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Reformation

(10,690 words)

Author(s): Wendebourg, Dorothea | Schilling, Johannes | Strohm, Christoph | Null, John Ashley | Friedrich, Martin | Et al.
1. Historischer Überblick 1.1. Begriff und neuzeitliche DeutungR. (von lat. reformatio, ›Wiederherstellung‹, ›Umgestaltung‹) ist seit der Mitte des 19. Jh.s spezieller Terminus für die eine Seite jener Vorgänge, durch die im 16. Jh. die westl. Christenheit in mehrere einander antagonistische Konfessionskirchen auseinandertrat; sein Antonym, welches die andere Seite bezeichnet, ist Gegen-R.Zuvor hatte der Begriff die allgemeine Bedeutung von Reform. So begegnet reformatio bzw. die zugrundeliegende verbale Form reformare in den kirchl. und polit. Reformbewegungen…
Date: 2019-11-19

Disziplin

(1,764 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin | Sikora, Michael
1. Religiöse Disziplin 1.1. AllgemeinesIn der Nz. zeigt sich in allen Konfessionen ein gesteigertes Bestreben, das Leben der Gläubigen christl. Normen zu unterwerfen. Die Forschung zur Konfessionalisierung war lange auf Kirchenzucht (engl. church discipline oder Christian discipline, franz. discipline ecclésiastique) verengt und setzte diese mit Sozialdisziplinierung gleich [10. 502] oder parallelisierte sie der staatlichen Kriminalitätsabwehr. Erst neuerdings werden die Aspekte der »Selbstregulierung« betont [11. 680] und die Zucht in das kirchliche Bemühen…
Date: 2019-11-19

Discipline

(1,987 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin | Sikora, Michael
1. Religious discipline 1.1. General considerationsIn the modern period there is an evident increased effort in all confessions to subject the lives of the faithful to Christian norms. Research into confessionalization was for a long time limited to church discipline (Ger. Kirchenzucht , Fr. discipline ecclésiastique), equating it with social discipline[10] or placing it in parallel with state defense against criminality. It is only recently that the aspects of “self-regulation” have been emphasized [11] and discipline has been classified with church efforts towards…
Date: 2019-10-14

Helwig, Christoph

(129 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (Helvicus; Dec 26, 1581, Sprendlingen – Sep 10, 1617, Gießen), educationalist, orientalist and theologian, and professor at Gießen (1605). Helwig became known through his many textbooks on grammar, poetry and history, meant, first, to secure Lutheran orthodoxy (I, 2.a). After 1612, he was a zealous proponent of W. Ratke's “new style of teaching” and developed his approaches into a universal grammar. His major theological interest was missions to the Jews (Jewish Missions), which he sought to advance with writings on talmudic and rabbinic literature. Martin Friedr…

Petri

(518 words)

Author(s): Jarlert, Anders | Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] 1. Olaus (Jan 6, 1493, Örebro – Apr 19, 1552, Stockholm), elder brother of Laurentius and first Protestant archbishop in Sweden. After studying at Uppsala and Leipzig, he received his M.A. from Wittenberg in 1518. He became a deacon in 1520 and was appointed chancellor by Mattias Gregersson, bishop of Strängnäs, who was executed during the Stockholm Bloodbath. In 1524 Petri was appointed city clerk and preacher in Stockholm; from 1531 to 1533 he served as chancellor to King Gustav. He was ordained in 1539. On Jan 2, 1540, ¶ he and Laurentius Andreae were condemned to d…

Eisenmenger, Johann Andreas

(277 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (1654, Mannheim – Dec 20, 1704, Mannheim) began teaching in 1686 and was made professor of oriental languages in Heidelberg in 1700. Eisenmenger studied Hebrew, primarily in Amsterdam, and, from 1680, assembled the material for his major work, the two-volume Entdecktes Judenthum, which first appeared in 1700. The first edition was immediately confiscated on imperial orders after a complaint lodged by the Jews of Frankfurt, but in 1711, King Frederick I of Prussia commission…

Sintenis, Wilhelm Franz

(142 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (Aug 26, 1794, Dornburg, Anhalt – Jan 23, 1859, Magdeburg), preacher at the Heilig-Geist-Kirche in Magdeburg from 1824. In 1840 he set off a controversy by declaring that praying to Christ was superstition. He was reprimanded by the consistory, a first attempt to force rationalism out of the Evangelical Church. Sintenis participated in the founding of the Protestant Lichtfreunde (“Friends of Light”) in 1841 and the Gustav Adolph Werk in 1843, but not until 1846 did he enter the lists against Neo-Orthodoxy with written attacks on the gene…

da Costa, Uriël

(149 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (1583/1584, Oporto – April, 1640, Amsterdam). The son of a Portuguese Converso, Costa was able to return to Judaism after moving to Amsterdam in 1615. In 1618 he was excluded from the synagogue in Hamburg for criticizing important points of the Halakhic tradition (Halakhah). The Amsterdam synagogue pronounced a further ban in 1623 following his denial of the immortality of the soul. Costa's Exame das tradiçôes Phariseas (1624), in which he defended his opinions, was burnt. Costa was prepared to retract some of his statements, but i…

