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Confluentes

(337 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) | Cüppers, Heinz (Trier)
[German version] [1] Modern Koblenz Modern Koblenz, traffic node and commercial port, at the confluence ( ad C.) of the Moselle and the Rhine, on the Mainz-Cologne road along the Rhine Valley and the routes leading from Trier over the Hunsrück mountains and Maifeld to the Rhine (CIL XVII 2,675). A straight pile frame bridge crossed the Rhine to Ehrenbreitenstein from 49 BC (dendrochronology [1]). The Moselle bridge with stone pillars on a pile frame is dendrochronologically younger (AD 104/176). A late Tiberian/early Claudian fort, which was abandoned in AD 70, and a vicus towards the R…

Bodobrica

(80 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] now Boppard. About 1 km east of a vicus from the 1st-3rd cents. AD, the late Roman castle B. of the milites balistarii (Not. Dign. occ. 41,23), with 28 round towers, was developed in the middle of the 4th cent.; in places the walls still reach up to 9 m in height. Early Christian church. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography H.-H. Wegner, in: H. Cüppers(ed.), Die Römer in Rheinland-Pfalz, 1990, 344-346 E. Dassmann, Die Anf. der Kirche in Deutschland, 1993, 62-65.

Asciburgium

(146 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt Modern Asberg near Moers (etymologically ‘Eschenberg’ -- ash mountain; cf. Old High German ask). In this location opposite the mouth of the river Ruhr (CIL XIII 2,2,8588-8597), five phases of an auxiliary fort, from 12/11 BC to its abandonment in AD 83/85, with an area of 1.6 to 2.3 ha. have been verified, as well as an Augustan   vicus , and a harbour which was silting up at the end of the 1st cent. AD. After the withdrawal of the military, A. remained an important staging post between Castra Vetera and Novaesium with   be…

Baiovarii

(121 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Mixed Romano-Germanic tribe (Bavarians), first recorded in Iord. Get. 55,280 as living in southern Germany east of the river Lech (cf. Venantius Fortunatus, Vita Martini 4,640-645). Etymologically most likely the ‘descendants of those living in Bai(a)-haim (= Bohemia)’; the foederati, archaeologically evident in the Friedenhain-Přeštovice pottery, were most likely -- initially independently, later tolerated by the Ostrogoths (Theoderic the Great) -- to have formed the military core, around which, with Regensburg at its…

Noricum

(1,975 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
Roman province, essentially the eastern Alpine region, to the south of the Danube, east of Raetia and west of Pannonia. [German version] A. From the beginning until incorporation into the Imperium Romanum There are various hypotheses [2] on the formation of the Celtic Norici people, who probably gained strength through the amalgamation of individual peoples (dedications from Mt Magdalen in Corinthia mention eight Norican tribes [1. 280-284, 294]), especially regarding their relationship to the postulated pre-Celtic Nori (Norei…

Ingaevones

(63 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] A mythological Germanic tribal group attested probably as early as in Pytheas of Massilia (Plin. HN 37,35 Detlefsen with conjecture) (Plin. HN 4,96; 99; Tac. Germ. 2,2;  Herminones), which, although the closest to reality of the three Mannus groups, merely functioned as a fictitious blanket term for Cimbri, Teutoni, and Chauci. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography D. Timpe, Romano-Germanica, 1995, esp. 20-24.

Biriciana

(78 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Raeti, Raetia Modern Weißenburg in Bavaria. Large fort (5.1 ha.) of the ala I Hispanorum Auriana; nearby the fort ‘Breitung’ (3.5 ha.), possibly of the cohors IX Batavorum. Civilian settlement of more than 30 ha. in size, with restored thermae; magnificent treasure trove of the 3rd cent. AD. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography H.-J. Kellner, in: W. Czsyz, K. Dietz, Th. Fischer, Id. (ed.), Die Römer in Bayern, 1995, 534-536.

Licca

(27 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (Λικίας; Likías). Righthand tributary of the Danube (Ptol. 2,12,1; 4; Venantius Fortunatus Carm. praef. 4, Vita Martini 4,642), modern Lech. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)

Bürgle

(75 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Late Roman fortification (0,16 ha.) on a hill crest at the foot of the steep terrace at Gundremmingen, possibly Pinianis, a fort of the cohors V Valeria Frygum (Not. Dign. Occ. 35,29), or -- assuming a shift in name to Febian(i)s -- that of a part of the equites stablesiani iuniores (ibid. 35,15). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography W. Czysz, B., in: Id., K. Dietz, Th. Fischer, H.-J. Kellner (ed.), Die Römer in Bayern, 1995, 430f.

