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Carinus

(218 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] Imperator Caesar M.A. Carinus Augustus, the eldest son of  Carus, a brother of  Numerianus; around November AD 282, he was made Caesar and princeps iuventutis by his father, and in spring 283, when his father marched against the Persians, C. was elevated to Augustus. After his campaign against the Quadi (F. Gnecchi, I Medaglioni Romani 2, 1912, pl. 123, no. 8), he called himself Germanicus maximus, adding to that Persicus maximus after Carus' victory in the east, and also, for unknown reasons, Britannicu…

Aureolus

(92 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] Dacian (Sync. p. 717), cavalry commander under  Gallienus (Zos. 1,40; Zon. 12,24; 25). He defeated the usurper Ingenuus in AD 260 in Pannonia (Aur. Vict. Caes. 33,2), and Macrianus in 261 (Zon. 12,24; SHA Gall. 2,6). He was heristant in attacking Postumus in Gallia and probably defected to his side [1]. Declared Augustus in Milan, probably in August or September 268 and killed shortly afterwards by  Claudius' [III 2] troops (Zos. 1,41). PIR2 A 1672; PLRE 1, 138. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) Bibliography 1 A. Alföldi, Studien zur Weltkrise, 1967, 1ff.

Anullinus

(25 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] Senator, whose freedman Diocletian is said to have been (Eutr. 9,19,2; Aur. Vict. Caes. 39,1; Zon. 12,31). Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)

Quintillus

(69 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] Imp. Caes. M. Aurelius Claudius Q. Aug., brother of Claudius [III 2] II Gothicus. After the latter's death in August of AD 270, Q. was proclaimed emperor, but killed after a few weeks by the soldiers in Aquileia (Eutr. 9,12; [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 34,5; Jer. Chron. p. 222 Helm; Zos. 1,47). Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) Bibliography Kienast 2, 233  PIR2 A 1480  PLRE 1, 759 (no. 1).

Pupienus

(263 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] M. Clodius P. Maximus, emperor in AD 238. According to Zon. 12,17, P. was as old as 74 at this time, but this can hardly be correct. Information on his origin and career in the Historia Augusta is largely fictional; his ancestors were probably from Volaterrae  (CIL IX 5765, cf. [1. 170 ff.]). P. was consular governor of a German province (Hdn. 8,6,6; 7,8), proconsul of Asia (ILS 8839; AE 1975, 791), cos. ord. II in 234 and praef. urbi (Hdn. 7,10,4; 8,8,4) up to the time when the Senate elected him one of the XXviri rei publicae curandae; these decemviri were to protect Italy ag…

Esuvius

(360 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] [1] Imperator Caesar C. Pius E. Tetricus Augustus Augustus in Gaul and Britannia AD 271-274 He came from a noble (Aur. Vict. Caes. 33,14), certainly (because of the name E.) Gallic family and, even before his elevation to Augustus, was senator and governor of Aquitania, when Victorinus ruled over the rebel Gallic empire (Eutr. 9,10). After Victorinus was murdered, he was proclaimed emperor by the military, probably in the spring of AD 271, and clothed in the purple in Bordeaux (Eutr. ibid.; [Aur…

Constitutio Antoniniana

(190 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] Decree of  Caracalla (AD 212), by which he extended Roman citizenship to almost all members of the empire (Cass. Dio 77,9,5; Dig. 1,5,17); cf. Aur. Vict., Caesares 16,12, who mistakenly attributes that action to  Marcus Aurelius instead of M. Aur. Antoninus Caracalla. Whether the much-discussed PGiss. 40 I contained the edict is questioned by [1]. The problem of the [de]diticii, who in the papyrus were apparently excluded from  citizenship or from the rights and privileges that it entailed, is possibly explained by the so-called Tabula Ba…

Ballista

(105 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] Called ‘Callistus’ by Greek authors, because of an orthographical error [1], Praetorian praefect of  Valerianus, then of  Macrianus (SHA Valer. 4,4; SHA Gall. 3,2). After Valerian was taken prisoner, he had the sons of Macrianus proclaimed emperors (SHA Gall. 1,3). As cavalry commander for Macrianus, he triumphed over the Persians (Zon. 12,24). He stayed in the east with Quietus, the younger son of Macrianus, but surrendered Quietus in the battle of Emesa; however, B. was soon killed by Odoenathus (Zon. 12,24; SHA Gall. 3,1f.). PIR2 B 41; PLRE 1, 146. Birley, A. R. (Dü…

