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Didyme

(41 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Διδύμη; Didýmē). Egyptian (Ethiopian) mistress of Ptolemy II; see in Anth. Pal. 5,210? Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography A. Cameron, Two Mistresses of Ptolemy Philadelphus, in: GRBS 31, 1990, 287 F. M. Snowden Jr., Asclepiades' D., in: GRBS 32, 1991, 239-259.

Meridarches

(236 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(μεριδάρχης, Meridárchēs). [German version] [1] Ptolemaic administrative official from at least 260 BC Ptolemaic administrative official. The Egyptian district ( nomós ) of Arsinoites was divided up into three merídes (‘parts’), which in turn consisted of tópoi. This subdivision is attested from 260/259 BC at the latest[1. 5]. A meridarches was in charge of a merís and hence of its toparchs; the title is attested from the end of the 2nd century BC (PTebtunis I 66), but the names of the merídes (Ἡρακλείδου, Θεμίστου, Πολέμωνος) may go back to the first meridarchai. The last meridarchai ar…

Aristomenes

(638 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Ἀριστομένης; Aristoménēs). [German version] [1] Messenian hero and freedom fighter (2nd half of 7th cent. BC) Messenian hero and freedom fighter, seen as a descendant of the Aepytids. With the support of Arcadians and Argives, A. was the supposed leader of a Messenian revolt against Sparta which lasted for many years. Paus. 4,14,6-24,3 reports that on his defeat, after initial successes, in the so-called battle of the ‘Great Trench’ because of the treachery of the Arcadian king  Aristocrates [1], A. retreated…

Callicrates

(1,202 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Et al.
(Καλλικράτης; Kallikrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue and politician Athenian demagogue and politician in the succession of  Cleophon, he abolished the   diobelía with the promise of increasing it by an obolós; later sentenced to death (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 28,3). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Rhodes, 356-357. [German version] [2] Sculptor in Laconia Sculptor in Laconia. Together with  Myrmecides, C. was considered the legendary, probably archaic creator of microscopic sculptures made of iron, bronze, ivory and marble. An…

Xenophon

(5,032 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Ξενοφῶν; Xenophôn). [German version] [1] Of Athens, strategos, 5th cent. BC Athenian. Initially commander of the cavalry ( hippárchēs; IG I3 511); then participated in the campaign against Samos in 441/40 BC as stratēgós (Androtion FGrH 324 F 38), was also stratēgós the following years and operated as such in Thrace in 430/429. He was treated with hostility due to his unauthorized acceptance of the capitulation of Potidaea (Thuc. 2,70), but remained in office and fell as stratēgós at Spartolus in the summer of 429 during a campaign against the Chalcidians and Bottians (…

Theon

(2,323 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Θέων; Théōn). [German version] [1] Greek painter from Samos, 300 BC and after T. of Samos was a Greek painter of the Hellenistic Period, who was active around and after 300 BC. His skill as a creator of images and the successful way in which his paintings were composed were praised in handbooks of rhetoric (e.g. Quint. Inst. 12,10,6) as examples to be followed. The viewer's creative imagination and intuitive understanding were meant to be stimulated at the same time by means of the artistic phantasía (Lat. ingenium, 'image creation'; Phantasia), so that the viewer might imagine e…

Neon

(631 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Νέων; Néōn). [German version] [1] Military official under Chirisophus Lacedaemonian from the perioeci town of Asine [3], subordinate commander (ὑποστράτηγος/ hypostrátēgos) of Chirisophus [1] in the campaign of the younger Cyrus [3] against Artaxerxes [2]. After Chirisiphorus' death, N. commanded the Lacedaemonian contingent. After Xenophon had relinquished command at Byzantium, N. hoped for supreme command, and opposed the decision to place the mercenary army in the service of the Odrysian King Seuthes (Xen. An. 6,4,23f.; 7,2,1-2; 7,3,7; [1. 350]). Schmitz, Winfried (Bi…

Callimander

(30 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Καλλίμανδρος; Kallímandros). Delegate of the Alexandrians who was to offer the Egyptian monarchy to a Seleucid prince in 56 BC. PP 6, 14768. Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Sosigenes

(297 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
(Σωσιγένης; Sōsigénēs). [German version] [1] S. of Caunus is attested as oikonómos of Ptolemaeus [1] I in Lycia (SEG 27,929, Limyra) in 288/7 BC. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] Comedy writer, 2nd cent. BC Comedy writer, only attested epigraphically as a participant of the Attic Dionysiac agon in 157 BC, where he took sixth place with the play Λυτρούμενος ( Lytroúmenos, 'The ransomed man'). Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 603. [German version] [3] Astronomer, computed the Julian calendar for Caesar Astronomer charged by Caesar w…

Sitometria

(114 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (σιτομετρία; sitometría). The 'allotment' of grain to the citizens of Greek states through a sitométrēs (e.g. Hyp. F 271a Blass; Aristot. Pol. 1299a 23; documented as late as the Roman Imperial Period) and from a special store (cf. rations for mercenaries). S. could also mean a daily or monthly payment, in money, from the state or from a private source. Such payments were not necessarily regular or tied to the status of the recipient. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography H. Dirscherl, Die Sitonia von Oxyrhynchos: Menge, Kosten, Finanzierung, ökonomische Bede…

Phommus

(83 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Φομμοῦς; Phommoûs) was, as syngenḗs ('king's relative') and epistratēgós (Court titles B 2) of the Thebaid, a predecessor of Plato [3] from c. August/September 115 until at least February 110 BC. In OGIS 168,26f., the king calls him his adelphós ('brother'). P. was an Egyptian, probably from the Delta; his career can perhaps be used as proof that Cleopatra [II 6] III sought indigenous support. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography E. van't Dack et al., The Judaean-Syrian-Egyptian Conflict of 103-1 BC, 1989, 73; 108.

