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Forgiveness

(2,690 words)

Author(s): Gestrich, Christof | Zehner, Joachim
1. Term and Problems Forgiveness is the readiness to pardon faults (Guilt). More than restitution or repayment, it seeks to restore fellowship. The fifth petition of the Lord’s Prayer refers to it as something that God does and that we ought to do in return. But what does Christian forgiveness mean when seen in the light of social, political, philosophical, psychological, and religious theories for the overcoming of guilt? Our own dealing with guilt is confronted by the external pronouncement that t…

Salvation

(2,613 words)

Author(s): Zehner, Joachim | Grundmann, Christoffer H. | Fischer, Johannes
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion Even prior to the age of Greek philosophy, riches, honor, power, health, longevity, etc. were considered the epitome of well-being, “bliss” or “salvation” (Ger. Heil). For centuries well-being was treated as synonymous with happiness (Gk eudaimonía, Lat. felicitas, beatitudo). Today the term happiness usually excludes the transcendent dimension, and salvation is generally used without an immanent sense. For Democritus individual salvation was grounded in the human soul and its attitude, the first time philo…

Decision

(992 words)

Author(s): Großheim, Michael | Zehner, Joachim | Andersen, Svend
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Dogmatics – III. Ethics I. Philosophy The process of clarifying an uncertain, unclear situation that demands a reaction is essentially linked to decision as a choice between several possibilities of action. The scope of the term ranges from the more distanced judicial decision to the personal life decision. What is variable here is the amount of rational …

Fundamentalism

(5,667 words)

Author(s): Küenzlen, Gottfried | Kienzler, Klaus | Hamilton, Michael S. | Mittleman, Alan L. | Wielandt, Rotraud | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Religious Studies – III. Systematic Theology – IV. Social Sciences – V. Practical Theology I. Terminology The term fundamentalism was used originally as a self-description by a coalition of conservative Protestant groups that emerged in the 1870s in the USA. In 1919 this coalition united to form the World's Christian Fundamentals Association. The first written attestation of the term was in the title of a series published in the USA between 1909 and 1915 entitled The Fundamentals: A Testimony to the Truth. Citing the verbal inspiration an…