Aduatuci

(100 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Descending from the  Cimbri and  Teutoni (Caes. B Gall. 2,29,4 f.), the A. lived among the Germani Cisrhenani, without being part of them, between the Nervii and the Eburones in Gallia Belgica on both banks of the Maas river between Liège/Namur and Limbourg. The main town was Aduatuca (Tungrorum), modern Tongeren, with an early Roman garrison [1]. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 A. Vanderhoeven (et al.), Tongern, Tongres, Tongeren, in: Spurensicherung, 1992, 387-402, 579. J. R. Marichal, Les frontières des Aduatiques et des Germains cisrhé…

Breuni

(120 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (Breones). Tribe living in the inner Alps in  Raetia, subjugated by Drusus in 15 BC; often mentioned in connection with the Genauni (e.g. Hor. Carm. 4,14,11: veloces; Plin. HN 3,137), they were wrongly associated with the Brenner Pass. Under the name of Breones, they were still active as a group in late antiquity (Cassiod. Var. 1,11,2; Venetius Fortunatus, Vita Martini 4,645; Carm. praef. 4), and gave their name to a diocese (Acta Conc. Oec. IV 2,135 § 18 v. 591). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR L 32,39 H. Wolfram, Tiroler Randgruppen, in: FS A. Betz, …

Chauci

(170 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Warlike Germanic seafaring tribe (etymologically related to the Gothic háuhs, Old High German hôh- ‘high’; Str. 7,1,3; idealized in Tac. Germ. 35). The C. lived north of the Angrivarii on the North Sea coast, on both banks of the lower Weser, and were divided into the ‘lesser’ and the ‘greater’ C. (Tac. Ann. 11,19,2; Ptol. 2,11,7; 9; Plin. HN 16,2-5). They were fought by Drusus and subjected to Roman rule in AD 5; despite a Roman occupational force and the fact that they had to supply auxiliar…

Bructeri

(173 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe; uncertain etymology of the name; they were divided into the ‘small’ and the ‘large’ B. (Str. 7,1,3f.; Ptol. 2,11,6f.; 9) and settled between IJssel, Lippe and the upper reaches of the Ems, or rather between the upper reaches of the Ems and the Weser. Defeated by  Drusus in 12 BC, they took part in the fight against  Varus, and, with their seer  Veleda, were involved in the  Batavian revolt. After AD 98, they were decimated by the Chamavi and Angrivarii and driven away (Tac. Germ. 33,1). Later, Bructuri appear on the right bank of the Rhine between Colo…

Chattuarii

(114 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic people; on the basis of etymology inhabitants of a former Chattian territory; possibly to be identified with the  Chasuarii. As neighbours of the Bructeri and the Cherusci counted as the ‘weaker’ inland peoples (Str. 7,1,3f.; Vell. Pat. 2,105,1); possibly to be identified with the Attuarii, who show up in the 4th cent. as part of a Frankish confederacy (Amm. Marc. 20,10,2); during the Middle Ages the C. are settled from the lower Ruhr and Lippe to the left bank of the Rhine.  Chatti;  Francs Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography G. Neumann et al., s.v. Cha…

Lentienses

(65 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Sub-tribe ( pagus) of the Alamanni north of Lake Constance (cf. the later Linzgau). Directed against them in AD 355 was punitive action of the magister equitum Arbetio and a victorious campaign of Gratianus in 378 (Amm. Marc. 15,4; 31,10,1-17). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography R. Rollinger, Zum Alamannenfeldzug Constantius' II. an Bodensee und Rhein im J. 355 n.Chr., in: Klio 80, 1998, 163-194.

Clarenna

(40 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Statio between Ad Lunam and Grinario (Tab. Peut. 4,1), possibly the late Flavian garrison Donnstetten-Römerstein, which continued after about 150 into the 3rd cent. as a civilian settlement. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography J. Heiligmann, Der ‘Alb-Limes’, 1990, 80-87.

Flevum

(114 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic name (‘the flooding, streaming [body of water]’) for the most northerly branch of the delta of the Rhine: Plin. HN 4,101 ( Flevum ostium); Mela 3,24 ( lacus Flevo, formerly Zuidersee, modern IJsselmeer); cf. Ptol. 2,11,12. Tac. Ann. 4,72,3 mentions a Roman castellum Flevum besieged by Frisii in AD 28, the locality of which is pinpointed in Velsen [1]. It is debatable whether the Flevi in the Laterculus Veronensis 13 are derived from F. [2; 3].  Rhenus Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 J.-M. A. W. Morel, A. V. A. J. Bosman, Velsen-Noord Spaarndamm…

Marcomanni

(1,393 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] A Germanic tribe belonging to the Suebi (border people [26. 161f.]) that was probably forced from the middle Elbe region into the upper and middle Main region by the migrations of the Cimbri and Teutoni. The M. supplied mercenaries: from 72 BC for the Sequani in their war against the Haedui, in 60 BC for the Dacians during the destruction of the Boii kingdom in Bohemia, in 58 for Ariovistus against Caesar (Caes. B Gall. 1,51,2). Severely defeated by Claudius [II 24] Drusus probabl…

Batavi

(247 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] German breakaway tribe from the  Chatti, tracing its origins back to Mannus (Germanic deity); between 55 and 12 BC, they migrated into that part of the Rhine delta which had formerly been occupied by the Menapii. Their main settlement area was the Insula Batavorum, formed by the Oude Rijn and the Waal/Maas, cf. the modern Betuwe. Capitals of the B. were Batavodurum, and, from the time of Trajan, Ulpia  Noviomagus Batavorum. They were called ‘B., because they were the most able of horsemen’ (Cass. Dio 55,24); etymologically thus related to the Gothic batiza ‘better’. Impo…

Herminones

(135 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] H.,  Ingaevones and  Istaevones are Germanic names for the original Germanic tribes traced back to the three sons of Mannus in the ancient mythological ethnogony of the Germans, based on an indigenous core, (Mannus genealogy) that was probably introduced to ancient literature by Posidonius and was gradually expanded under the influence of the Roman discovery of the north (Mela 3,32; Plin. HN 4,99f.; Tac. Germ. 2,2). Ethnically, spatially and socially the myth remains without conte…
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