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Angrivarii

(108 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe on the middle reaches of the Weser, partly separated from their south-western neighbours, the Cherusci, by a wide ager (Tac. Ann. 2,19); they sided with Rome in AD 16, seceded, and, after their defeat, joined the   fides (Tac. Ann. 2,24,3); in AD 97, in order to evade the Chauci, the A., together with the Chamavi, occupied land belonging to the Bructeri on the upper reaches of the Amisia (modern Ems; Tac. Germ. 33; cf. Ptol. 2,11,9; Laterculus Veronensis 13,13). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography R. Wenskus, s. v. Angriwarier, RGA, 333 R. Wolters, Rö…

Clarenna

(40 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Statio between Ad Lunam and Grinario (Tab. Peut. 4,1), possibly the late Flavian garrison Donnstetten-Römerstein, which continued after about 150 into the 3rd cent. as a civilian settlement. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography J. Heiligmann, Der ‘Alb-Limes’, 1990, 80-87.

Aviones

(46 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] A Germanic people who according to Tac. Germ. 40,2 worshipped  Nerthus with the Reudigni, Angli, Varini, Eudoses, Suardones and Nuithones; it is not possible to work out their exact location in spite of the etymology ‘water dwellers, island inhabitants’ Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)

Aalen

(86 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Largest auxiliary fort (6.07 hectares) on the upper German/Raetian   limes , a forward post for the ala II Flavia milliaria from  Aquileia [2].  Principia excavated in modern times. Oldest inscription from AD 163/4, extensive alterations AD 208. Large   vicus . Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography K. Dietz, Die Erneuerung des Limeskastells A. vom J. 208 n. Chr., in: Acta praehistorica et archaeologica 25, 1993, 243-252 M. Luik, Der Kastellvicus von A., in: Fundber. Baden-Württemberg 19, 1994, 265-355 D. Planck, A., Ostalbkreis: Arch. Plan des röm. Kas…

Aliso

(142 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Fort defended after the battle of Varus in AD 9, and then abandoned in an orderly retreat to the  Rhenus (today Rhine) (Vell. Pat. 2,120,4), likely identical with the φρούριον ( phroúrion; Cass. Dio 54,33,4) built by  Drusus in 11 BC at the confluence of the Elison into the Lupia (today Lippe). The location is as yet uncertain since Oberaden and Holsterhausen are ruled out, Haltern was considered but is 41 km too far from the Rhine and was abandoned in AD 9 [1], while A. was occupied either still or again in AD 15-16 (Tac. Ann. 2,7,3).  P. Quinctilius Varus Dietz, Karlheinz (Würz…

Harii

(101 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Alongside the  Helvecones, Manimi, Halisiones and Nahanarvali, the H. are a powerful branch of the Vandali-Lugii tribe (Tac. Germ. 43,2). The identification with the Charini (Plin. HN 4,99) [1] is uncertain; the old conjecture of reading the hand-written alii (Tac. Germ. 43,4) as ( H) arii must be abandoned. Thus, the conclusions related to the supposed ferialis exercitus (‘army of ghosts’, ‘army of the dead’) of the H. are invalid. [2]. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 G. Neumann, s.v. Charini, RGA 4, 371f. 2 A. A. Lund, Kritischer Forsch.-Ber. zur Germa…

Condrusi

(71 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic people, listed by Caesar (B Gall. 2,4,10) among the Germani cisrhenani together with the  Eburones, Caerosi and Paemani; lived as clients of the  Treveri (ibid. 4,6,4) between them and the Eburones (ibid. 6,32,1). The Condroz region on the river Maas between Namur and Liège, which is called pagus Condrustus in medieval documents, recalls the C. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography G. Neumann et al., s.v. C., RGA 5, 78-80.

Dieburg

(45 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Roman civilian settlement, main settlement of the civitas Auderiensium with good infrastructure (archaeological finds: e.g., a Mithraeum). Heyday about AD 300, but victim of Alamannic raids. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography E. Schallmayer, D., in: D. Baatz, F.-R. Herrmann (ed.), Die Römer in Hessen, 21989, 250-255.

Goti

(499 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (Gutones, ‘Goths’). Germanic people whose very small traditional core of people supposedly left Scandinavia (Iord. Get. 25f.; [1]; archaeological evidence for a migration overseas are lacking) under ‘King’ Berig (important: not one of the  Amali!). At the beginning of the common era the G. settled in the Oder area (cf. Str. 7,1,3); their ethnogenesis obviously took place in the area of the Wielbark culture, next to (Ulmi)rugic-Lemovian neighbours, north of the Lugic-Vandal Przewor…

Bonna

(241 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Gallia/Gaul | Legio | Limes | Limes | Batavian Revolt Modern Bonn. Since 30/20 BC settlement of the  Ubii with an indigenous name; between 16 and 12 BC, it was a mixed Roman garrison, replaced under Emperor Augustus with a legion from 1 BC; the legionary camp was rebuilt after its destruction in AD 70 ( legio I Minervia:  Domitianus -- 4th cent.), as was the canabae, both using half-timbering. The suburb of the camp, which itself had been rebuilt several times, flourished until it was destroyed (and rebuilt) …

Am(p)sivarii

(176 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe, ‘the people who live on the (lower) Ems’; in AD 9, they stayed loyal to Rome under the leadership of Boiocalus, but during Nero's reign (middle of the 1st cent. AD), following their eviction by the Chauci, they tried in vain to settle in the military territory on the eastern bank of the Lower Rhine [1]. Despite their fifty years of allegiance to Rome, the Romans drove them out; the tribe found no admittance with the  Usipetes, nor the  Tubantes,  Chatti and  Cherus…