Euodus

(123 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Köln) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[English version] [1] Kaiserlicher Freigelassener unter Tiberius Kaiserlicher Freigelassener, der bei Tiberius in dessen letztem Lebensjahr über großen Einfluß verfügte. PIR2 E 114. Eck, Werner (Köln) [English version] [2] Kaiserlicher Freigelassener, sollte Frau des Clodius töten Kaiserlicher Freigelassener, der im J. 48 die Soldaten kommandierte, die Messalina, die Frau des Claudius, töten sollten. PIR2 E 115. Eck, Werner (Köln) [English version] [3] Kaiserlicher Freigelassener, Erzieher des Caracalla Kaiserlicher Freigelassener, Erzieher des Caracalla; die E…

Numerianus

(184 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[English version] [1] Anhänger des Septimius Severus N. war Schullehrer in Rom und gab vor, als Senator im Auftrag des Septimius Severus in Gallien ein Heer für diesen aufzustellen. Tatsächlich gelangen ihm beträchtliche Erfolge im Kampf gegen die Truppen des Clodius [II 1] Albinus; N. erbeutete angeblich 70 Millionen Sesterzen für Severus. Nach dessen Sieg im J. 197 n.Chr. lehnte N. alle Vergünstigungen ab und begnügte sich lediglich mit einer kleinen Versorgungsrente (Cass. Dio 75,5). PIR2 N 198. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) [English version] [2] Imp. Caes. M. Aurelius Numerius …

Aper

(143 words)

Author(s): Rottler, Christoph (Tübingen) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[English version] [1], M. A., 1. Jh., Gesprächspartner in Tacitus' Dialogus lebte von etwa 23 n. Chr. bis ins letzte Viertel des 1. Jh. Röm. Redner aus Gallien (Tac. dial. 10,2; vermutl. Tres Galliae [4. 799 f.]), möglicherweise Vater des Flavius A. (PIR2 F 206). Erhielt wohl während des Britannienfeldzugs 43 (Tac. dial. 17,4) den latus clavus, was dem homo novus eine Karriere als Quästor, Volkstribun und Prätor eröffnete (7,1). In Tacitus' Dialogus tritt er als Gesprächspartner auf, die einzige Quelle für den berühmten Rhetor (14,3). Rottler, Christoph (Tübingen) Bibliography 1 PI…

Elagabal

(1,110 words)

Author(s): Niehr, Herbert (Tübingen) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[English version] [1] Gottesname Gottesname, läßt sich etym. aufgrund seines ältesten Belegs (palmyren. Stele von Nazala, 1. Jh.n.Chr.) auf lhgbl zurückführen (Herodian 5,3,4: Elaiagabalos). Da hierin lh im status emphaticus vorliegt, muß E. als “der Gott Berg” aufgefaßt werden [8. 503f.]. Dafür spricht auch die Abb. auf der Stele [1. 707]. Der Berg meint den Zitadellenhügel von Emesa (Ḥimṣ) mit dem Tempel des E. [6. 257f.; 8. 509f.], worauf ant. Beschreibungen (Avien. Descriptio orbis 1083-1093) und der Fund eines Alta…

Eros

(756 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Princeton) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
(Ἔρως). [English version] [1] Personifikation der sexuellen Liebe Griechische Personifikation der Liebe als des sexuellen Begehrens (lat. Amor, Cupido). Gewöhnlich gilt E. als Sohn von Aphrodite, aus deren Machtbereich er einen zentralen Bereich darstellt. Als Vater wird Ares genannt (Sim. fr. 43B). Bei Homer nicht erwähnt, wird E.' Bild in der archa. Dichtung zum Ausdruck der komplexen und widersprüchlichen Erfahrung individueller Liebe ausgestaltet [1]: “gliederlösender” Bezwinger von Göttern und Mens…

