ceres, ist nicht zu halten. Scheid, John (Paris) Bibliography R. Schilling, Rites, cultes, dieux de Rome, 1979, 366-370.

Bacchus

(262 words)

Author(s): Scheid, John (Paris)
[English version] Ursprünglich nur Epiklese (Anrufung) des Dionysos (Βάκχος), als Gott des ekstatischen Taumels. B. wurde über die röm. Religion in der kaiserzeitlichen Dichtersprache zum Namen des hell.-röm. Liber oder Dionysos [1]. Schon in Etrurien wurde die Epiklese pacie (also Βάκχιος) vom etr. Gott Fufluns getragen [2] und tritt auch in pachana, das sich auf ein Kultlokal bezieht, auf [3; 2:99]. Auch in Rom ist die Epiklese vorerst in den Kultworten Bac(ch)a, Bac(ch)anal, Bac(ch)analia usw. b…

Augustales

(751 words)

Author(s): Scheid, John (Paris) | Gizewski, Christian (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Servants of the cult of the Genius Augusti The Augustales, in a few civitates also called seviri Augustales or magistri Augustales (therefore today all usually designated Augustales), were employed from 12 BC onwards in most coloniae and municipia in the western part of the empire to ensure the care of the cult of the  Genius Augusti,  Numen Aug…

Epulo

(266 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Scheid, John (Paris)
[German version] [1] King of the Istri, defeated cos. A. Manlius Vulso in 178 AD Name (probably Roman nickname ‘the feaster’) of the king of the Istri ( rex E. Enn. Ann. 408 SK.; rex Aepulo Liv. 41,11,1, Apulo Flor. 1,26 [1]). In 178 he defeated consul A.  Manlius Vulso (MRR 1,395), but was ejected again from the captured Roman camp, where the victors were enjoying their supplies ( rex accubans epulari coepit, Liv. 41,2,12; 41,4,7). In 177 he was besieged in Nesactium, and killed himself after the capture of the city (41,11,6; a different account in Flor. 1,26). E. is also the cognomen of C. Cestius [I 4]. Another E. is a fictional character in Virgil (Aen. 12,459). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 O. Skutsch, The Annals of Q. Ennius, 1985, 574. [German version] [2] (Jupiter) Epithet of Jupiter An epithet of Jupiter, attested in two inscriptions (CIL I2 2, 988; AE 1936, 95); it refers to the epulum Iouis, in which the other two divinities of the Capitoline triad (Juno, Minerva) were also involved. This epulum (cult feast) was celebrated every year on the Capitol on the occasion of the   Ludi Romani (13 September) and the Ludi Plebei (13 November). Senators and knights participated in this public feast, along with the tibicines. It is one of the best-attested Roman sacri…

Augustales

(684 words)

Author(s): Scheid, John (Paris) | Gizewski, Christian (Berlin)
[English version] [1] Kultfunktionäre des Genius Augusti Die A., in einigen civitates auch seviri A. oder magistri A. genannt (darum h. gewöhnlich alle als A. bezeichnet), wurden von 12 v.Chr. an in den meisten Kolonien und Munizipien des westl. Teils des Imperiums eingesetzt, um den Kultus des Genius Augusti, des Numen Augusti und der Lares Augusti zu betreuen. Ihr Amt ist mit dem der stadtröm. vicomagistri zu vergleichen und ist, wie dieses, von untergeord…

Epulo

(250 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Scheid, John (Paris)
[English version] [1] König der Histrer, schlug 178 n. Chr. den Consul A. Manlius Vulso Name (wohl röm. Spitzname “der Fresser”) des Königs der Histrer ( rex E. Enn. ann. 408 SK.; rex Aepulo Liv. 41,11,1, Apulo Flor. 1,26 [1]). Er schlug 178 den Consul A. Manlius Vulso (MRR 1,395), wurde aber aus dem eroberten röm. Lager, wo die Sieger sich an den Vorräten erfreuten ( rex accubans epulari coepit, Liv. 41,2,12), wieder hinausgeworfen (41,4,7). 177 wurde er in Nesactium belagert und tötete sich nach der Eroberung der Stadt (41,11,6; abweichend Flor. 1,26). E. ist a…

Afrika

(3,538 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Scheid, John (Paris) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
[English version] 1. A. Begriffsgeschichte Der Erdteil-Begriff A. hat eine lange und verzweigte Vorgeschichte. Mit dem Wort Africa (s.u. 3.)konnten die Römer den Kontinent A. erst bezeichnen, als der lat. Begriff Africa eine wenigstens teilweise deckungsgleiche “Fläche” mit dem griech. Begriff Λιβύη ausgebildet hatte - dies aber war frühestens in der 2. H. des 3. Jh. v. Chr. der Fall, und zwar aufgrund der Begriffsinhalte “Nord-A.” oder “pun. beherrschtes A.”. Auf dem Umweg über diesen “Teilbegriff” wurde dann der “Vollbegriff” des Kontinents erreicht; denn diesen Begriffsin…

Menschenopfer

(2,146 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Lindemaier, Hildegard (Tübingen) | Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Scheid, John (Paris)
I. Begriffs- und Wirkungsgeschichte [English version] A. Begriff Das M. ist eine nicht als rechtswidrig angesehene Tötung, vergleichbar dem Töten i…

Africa

(3,957 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Scheid, John (Paris) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
[German version] 1. A. Etymological and conceptual history The term A. as a name for the continent has got a long and ramified history. The term A. (see 3 below) could only be used by the Romans as a description of the continent of A., when the ‘area’ described by the Latin term A. had come to coincide at least in parts with that described by the Greek term Λιβύη ( Libýē) -- but, at the earliest, this happened in the 2nd half of the 3rd cent. BC, i.e. because of the related concepts of ‘Northern A.’ or ‘Punic A.’. Indirectly, via the ‘partial term’, the ‘full ter…

Bacchus

(1,417 words)

Author(s): Clinton, Kevin (Ithaca N. Y.) | Scheid, John (Paris)
(βάκχος; bákchos). [German version] I. Greece [German version] A. Mystes Βάκχος, βακχεύειν [1] ( Bákchos/bakcheúein) and related words refer to a type of raving (μανία, manía) predominantly expressed in the Dionysus cult ([1] where we also find a discussion about the word's origin; Hdt. 4,79). This essential characteristic of a Bacchus/Baccha was taken as a sign that he or she was possessed by the god (ἔνθεος, éntheos). The Bacchus/Baccha usually wore a thyrsus (or bakchos see below) and the skin of a deer (νεβρίς, nebrís). Although the thyrsus was seen as a particularly obviou…

Human sacrifices

(2,449 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Lindemaier, Hildegard (Tübingen) | Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Scheid, John (Paris)
I. History of the Concept and its Subsequent Influence [German version] A. Concept Human sacrifice (HS) is a form of killing considered lawful, similar to killing in pursuit of war, capital punishment, or a blood feud. It is, however, limited to the performance of offering rites that (a) are universally accepted in the respective religion and culture and (b) are conducted in a fashion similar to the sacrificial killing of other creatures. Killing in the context of other lawful rituals, such as the cult of the dead ( Gladiator) or the   devotio in battle, does …
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