Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)" )' returned 89 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Paccius

(261 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Köln) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[English version] [1] C.P.Africanus Senator Senator. Wohl im J. 67 kam er zu einem Suffektkonsulat. Im J. 70 wurde er aus dem Senat gestoßen, da er beschuldigt wurde, unter Nero [1] gegen die Brüder Scribonii Anzeige erstattet zu haben (Tac. hist. 4,41,3). Doch muß er bald wieder Zugang zum Senat erlangt haben, da er im J. 77/8 als Proconsul von Africa amtierte; für seine dortige Tätigkeit gibt es zahlreiche Zeugnisse. PIR2 P 14. Eck, Werner (Köln) Bibliography Thomasson, Fasti Africani, 44. [English version] [2] P. Antiochus Pharmakologe in Rom, 1. Jh. In Rom tätiger Pharmakologe, de…

Herodotos

(3,004 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom)
(Ἡρόδοτος). [English version] [1] der Geschichtsschreiber Herodot, ca. 485-424 v. Chr. Der Geschichtsschreiber Herodot. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [English version] A. Leben Quellen zum Leben von H., dem ‘Vater der Gesch.’ (Cic. leg. 1,1,5), ca. 485-424 v.Chr. (grundlegend für alles folgende: [1]) sind außer seinen eigenen Angaben vor allem die Suda s.v. H. bzw. s.v. Panyassis. H. stammte aus Halikarnassos (heute Bodrum) im Südwesten Kleinasiens. Die Namen des Vaters, Lyxes, und des Onkels, Panyassis, eines berühmten E…

Gifte

(754 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[English version] (ἰός und φάρμακον sc. δηλητήριον, lat. virus und venenum). Unterschieden wird nicht nach der (tierischen oder nichttierischen) Herkunft, sondern nach der Art und Weise des Eindringens in den Körper: Inokulation (Stich: πληγή, ictus; Biß: δάκος, morsus) oder orale Absorption (πόσις, potus); allen gemeinsam ist der Begriff einer Substanz, die auf den Organismus wirkt. Tierische und nichttierische G. sowie Pflanzen mit magischen bzw. schädlichen Eigenschaften sind vom epischen Zyklus an bezeugt (Hom. Il. 2,718-725: Philoktetes, der Bi…

Krateuas

(397 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[English version] (Κρατεύας). Rhizotómos (“Wurzelschneider”; [6. test. 7 und 8]) des 2./1. Jh.v.Chr., den man als Pharmakologen des Mithradates VI. Eupator ansah, zweifellos, weil er einer Pflanze den Namen mithridátia (6. test. 2) gegeben haben soll, ohne daß das Phytonym einen Beweis dafür darstellt. Man hat auch angenommen, daß er sich nach Thapsos begeben habe [3. 1644], doch zu Unrecht, da das angeführte Fragment [6. test. 16] auf Sizilien hindeutet [1; 2. 206, 529 und App.]. Das Porträt des Codex Vindob. med. gr. 1, f. 3v hat man für authentisch gehalten [5. 1139.62-65]. Zur …

Marcellus

(866 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (München) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
Deminutivum des röm. Vornamens Marcus, Cognomen in der Familie der Claudii (Claudius [I 7-15; II 42-44]); bekanntester Namensträger ist der Neffe des Augustus, C. Claudius [II 42] M. Griech. Namensträger Markellos. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [1] Proconsul in Afrika, nach 117 n.Chr. Ein M. wird in zwei Inschr. aus Africa als proconsul genannt: ILAlg 591 und [1. 304]. Da in ILAlg wohl C. Iulius [II 48] Cornutus Tertullus als Vorgänger (116/7? n.Chr.) erwähnt ist, gehört der Prokonsulat in die Zeit danach; möglicherweise ist der Senator mit M. Vitorius M., cos…