Polyclitus

(1,987 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Πολύκλειτος/ Polýkleitos). [German version] [1] Greek bronze sculptor from Sicyon, 5th or 4th cent. BC the Greek bronze sculptor Polyclitus. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) [German version] I. General Bronze sculptor from Sicyon, pupil of Ageladas in Argos. Biographical detail on P. is scanty. His sons were regarded as less successful. P. [2] may, judging by his name, have been a nephew, and Naucydes thus P.'s brother. Six pupils, with mostly unrevealing names, are recorded. However, various family and artistic lineages have b…

Hermocrates

(514 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Ἑρμοκράτης; Hermokrátēs). [German version] [1] Syracusan statesman, 424 BC Syracusan statesman and general. Became prominent for the first time at the peace conference of Gela in 424 BC and successfully invited the Sicilian Greeks with the slogan ‘Sicily to the Siceliots’ to settle the internal disputes (Thuc. 4,58-64). In 415 he recommended the formation of a coalition against Athens reaching beyond Sicily (Thuc. 6,32,3-34). Initially chosen as one of three authorized strategoi, but soon, like his colleagues, deposed because of his lack of success (Thuc. 6,73,1; …

Apollonius

(7,446 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence) | Hunter, Richard (Cambridge) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλώνιος; Apollṓnnios). [German version] [1] Dioiketes of Ptolemy II (259-245 BC) Of Caria, possibly Ptolemaic o ikonomos there in 267 BC. Was dioiketes of Ptolemy II from April /May 259 until the end of 245; in 252 escorted Berenice to her wedding to Antiochus II. At a critical transition period A. found himself responsible for the economy of the kingdom of the Ptolemies, adapting the fiscal system to the monetary economy of the Lagids, for which purpose he was entrusted with the management of finances and the co…

Archelaus

(1,291 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Pietsch, Christian (Mainz) | Et al.
(Ἀρχέλαος; Archélaos). [German version] [1] Macedonian king (ca. 413-399 BC) Son of  Perdiccas, king of Macedonia about 413-399 BC, who according to Plato's spiteful representation (Gorg. 471) was the son of a slave woman and had ascended to the throne by murder. However, he appeared about 415 in a contract with Athens in third place after Perdiccas and his brother Alcetas, i.e. as legitimate (IG I3 89,60). Murdering other pretenders to the throne was not uncommon among the  Argeads, who had no firm rule of succession. He was on a good footing with the Atheni…

Semtheus

(51 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Egyptian village scribe ( Komogrammateus ) and owner of a dōreá, an estate awarded by the king (PPetrie II 38 a; III 31; PLille I 47,2 f.; 9 f.; 48,2 f.; 8 f.), of about 27.5 sq km (10,000 árourai; Aroura) in 251/0 BC. PP I 837 f.; 841; IV 8387. Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Paos

(145 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Πάως; Páōs). Egyptian who made a career in Ptolemy VIII's service. P.'s career epitomizes the attempt to mobilize the Egyptian people in the dispute with Cleopatra [II 5] II. In 137/6 BC P. was the tôn prṓtōn phílōn, in 133/2 the (civil) stratēgós of several administrative districts in the Thebais; presumably in 132/1, in the course of the wars, he became syngenḕs kaì stratēgòs tês Thēbaḯdos, and finally in the summer of 129, as the successor of Boethus [1], he was syngenḕs kaì epistratēgòs kaì stratēgòs tês Thebaḯdos but he was replaced by Lochus [2] in 127/6 at …

Nicocreon

(395 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Νικοκρέων/ Nikokréōn). [German version] [1] Conspirator against Evagoras, c. 375 BC N. plotted unsuccessfully against Evagoras [1], the king of Salamis on Cyprus (Theopompos FGrH 115 F 103,12), and had to flee (around 375 BC). N.'s daughter became the mistress of Evagoras and of the heir to the throne, Pnytagoras. According to [1. 99-101] the result of this union was the future king Pnytagoras II, whose son was Nicocreon [2]. Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 Beloch, GG 4,2 2 LGPN 1, 335, nr. 1. [German version] [2] King of the town of Salamis on Cyprus, 332/1 BC Son of Pnytagor…

Eumenes

(1,504 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Εὐμένης; Euménēs). [German version] [1] Chancellor of Philippos II and Alexander the Gr. * 362/1, Son of Hieronymus of Cardia, from 342 onwards chancellor for the Macedonian king Philip II and then for Alexander III, for whom he kept the ephemerides (Nep. Eumenes 1,4-6; Plut. Eumenes 1,4; Arr. Anab. 7,4,6; Ath. 10,434b). In 326, E. was strategos on a military mission in north-western India and then he was the trierarch of the Indus fleet (Arr. Anab. 5,24,6, Ind. 18,7; Curt. 9,1,19). At the mass wedding in Susa in 324, E. was probably the only Greek…

Praktor

(313 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(πράκτωρ/ práktōr, πρακτήρ/ praktḗr: Poll. 8,114, 'executor', 'manager', from práttein, 'do'). [German version] I. Classical Period Greek official of a state executory authority, who, on instruction, recovered state claims, particularly fines. In Athens ten práktores chosen by lot annually were in service. Informed by the authorized court magistrate of penalties imposed, they entered them in the list kept on the Acropolis when state debtors did not pay immediately (IG II2 45; And. 1,77-79; Dem. Or. 25,4; 25,28; 43,71) [1. 270 f.]. An authority of the same name wi…
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