Aurelianus

(885 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[English version] [1] Aurelius A. Consul suff. zw. 180/182 n. Chr. Prätorischer Legat Arabiens unter zwei Augusti (AE 1965, 23); cos. suff. zw. 180/182 n.Chr. (CIL VIII 10570=ILS 6870). PIR2 A 1424. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [English version] [2] Konsularer Senator, Hinrichtung ca. 217/8 n. Chr. Konsularer Senator. Seine von den Soldaten geforderte Hinrichtung wurde von Kaiser Macrinus (217-18) zunächst verweigert (Cass. Dio 78,12,4), aber wohl doch bald darauf vollzogen (Cass. Dio 78,19,1). PIR2 A 1425. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [English version] [3] Imperator Caes. L. Dom…

Aper

(152 words)

Author(s): Rottler, Christoph (Tübingen) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] [1], M. Homo novus, 1st cent. AD, dialogue partner in Tacitus's Dialogus Lived from about AD 23 until the last quarter of 1st cent. A Roman orator from Gallia (Tac. Dial. 10,2; presumably Tres Galliae [4. 799 f.]), possibly father of Flavius A. (PIR2 F 206). Was probably awarded during the campaign in Britain 43 (Tac. Dial. 17,4) the latus clavus, which for the homo novus opened a career as quaestor, tribune of the people and praetor (7,1). In Tacitus' Dialogus he appears as a dialogue partner, the only source for the famous orator (14,3). Rottler, Christoph (Tübingen) Bibli…

Bonosus

(199 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Appointed emperor in AD 280 Appointed emperor in Cologne, together with Proculus, in AD 280, soon thereafter defeated by  Probus (Eutr. 9,17,1; Aur. Vict. Caes. 37,3; [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 37,2). His vita in the  Historia Augusta (Probus), is largely fictitious; no genuine coins of his are known. PIR2 B 146; PLRE 1, 163 no.1. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] [2] Consul in AD 344 Flavius B. was consul in AD 344 but was acknowledged only in the West and even there he is attested only until April/May. According to [1], however, he …

Elagabalus

(1,151 words)

Author(s): Niehr, Herbert (Tübingen) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] [1] Name of a deity Name of a deity, based on its earliest attestation (Palmyrene stele of Nazala, 1st cent. AD), it can be etymologically derived from lhbl (Hdn. 5,3,4: Elaiagabalos). Since lh is present in the status emphaticus, E. must be read as the ‘God Mountain’ [8. 503f.]. The image on the stele also speaks for this [1. 707]. The mountain signifies the citadel mountain of  Emesa (Ḥimṣ) with the temple of E. [6. 257f.; 8. 509f.], which is indicated in ancient descriptions (Avien. Descriptio orbis 1083-1093) …

Capito

(156 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
Roman cognomen; see also Ateius, Fonteius. [German version] [1] Orator of the Augustan period Orator of the Augustan period, praised by  Seneca the Elder because of his ability -- in contrast with  Cassius [III 2] Severus -- to distinguish clearly between the demands of declamations as opposed to those of legal speeches, with regards to their tone and presentation. According to Seneca's assessment, C.'s best orations were in no way inferior to those of the tetrad of the great declamators  Latro,  Fuscus,  Alb…

Numerianus

(193 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] [1] Follower of Septimius Severus N. was a schoolteacher in Rome who, as a senator on commission from  Septimius Severus pretended to raise for him an army in Gaul. In fact he achieved considerable success in battle against the troops of  Clodius [II 1] Albinus. N. allegedly seized 70 million sesterces for Severus, after whose victory in AD 97 N. renounced all his privileges and was content with only a small maintenance pension (Cass. Dio 75,5). PIR2 N 198. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) [German version] [2] Imp. Caes. M. Aurelius Numerius N. Augustus 3rd cent. AD emperor Roman e…

Capito

(126 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basel) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
Röm. cognomen; s. auch Ateius, Fonteius. [English version] [1] Rhetor augusteischer Zeit Rhetor der augusteischen Zeit, von Seneca d.Ä. dafür gelobt, daß er die Anforderungen von Deklamationen und von Gerichtsreden im Gegensatz zu Cassius [III 2] Severus hinsichtlich Ton und Ausführung genau zu trennen wußte. Nach Senecas Urteil war er mit seinen besten Reden der Tetrade der großen Deklamatoren Latro, Fuscus, Albucius, Gallio keineswegs unterlegen (contr. 10, pr.12, vgl. 7,2,5; 9,2,9). Vielleicht identisch mit Q. Hostius Capito (CIL XIV 4201). Walde, Christine (Basel) …
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