Gregorios

(2,040 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Heidelberg) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[English version] [1] Thaumaturgos Anwalt und Theologe, 3. Jh. G. wurde zw. 210 und 213 n.Chr. als Sohn einer begüterten paganen Familie in Neokaisareia/ Pontos (h. Niksar) geb., wohl unter dem Namen Theodoros. Nach gründlicher Elementarbildung wollte G. 232/3 (oder 239) eigentlich in Berytos/Beirut Jura studieren, lernte freilich zuvor in Caesarea [2] (Palaestina) den dort lehrenden Origenes kennen und studierte daraufhin bei ihm “christl. Wissenschaften” (zunächst Dialektik, Physiologie, Ethik, Philos.…

Philumenos

(374 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[English version] (Φιλούμενος). Verf. einer Abh. über Vergiftungen (Περὶ ἰοβόλων ζῴων καὶ τῶν ἐν αὐτοῖς βοηθημάτων, ‘Über giftige Tiere und daraus zu gewinnende Medikamente), die nur in der Hs. Vat. Gr. 284 (10. Jh. n.Chr.) überl. ist. Ph. muß auf jeden Fall nach Galenos angesetzt werden - das Werk ist nach dem Vorbild von dessen Abh. zur Toxikologie gegliedert - und vor dem ihn zitierenden Oreibasios, also ins 2. oder eher ins 3. Jh.n.Chr. Im Text des Ph. kommen äg. und alexandrinische Therapieve…

Kollyrion

(334 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[English version] (κολλύριον, lat. collyrium und βάλανος/ bálanos: Caelius Aurelianus, De morbis acutis 2,83; De morbis chronicis 2,39). Pharmazeutische Form zur Verabreichung pulverisierter und per Bindemittel zu einer homogenen Paste verarbeiteter medizinischer Stoffe bei lokaler Applikation, wie aus der Etym. hervorgeht ( kollýra: kleines rundes Brot ohne Hefe [2. 145], Brotteig [1. 556]). Die beiden Hauptanwendungstypen bestimmen Form und Funktion: Zur Einbringung in anatomische oder pathologische Öffnungen wurde ein kleiner Kegel g…

Palladios

(710 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Gatti, Paolo (Trient) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
(Παλλάδιος). [English version] [1] griech. Rhetor, 4. Jh. Griech. Rhetor der 1. H. des 4. Jh.n.Chr. (Suda s.v. P. setzt die Blüte unter Constantinus [1] I. an) aus Methone (wahrscheinlich dem messenischen). Nach der Suda verfaßte er neben Deklamationen aller drei rhet. Genera ( genera dicendi ) auch eine antiquarische Schrift über die Feste der Römer (FGrH F 837). Ob P. mit einem der zahlreichen in den Briefen des Libanios erwähnten P. identisch ist und wenn ja mit welchem, läßt sich nicht klären; außer in der Suda w…

Dionysios

(10,308 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος). Bekannte Persönlichkeiten: der Tyrann von Syrakus D. [1] I.; der Historiker D. [18] von Halikarnassos. Dionysios (Monat) Monatsnamen. Die Chronik des Ps.-D. von Tell Maḥre s. D. [23]. I. Politisch aktive Persönlichkeiten [English version] [1] D.I. berüchtigter Tyrann in Syrakus um 400 v. Chr. von Syrakus, Sohn des Hermokritos, geb. um 430, gest. 367 v.Chr. Begründer der ‘größten und längsten Tyrannenherrschaft in der Geschichte’ (Diod. 13,96,4; Aussehen: Timaios FGrH 566 F 29). Im Besitz sophistischer Bildung (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), war D. von größtem Ehrgeiz…

Krankheit

(3,735 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[English version] A. Terminologie Νόσος/ nósos (ion. νοῦσος/ núsos, “K”.; Etym.: “geschwächt sein”) bezeichnet in einer Metaphorik von Aggression, die lange in Gebrauch blieb [17], die Krankheit als eine Tatsache äußeren (Götter) oder inneren Ursprungs, die ‘den Menschen beherrschte und niederschlug’ (z.B.: hierá nósos, “die heilige Krankheit”, Epilepsie). Etwa vom 5. Jh.v.Chr. an erhielt dieser Begriff Konkurrenz von der Ableitung nósēma [30], vielleicht eine Prägung der Sophisten, die sich jedenfalls schnell in der medizinischen Welt verbreitete; sie …