Rudbeck, Johannes

(161 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (Rudbeckius; May 3, 1581, Ormesta, Sweden – Aug 8, 1646, Västerås, Sweden), leading Swedish bishop during Sweden’s period as a great power. In 1611 he was appointed professor of theology at Uppsala, in 1613 court preacher to Gustav II Adolf, and in 1618 bishop of Västerås. He had particular impact in that position, with his reforms of the educational system (including establishment of the first Gymnasium in Sweden), continuing education of the clergy, and poor relief; he also intr…

Fritsch, Ahasverus

(136 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (Dec 16, 1629, Mücheln – Aug 24, 1701, Rudolstadt), Dr.iur., was from 1657 onward in the service of the Counts of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, where he rose to the ranks of president of the consistory and chancellor and sought to promote pietism by, among other means, instituting a “Jesus Society”; in addition, he authored several hundred works of law, politics, and edification as well as hymns (sometimes in collaboration with Countess Ämilie Juliane v. Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt). His “Mi…

Ulstadius, Lars

(125 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (Laurentius; c. 1650, Oulu – Oct 6, 1732, Stockholm). Influenced by reading V. Weigel and other Spiritualists (Spiritualism), Ulstadius gave up his teaching position in 1682 and in 1688 interrupted worship in the cathedral in Åbo to attack Lutheran doctrine as false. He was condemned to death, then in 1693 to lifelong imprisonment; even after he was pardoned in 1719, he remained in prison, revered as a martyr by the radical Pietists in Sweden. His followers (including Petrus Schäfer and a Olaus Ulhegius) briefly succeeded in spreading Pietism in Finland. Martin Friedri…

Keymann, Christian

(134 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (Keimann; Feb 27, 1607, Pankratz, northern Bohemia – Jan 13, 1662, Zittau) was the son of a Protestant pastor who had been displaced by the Counter-Reformation. After studying theology in Wittenberg (notably under August Buchner), Christian Keymann became deputy principal (1634), then principal (1638) of Zittau's grammar school, which flourished under his leadership after the Peace of Westphalia. In 1651, Keymann was elected imperial poet laureate for his poetry (including chorals…

Edzard, Esdras

(151 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (or Edzardus) (Jun 28, 1629, Hamburg – Jan 1, 1708, Hamburg). After studying Protestant theology and oriental languages, he received the Lic.theol. in 1656 and was a private scholar in Hamburg from 1657. From 1659 on, Edzard taught Hebrew language and literature to many students, including A.H. Francke (I), while also working for the conversion of the Jews of Ham…

Eylert, Rulemann Friedrich

(218 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (Apr 3, 1770, Hamm – Feb 3, 1852, Potsdam). Called to Potsdam as court preacher from the pastorate in Hamm in 1806, Eylert became a celebrated preacher and the valued pastoral counselor of the royal couple. Frederik William III chose him as his key advisor on matters of church policy and commissioned him, for example, to formulate the 1817 Call to Union 1817 (Conferences, Church: I). After 1818 as both a bishop and a member of the coun-¶ cil of state, Eylert also shared responsibility for the reactionary turn of the king's …

Permeier (Pyrmeier, Piermeister), Johann

(189 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (Dec 19, 1597, Vienna – c. 1644), an early exponent of transconfessional Christianity. As a Lutheran jurisprudent, he supported the emperor; during stays in Emden and the Netherlands, he cultivated close contact with Reformed thinkers. Through correspondence and travel, he promoted mystical spiritualism. Initially a supporter of K. v. Schwenckfeld, in Berlin he became a follower of the antiwar prophet L.F. Gifftheil. Finally he worked in Vienna and Frankfurt am Main to disseminate…

Schröder, Joachim

(120 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (Mar 9, 1613, Freudenberg, near Ribnitz – Jun 1, 1677, Rostock), preacher from 1637 at the hospice church of St. George in Rostock, retired for health reasons in 1668. With his colleagues J. Quistorp the Younger, H. Müller, and T. Großgebauer, Schröder supported the program of church reform espoused by Lutheran orthodoxy (II, 2.a) in Rostock. He was not their equal as a theologian, but wrote prolifically demanding strict church discipline and personal sanctification. He attacked p…