Chauci

(170 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Warlike Germanic seafaring tribe (etymologically related to the Gothic háuhs, Old High German hôh- ‘high’; Str. 7,1,3; idealized in Tac. Germ. 35). The C. lived north of the Angrivarii on the North Sea coast, on both banks of the lower Weser, and were divided into the ‘lesser’ and the ‘greater’ C. (Tac. Ann. 11,19,2; Ptol. 2,11,7; 9; Plin. HN 16,2-5). They were fought by Drusus and subjected to Roman rule in AD 5; despite a Roman occupational force and the fact that they had to supply auxiliar…

Ad Lunam

(52 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Statio of the Tab. Peut. 4,1 f., possibly the modern Urspring-Lonsee (Alb-Donau-Kreis): two-phase cohort fort (1.8 hectares) from c. AD 80 and   vicus . Coin finds until AD 153/154.  Cohors;  Castellum Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography Coins: Fundmz. Röm. Deutschland 2,4, 1964, no. 4550. Literature.: J. Heiligmann, Der ‘Alb-Limes’, 1990, 88-101.

Langobardi

(572 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (etym. Lang(a/o)-bardoz, ‘the long beards’ [9]). Germanic tribe which Tacitus (Germ. 40,1) and Ptolemy (2,11,9) count among the Suebi; according to tribal mythology [1], they wandered out of southern Sweden as the Winniler into territories south of the Baltic Sea around 100 BC and fused with other peoples. The L. are archaeologically confirmed on the lower course of the Elbe (in the Bardengau) from the 1st cent. BC onwards. Briefly driven back to the east bank by Tiberius in AD 5 (…

Chatti

(248 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe (first mentioned in Str. 7,1,3f.; etymology uncertain), renowned for their martial discipline; settled by Rome in the region around the mouth of the Main, they later occupied particularly the basins of the Hessian depression south of the Cherusci and east of the Usipetes. Classed with the  Hermiones in Plin. HN 4,100, they lost the battle for a saline river to the Hermunduri in AD 58, but inflicted a devastating defeat on the Cherusci. In constant opposition to Rome…

Alta Ripa

(100 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Today Altrip near Speyer. ‘Bell-shaped’, fort with its long side facing the Rhine from the Valentinian period (Cod. Theod. 11,31,4, AD 369) part of the fortress system of the Neckar confluence (Not. Dign. occ. 39; cf. the fortifications providing safe shipping, Symm. Or. 2,20 [1]). Destroyed in the New Year's night of AD 406/7 by  Alani,  Suebi and  Vands.  Castellum Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 A. Pabst, 1989, 147 f., 332 ff. S. V. Schnurbein, H.-J. Köhler, Der neue Plan des valentinianischen Kastells A. (Altrip), in: BRGK 70, 1989, 507-526 S. von…

Ambrones

(145 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Celtic tribe of Helvetia or rather  Noricum (Fest. 17) or a tribe of German origin, possibly linked with the island of Amrum: the etymology of Ambr-names is unproductive (cf. [1. 606] for a possible Ligurian component). The A., together with the Helvetii and the Teutoni, threatened Italy from southern Gaul; in 102 BC, they were beaten at Aquae Sextiae by C. Marius (Liv. epit. 68; Plut. Marius 15,5 f.; 19,3 f.; 19,7; 20,1 f.; cf. Str. 4,1,8; Cass. Dio 44,42,4; 50,24,2; Eutr. 5,1,1; Oros. 5,16,1; 9; 13; Veg…

Batavi

(247 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] German breakaway tribe from the  Chatti, tracing its origins back to Mannus (Germanic deity); between 55 and 12 BC, they migrated into that part of the Rhine delta which had formerly been occupied by the Menapii. Their main settlement area was the Insula Batavorum, formed by the Oude Rijn and the Waal/Maas, cf. the modern Betuwe. Capitals of the B. were Batavodurum, and, from the time of Trajan, Ulpia  Noviomagus Batavorum. They were called ‘B., because they were the most able of horsemen’ (Cass. Dio 55,24); etymologically thus related to the Gothic batiza ‘better’. Impo…

Fines, ad Fines

(192 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] [1] M. Vinxt modern Vinxt. Town at the place (near Sinzig) where the road between Bonn and Remagen reaches the border between Germania inferior and superior ( Obrinkas Ptol. 29,2; 8f.; cf. Abrinkas Marcianus 2,28, < Celt. * aber ‘mouth’). Altars to the (Nymphae) Fines have been found there and, on both sides, inscriptions by beneficiarii and soldiers (CIL XIII 7713; 7724; 7731f.). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography C. B. Rüger, Germania Inferior, 1968, 47-49. [German version] [2] M. Pfyn near Frauenfeld modern Pfyn near Frauenfeld (Switzerland), vicus of the…

Abnoba mons

(154 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Black Forest, German Schwarzwald, mountain region in south-western Germany, possibly including also the low mountain ranges of the Odenwald and Rothaargebirge to the north. In 15 BC,  Tiberius paid a visit there to see the sources of the Danube. From the late Tiberian/early Claudian period (2nd half of the 1st cent. AD), there was a Roman-influenced population on the eastern bank of the upper Rhine region; under the Flavians (2nd half of 1st cent. AD), the wooded mountain area und…
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