Klyster

(415 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[English version] ( klystḗr/ klystḗrion, lat. clyster/ clysterium; auch klýsma/ klysmós und éngklysma, abgeleitet von klýzein/ engklýzein, lat. inicere: gießen, spülen, und enetḗr/ énema, von: eniénai: injizieren). Klistiergerät: Pharmazeutische Form und Verabreichungsinstrument zur parenteralen (in diesem Fall oft in Verbindung mit dem Adverb kátō oder dem Verb hypoklýzein) oder (in gynäkologischen Traktaten) vaginalen Einspritzung therapeutischer Lösungen. Das Instrument bestand aus einem flexiblen, zusammenpreßbaren Behälter (Tierhaut oder -blase)…

Iatromathematik

(959 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[English version] A. Definition Iatromathēmatiká (Herm. Trism. 1,387,1 Ideler) oder nosúntōn perignostiká ek tēs mathēmatikḗs epistḗmēs (ebd. 1,430,2-3) u.ä. bezeichnen die medizinischen Implikationen der Astrologie: Erkennung der nosologischen Prädisposition von Patienten oder Prognostik aktueller Erkrankungen, je nach Fall in Verbindung mit Prävention oder Therapeutik. Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) [English version] B. Quellen Die der I. zugrundeliegenden B. sind die vorgeblichen Enthüllungen des Hermes, dem evtl. Asklepios beistand; die Enthüllungen sind in zwei corp…

Hegetor

(205 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[English version] Alexandrinischer Arzt, zeitlich zw. Herophilos (330/320-260/250 v.Chr.), dessen Nachfolger er war, und Apollonios (1. Jh. v.Chr.), von dem er zitiert wird; gemeinhin wird er wegen seiner Polemik gegen die Empiriker hinsichtlich der Aitiologie ins 2. Jh. v.Chr. gesetzt. Von seinem Werk sind nur indirekte Zit. erhalten, von denen drei mit seinem Namen versehen sind und das letzte (Gal. Def. med. 220 = 19,448f. K.) ihm nur zugewiesen wurde [1. 73 Anm. 44; 137 Anm. 183; 2]. Das fr. 3 stammt aus einer Schrift Perí aitíōn (‘Über die Ursprünge), in dem H. den aitiol…

Heliodoros

(2,387 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Et al.
(Ἡλιόδωρος). [English version] [1] Kanzler unter Seleukos IV., 2. Jh. v.Chr. Sohn des Aischylos aus Antiocheia am Orontes, wurde gemeinsam mit Seleukos IV. erzogen und war unter diesem 187-175 v.Chr. Höfling (τῶν περὶ τὴν αὐλήν) und vielgeehrter Kanzler (ὁ ἐπὶ τῶν πραγμάτων τεταγμένος) (IG XI 4,1112-1114, bzw. OGIS 247; App. Syr. 45). Als die Finanznot nach der Niederlage von Seleukos' Vater Antiochos III. gegen die Römer (190/188) in Verbindung mit innerjüdischen Intrigen zu besonderen Abgabenforderungen …

Kauterisation

(422 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[English version] Therapeutische Intervention in der Human- und Veterinärmedizin, die in der Herbeiführung einer “Verbrennung” auf der Körperoberfläche nach zwei verschiedenen Techniken mit ihren jeweiligen Indikationen besteht: die Verbrennung im eigentlichen Sinne mittels eines auf Kohlen zur Rotglut gebrachten Eisens, dann mittels eines Lampendochts ( mýkēs, z.B. Hippokr. de internis affectionibus 212,14 L.); sie wurde eingesetzt, um eine Zusammenziehung des Gewebes herbeizuführen. Dadurch sollte eine mechanische Richtung von Brüchen er…