Uhlich, Leberecht

(154 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (Feb 27, 1799, Köthen – Mar 23, 1872, Magdeburg). While a pastor in Pömmelte (today Schönebeck district, Saxony-Anhalt), in 1841 Uhlich founded the Protestantische Freunde (Lichtfreunde), a collective movement of theological Rationalism, and led the opposition to the restorative ecclesiastical policies of King Frederick William IV. In 1845 Uhlich was called to a pastorate in Magdeburg, but he was removed from office in 1847. The Free Congregation he led had a great many members for a while, but its impor…

Schwartz, Josua

(156 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (Mar 7, 1632, Waldau, Pomerania [today Wałdowo, Poland] – Jan 6, 1709, Rendsburg). ¶ After studying at Wittenberg and extensive educational travel, Schwartz was appointed lecturer and pastor in Lund in 1668; in 1680 he became German court chaplain in Copenhagen and in 1684 royal general superintendent of the duchy of Schleswig, to which the duchy of Holstein was added in 1689 (Schleswig-Holstein). Schwartz was best known as a theological controversialist defending Lutheran orthodoxy (II, 2.a). …

Grabe, Johannes Ernst

(167 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (Jul 10, 1666, Królewiec [Ger. Königsberg], Poland – Nov 14, 1711, in or near London), a Lutheran and, later, an Anglican theologian. As a church historian in Königsberg, Grabe had been led by the crypto-Catholic circles that arose out of syncretism (VI; G. Calixtus) to doubt the legitimacy of the Lutheran Church. Moved by the arguments of P.J. Spener and following the suggestion of D.E. Jablonski, he joined the Anglican Church in 1697 and emigrated to Oxford, where he became Dr.t…

Dieterich, Johann Konrad

(154 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (Jan 9, 1575, Gemünden an der Wohra – Mar 22, 1639, Ulm). Dieterich's most influential work, the Institutiones catecheticae (1613; ¶ over 40 editions by 1700), was written during his time as professor of ethics in Gießen and rector of the Pedagogium (from 1605). It is regarded as a representative textbook of Lutheran orthodoxy (II, 2.a). As cathedral preacher and superintendent in the imperial city of Ulm, …

May, Johann Heinrich

(138 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (Majus; the Elder; Feb 5, 1653, Pforzheim – Sep 3, 1719, Gießen). As an orientalist, May received an appointment at the University of Gießen in 1688, thanks to the support of P.J. Spener. He quickly rose to court chaplain, professor of theology, and superintendent, and in 1695, after fierce controversies, he was able to lead the university to Pietism. He promoted the exegetical orientation of academic studies, as well as the toleration of Jews (out of interest in mission). With hi…

Jorissen, Matthias

(330 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (Oct 26, 1739, Wesel – Jan 13, 1823, The Hague). Jorissen, a merchant's son, studied Reformed theology in Duisburg and Utrecht from 1759. His older relative, G. Tersteegen, and the leader of the revivalists in the Lower Rhine, S. Collenbusch, had more influence on his development than did his academic teachers. After delivering a harangue as a candidate in his home town in 1768 and coming into conflict with the city council, he could no longer hope for a position in Prussia. So he served in various parish offices in the Netherlands: from 1769 in Avesathen, ¶ Gelderland, from …

Ernst von Hessen-Rheinfels

(156 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (Dec 18, 1623, Kassel – May 12, 1693, Cologne). Reared strictly in the Reformed tradition as the son of Landgrave Moritz v. Hessen-Kassel, Ernst converted to the Catholic Church and (alongside the governing of his small principality on the middle Rhine) devoted himself thereafter, through his own writings and an extensive correspondence (with G.W. Leibniz, P.J. Spener, J.-B. Bossuet, et al.), to the project of uniting all confessions. He proposed an international court and was opposed to any kind of compulsory belief. Martin Friedrich Bibliography H. Raab, “Der ‘D…

Schartau, Henrik

(88 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (Sep 27, 1757, Malmö – Feb 3, 1825, Lund), pastor in Lund from 1785, afterward provost and rural dean. As a pastor and preacher, he left his mark on a whole generation of clergy. Through them and his posthumously published works, he initiated a revival movement in western Sweden that is still vital today, combining the penitential rigor of Pietism with the churchliness of orthodox Lutheranism. Martin Friedrich Bibliography W. v. Kloeden, BBKL IX, 1995, 9–11 A. Jarlert, Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon XXXI, 2002, 466–473.

Swedberg, Jesper

(163 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (Aug 28, 1653, Falun, Sweden – Jul 26, 1735, Skara), served as court chaplain to Charles XI, as professor of theology at Uppsala, and after 1702 as bishop of Skara. He is best known as the author of widely-read postils and an important exposition of the catechism (1709) and also as a hymnodist and editor of the 1694 hymnal, but also as a language reformer and organizer of the church’s care for Swedes in North America. As a royalist, he supported the dominance of Lutheran orthodoxy…
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