Herodikos

(405 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[English version] [1] aus Megara, Lehrer in Selymbria, 5. Jh. v. Chr. Paidotribḗs aus Megara, der sich in Selymbria niederließ, Zeitgenosse des Protagoras. Seine Geburt wurde um 500 v.Chr. angesetzt [2. 200f.], sein im Alter eingetretener Tod um 430-420 [5. 53]. Nachdem Platon ihm die Entwicklung einer neuen Therapieform zugeschrieben hatte, sah man ihn als Verf. eines kleinen Werks an [1. 979, Z.21f.], ohne zu wissen, ob er überhaupt etwas geschrieben hatte, noch gar, ob er trotz Anon. Londiniensis IX, 20-36 eine explizite, ausgearb…

Lykos

(1,947 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Λύκος). Mythologie und Religion: L. [1-9], Historische Personen: L. [10-13], Flüsse: L. [14-19]. [English version] [1] Sohn des Poseidon und der Pleiade Kelaino Sohn des Poseidon und der Pleiade Kelaino [1] (Ps.-Eratosth. katasterismoi 23), nur Apollod. 3,111 erwähnt seine Entrückung auf die Inseln der Seligen, vielleicht, um ihn von L. [6], mit dem er von Hyg. fab. 31, 76 und 157 trotz der Abstammung von Poseidon zusammengebracht wird, zu differenzieren. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [English version] [2] Sohn des Prometheus und der Kelaino Sohn des Prometheus und der Kelaino…

Herophilos (Ἡρόφιλος)

(802 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[1] aus Kalchedon, griech. Arzt und Fachautor, ca. 330/20 - 260/50 v. Chr. [English version] A. Leben Griech. Arzt aus Kalchedon, etwa 330/320 bis 260/50 v.Chr. [5. 43-50]. Abgesehen von einer hippokratisch ausgerichteten Ausbildung bei Praxagoras verbrachte er den größten Teil seiner aktiven Laufbahn unter Ptolemaios I. und II. in Alexandreia. Er scheint jedoch nicht im Museion gearbeitet zu haben und war auch nicht Hofarzt [5. 26f.]. Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) [English version] B. Werk Von den elf Werken, die H. zugewiesen wurden, sind sechs mit großer Wahrscheinl…

Infibulation

(151 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[English version] (κρίκωσις, κρικοῦσθαι, infibulare). Anlegen eines Rings (κρίκος) oder einer fibula, leichte chirurgische Intervention am männlichen Glied, die von Celsus (7,25,2) und von Oreibasios (50,11) beschrieben wurde. Der Eingriff bestand im Durchstechen der Vorhaut, durch deren Perforationen man bis zum Abschluß der Vernarbung einen Faden hin- und herzog, damit diese weiter wurden und sich nicht mehr wieder schlossen; dann brachte man einen Ring (oder eine fibula) an, der (bzw. die) die Entblößung der Eichel verhindern sollte; zumindest in manchen Fä…

Gregorius

(2,969 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Uthemann, Karl-Heinz (Amsterdam) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Γρηγόριος; Grēgórios) [German version] [I 1] Thaumaturgus Lawyer and theologian, 3rd cent. AD G. was born between AD 210 and 213, as the son of a wealthy pagan family in Neocaesarea/ Pontus (modern Niksar), probably under the name of Theodorus. In 232/3 (or 239), after a thorough elementary education G. actually wanted to study law in  Berytus/Beirut but before this in  Caesarea [2] (Palestine) got to know  Origen who taught there and then studied under his supervision the ‘Christian s…

Crateuas

(419 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] (Κρατεύας; Krateúas). Rhizotómos ‘root-cutter’, ‘herb man’; [6. test. 7 and 8]) of the 2nd/1st cent. BC. He was assumed to be the pharmacologist of  Mithridates VI Eupator simply because he is attributed with assigning the name of mithridátia (6. test. 2) to a plant, although there is no proof for it in the phytonymy. It was also assumed that he went to Thapsus [3. 1644], but this was a mistake since the fr. in question [6. test. 16] points to Sicily [1; 2. 206, 529 and appendix]. The portrait of the Codex Vindob. med. gr. 1, f. 3v has been regarded as authentic [5. 1139.6…

Pharmacology

(2,168 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Böck, Barbara (Madrid)
[German version] I. Etymology The Greek term for pharmacology (ὁ περὶ φαρμάκων λόγος/ ho perì pharmákōn lógos, Pedanius Dioscorides, De materia medica praef. 5) means 'science of remedies'. Originally, the term φάρμακον/ phármakon, whose etymology is not known, did not specifically refer to a medical drug, but to any substance introduced into the body with the ability of changing the body's structure or function. The Latin term medicamentum points to the aspect of assistance and support, as does βοήθημα/ boḗthēma. Specific medications were named after their principal proper…

Herodotus

(3,277 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἡρόδοτος; Heródotos). [German version] [1] The historian Herodotus, approx. 485-424 BC The historian Herodotus. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] A. Life Sources on the life of H., the ‘father of history’ (Cic. Leg. 1,1,5), c. 485-424 BC (fundamental for all of the following: [1]) are, apart from the information he provided himself in particular, the Suda s.v. H. or s.v. Panyassis. H. came from Halicarnassus (modern Bodrum) in the south-west of Asia Minor. The names of his father, Lyxes, and his uncle, Panyassis, a famou…

Paccius

(264 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] [1] C.P. Africanus Senator Senator. In probably 67 he became a suffect consul. In 70 he was expelled from the Senate for being found guilty of informing on the Scribonii brothers under Nero [1] (Tac. Hist. 4,41,3). But he must have been readmitted soon after, because in 77/8 he served as proconsul of Africa; there are numerous testimonies to his activities there. PIR2 P 14. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Thomasson, Fasti Africani, 44. [German version] [2] P. Antiochus Pharmacologist in Rome, 1st cent. Pharmacologist, active in Rome, who had great therapeutic…

Metrodora

(261 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] (Μητροδῶρα; Mētrodôra). According to the manuscript Flor. Laur. 75,3 (12th cent. AD), the author of surviving extracts under the title ‘Diseases of the Womb (Περὶ γυναικείων παθῶν τῆς μήτρας). Although M. has been identified with various male or female physicians, his/her identity remains unknown, even enigmatic. It is possible that M. never existed, if the name ( mētròs dôra, ‘gifts of the mother’) really is only an erroneous interpretation of the title of a collection of advice given to young women of marriageable age by their mothers. The text, which is based on …

Hegetor

(215 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] Alexandrian doctor, lived between the time of Herophilus (330/320-260/250 BC), whose successor he was, and Apollonius (1st cent. BC), by whom he is cited; generally he is placed in the 2nd cent. BC because of his polemics against the  Empiricists and their views on aetiology. Of his works only indirect citations are extant, of which three bear his name, and the last (Gal. Def. med. 220 = 19,448f. K.) was merely attributed to him [1. 73 n. 44; 137 n. 183; 2]. Fragment 3 comes from a work Perì aitíōn (‘On the causes’) in which H. refutes the aetiological nihilism of th…

Dionysius

(11,175 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος; Dionýsios). Famous personalities: D. [1], the tyrant of Syracuse; the historian D. [18] of Halicarnassus. Dionysios (month),  Months, names of the. The chronicle of Ps.-D. by Tell Maḥre see D. [23]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] D. I. Notorious tyrant in Syracuse c. 400 BC of Syracuse, son of Hermocritus, born in c. 430 BC, died in 367 BC. Founder of the ‘greatest and longest tyrannical rule in history’ (Diod. Sic. 13,96,4; appearance: Timaeus FGrH 566 F 29). Possessing a sophist education (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), D. had enormous ambitions a…

Iatromathematics

(982 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] A. Definition Iatromathēmatiká (Herm. 1,387,1 Ideler) or nosoúntōn perignostiká ek tês mathēmatikês epistḗmēs (ibid. 1,430,2-3) etc. is the term for the medical implications of astrology, i.e. the recognition of a nosological predisposition of patients or a prognosis of current illnesses, connected with prevention or therapy, depending on the case. Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) [German version] B. Sources The books on which iatromathematics is based are the alleged revelations of  Hermes, who was possibly assisted by Asclepius. These revela…

Pedanius

(1,688 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Pedanius Dioscorides Author on medicines, 1st cent. AD (Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης; Pedánios Dioskourídēs). [German version] I. Life The author of the treatise Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς/ Perì hýlēs iatrikês ( De materia medica, 'On Materia Medica') hailed from Anazarbus (Cilicia) and dates to the 1st. cent. AD: in his preface (§ 4), he refers to a certain Laikanios Bassos, whom he describes as krátistos (‘the highest’), now assumed to be C. Laecanius Bassus, senator and consul of AD 64. Pliny makes no reference to this work in his Naturalis historia (completed in AD 77 acc…

Marcellus

(1,746 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρκέλλος; Markéllos). [German version] [I 1] From Pergamum, orator, 2nd cent. AD, [1] Rhetor from Pergamum known solely from a brief reference in the Suda; he is said to have written a book (or several books) entitled Ἀδριανὸς ἢ περὶ βασιλείας/ Adrianòs ḕ perì basileías (‘Hadrian, or On Monarchy’). He would thus have lived in the first half of the 2nd cent.; whether Dio's [I 3] speeches perì basileías, addressed to Trajan, served as a model is uncertain. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) [German version] [I 2] From Side, physician and poet, 2nd cent. AD M. from …

Heliodorus

(2,533 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Et al.
(Ἡλιόδωρος; Heliódōros). [German version] [1] Chancellor under Seleucus IV, 2nd cent. BC Son of Aeschylus of Antioch on the Orontes, was educated with Seleucus IV and was a courtier (τῶν περὶ τὴν αὐλήν) and well-respected chancellor (ὁ ἐπὶ τῶν πραγμάτων τεταγμένος) under him in 187-175 BC (IG XI 4,1112-1114, or OGIS 247; App. Syr. 45). When financial difficulties after the defeat of Seleucus' father Antiochus III against the Romans (190/188), in conjunction with internal Jewish intrigues, had led to special…

Theophilus

(1,625 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
(Θεόφιλος; Theóphilos). [German version] [1] Comic poet, 4th cent. BC Comic poet of the 4th cent. BC; victor at the Dionysia of 329 [1. test.2], fourth there in 311 with his Pankratiastḗs [2.190, 200]. T. was of the declining Middle and the incipient New Comedy [I G]. Of the nine known titles, two - Νεοπτόλεμος ( Neoptólemos, 'Neoptolemus'), Προιτίδες ( Proitídes, 'The daughters of Proitus') - are mythological plays, the others deal with everyday material. In the Ἐπίδημοι ( Epídēmoi, 'The Pilgrims'), a slave considers whether to run away from his kind master (fr. 1); in the Φίλαυλος ( Phílaul…

Pharmacology

(4,223 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) I. Europe (CT) [German version] A. Early Middle Ages (CT) The practice of post-Classical curative art is characterised by six tendencies that complement or follow upon one another: 1. The fundamental texts survived in their original Greek version at least until the 5th-6th cent. (Dioscurides). Some were presumably translated into Latin during the same period at Rome or Ravenna (Hippocrates, Peri diaites, Oribasius, Synopsis and Euporista) or else in North Africa (Dioscurides). There were also new Greek texts from Constantinople (Dioscu…

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …

Petron(as)

(169 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] (Πετρωνᾶς, Petronâs often abbrev. to: Πέτρων, Pétrōn). Greek physician from Aegina, datable by the information that Ariston was his pupil (Anth. Pal. 546F); this Ariston is regarded as the author of the Hippocratic treatise Perì diaítēs ( De diaeta acutorum) dated to c. 400 BC, and Galen calls him παλαιός ('ancient') (CMG 9,1, 135,4). Although Celsus [7] places P. between Hippocrates and the Hellenistic physicians (3,9,2), P.'s medical views, which according to the Anonymus Londinensis (20,1) place him partly in associati…

Herodicus

(436 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] [1] From Megara, teacher in Selymbria, 5th cent. BC Paidotribḗs from Megara who settled in Selymbria, contemporary of Protagoras. His birth was estimated to around 500 BC [2. 200f.] and his death in old age to around 430-420 [5. 53]. After Plato had attributed to him the development of a new form of therapy, he was regarded as the author of a small work [1. 979, l. 21f.] despite the absence of any evidence that he had written anything at all or even, despite Anon. Londiniensis IX, 20-36, that he had an explicit, elabo…

Paulus

(5,982 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Et al.
see Iulius [IV 15] (poet); see Iulius [IV 16] (jurist) [German version] I Greek (Παῦλος; Paûlos). [German version] [I 1] Bishop of Antioch [1], died after 272 Bishop of Antiochia [1] († after AD 272). P., who was probably born in Samosata and grew up in modest circumstances, succeeded Demetrianus in 260/1 and quickly antagonized influential parts of the Antioch community with his teachings and conduct of his office. According to Eusebius [7] (account of P.: Eus. HE 7,27-30), the presbyter Malchion, head of a school of r…

Methodists

(841 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] 1st-century AD medical school. Its representatives explicitly defined themselves as Methodists (μεθοδικοί; methodikoí), as it was their goal to base the practice of medicine on a single simple method (μέθοδος; méthodos) that they could teach to anyone in just a few words. Extant are only the gynaecological treatise of Soranus,a Latin translation of his pathological writings by Caelius [II 11] Aurelianus and doxographic fragments, e.g. POxy. 3654 [1. 382-386, 388-390], probably a medical textbook from the time of Galenus. …

Physica Plinii

(336 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] Renaissance title of a Latin book of formulae, based largely on the Medicina Plinii and written in the 5th/6th cents. AD. There are three recensions: 1. Sangallensis (6th/7th cents.) in three books (not yet published; titles of the chapters: [6. 41-55]; contains numerous incantations [5]); 2. Bambergensis [3], dated to the 5th/6th cents., but possibly more recent, and divided into three books; 3. Florentino-Pragensis [11; 10; 7] in five books (including the Medicinae ex oleribus et pomis of Gargilius [4] Martialis and the Liber dietarum diversorum medicorum by …

Kollyrion

(385 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] (κολλύριον; kollýrion, Lat. collyrium and βάλανος/ bálanos: Caelius Aurelianus, De morbis acutis 2,83; De morbis chronicis 2,39). Pharmaceutical form for administering medicinal substances, in local applications. These were pulverished and made into a uniform paste with binders, as is evident from the etymology ( kollýra: small, round bread roll without yeast [2. 145], bread dough [1. 556]). The kollyrion's two main types of use determine its form and function: a small cone was formed for insertion into anatomical or pathological orifice…

Statilius

(1,578 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Et al.
Italic nomen gentile. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] A young friend of M. Porcius [I 7] Cato; in 46 BC he wanted to follow Cato into death, but allowed himself to be dissuaded by philosophical arguments (Plut. Cato Minor 65,10 f.; 66,6-8; 73,7). He then joined cause with M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus, who, because of S.' attitude towards tyrannicide, did not dare let him in on the plot against Caesar. S. was killed in 42 as a scout at Philippi (Plut. Brutus 51,6). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] S., L. Roman equestrian and leading follower of Catilina (Cic. Cat. 3,6…

Scribonius

(2,206 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family, probably from Caudium (CIL I2 1744 f.) and attested from the time of the 2nd Punic War. The branch of the Libones (S. [I 5-7; II 4-7]) attained the consulship with S. [I 7] and was part of the Roman high nobility in the early Imperial period. The Curiones (S. [I 1-4]), prominent in the 2nd and 1st cents. BC, disappeared with the Republic. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] S. Curio, C. As aedile in 196 BC, he built the Temple of Faunus on the Tiber Island. Praetor urbanus in 183 and the second plebeian to be elected curio [2] maximus

Infibulation

(133 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] (κρίκωσις; kríkōsis, κρικοῦσθαι; krikoûsthai, infibulare). Placement of a ring (κρίκος; kríkos) or a fibula, minor surgery on the penis described by Celsus (7,25,2) and by Oribasius (50,11). The operation entailed tightening a thread through perforations in the foreskin until it would close no farther. A ring (or fibula) was then attached to prevent exposure of the glans. In some cases at least, it could be removed. Celsus considers the operation to be much more frequently useless than necessary and sees behind it health motives and an attempt t…

Ichor

(165 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] (ἰχώρ; ichṓr). The word has been connected to the Aramaic or Hebrew root meaning ‘dignity’, ‘splendour’, with possible etymological overlap of the Sumerian root meaning ‘blood’ and the Akkadian root meaning ‘to pour’. In Homer (Il. 5,340; cf. 416), the word denotes the lifeblood of the gods as opposed to regular blood that is produced by eating bread and drinking wine. Ichor also appears in Aeschylus (Ag. 1479f., 458 BC), where the word denotes a fluid which is discharged from wounds that will not close. In the 4th cent., it is more common …

Disease

(3,935 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] A. Terminology Νόσος/ nósos (Ionic νοῦσος/ noûsos, ‘D’.; etym.: ‘being weakened’) describes disease in an imagery of aggression, which remained in use for a long time [17], as a result of external (divine) or internal origin, which ‘ruled over people and struck them down’ (e.g.: ἱερὰ νόσος; hierà nósos, ‘the sacred disease’, epilepsy). From about the 5th cent. BC, the term was increasingly rivalled by the derivation nósēma [30], perhaps an expression coined by the Sophists; in any case, it rapidly spread through the medical world. It does not hav…

Zeuxis

(1,222 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
(Ζεῦξις/ Zeûxis). [German version] [1] Greek painter and sculptor, c. 435/25-390 BC Greek painter and sculptor, active between c. 435/25 and 390 BC. He was one of the pioneers of the great era of Greek painting which would retain its high standards for over a century. 'Heraclea', which Plin. HN 35,61 gives as his place of origin, seems more likely to be the Sicilian Heraclea [9] Minoa ([1. 382]; but [2]: Heraclea [7] Pontica?) than Heraclea [10] in Lucania [3. 60], since Z. was the pupil of an otherwise unknown ma…

Palladius

(1,607 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Ruffing, Kai (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Παλλάδιος; Palládios). [German version] [I 1] Greek rhetor, 4th cent. Greek rhetor of the first half of the 4th cent. AD (Suda s.v. P. gives his prime as under Constantinus [1] I) from Methone (probably the Messenian one). According to the Suda, in addition to declamations he wrote in all three rhetorical genres ( genera dicendi ) and also an antiquarian work on the festivals of the Romans (FGrH F 837). Whether P. is identical with one of the numerous Palladii mentioned in the letters of Libanius and if …

Medicina Plinii

(278 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] Compilation of medical texts written in Latin and attributed in the MSS to an otherwise unknown Plinius Secundus Iunior. Mentioned by Marcellus [8] Empiricus, it is generally accepted to date back to the early 4th cent. AD or even slightly before that. The compilation starts with the author's declaration of his intention to prevent the counterfeiting of medicinal products whose ingredients he then lists together with the relevant composition. The work consists of three books. Bk. 1-2: medicinal preparations, ordered accor…

Serenus

(635 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
[German version] [1] Quinctius S. Sammonicus Author of a collection of recipes (also Quintus Serenius). Author of the Liber Medicinalis, a collection of therapeutic recipes which can be neither dated nor identified; Q. has at times been identified with S. [2] Sammonicus or with his son (Septimius [II 6] S. Sammonicus; both died at the beginning of the 3rd cent. AD). The collection (dating between the 2nd and 4th cents. AD) cannot be chronologically ordered with any accuracy. It is written in hexameters and contain…
▲   Back to top   ▲