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Melinophagi

(55 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μελινοφάγοι/ Melinophágoi; ‘Millet-eaters’). Greek name of a Thracian tribe located between Salmydessus and Byzantium. According to Xen. An. 7,2, the M. settled to the east of the Melanditae, Thyni and Tranipsii (cf. Theop. FGrH 115 F 223). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography T. Spiridonov, Istoriceska geografija na trakijskite plemena, 1983, 41, 108 f.

Edones

(349 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἠδωνοί; Ēdōnoí, Ἠδῶνες; Ēdônes). Thracian tribe on the lower reaches of the Strymon and on the Pangaeum. Their region was rich in mines and forests and therefore much embattled. Records of the E. exist for the 6th to the 4th cent. BC. They were subjugated in Megabazus' first European campaign. The Milesian tyrant Histiaeus received the settlement of Myrcinus from Darius and had a city built in its place (Hdt. 5,11; 23; 124). His son-in-law Aristagoras [1] fell in the fight against t…

Bisanthe

(127 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars (Βισάνθη; Bisánthē). Town on the Propontis, later Resisthon (both names in Plin. HN 4,43; 48; cf. It. Ant. 176,1), modern Rodosto; possibly a foundation from Samos (Mela 2,24). Hdt. 7,137 mentions B. for 484 BC, when it was part of Sitalces' kingdom. Later, it was possibly in the possession of Alcibiades (Nep. Alc. 7,4), then part of the kingdom of Seuthes II, who offered B., together with Ganus and Neon Teichos to Xenophon (Xen. An. 7,2,38). Fortified by Justinian (Procop. Aed. 4,9; 17: Rhaidestos); destroyed by K…

Agathyrsi

(161 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀγάθυρσοι; Agáthyrsoi). Scythian or northern Thracian tribe on the upper reaches of the Mureş, north-east of the  Neuri (Hdt. 4,48; 4,100; 102). For Scythian-Agathyrsian relations, see Hdt. 4,78: Spargapeithes, a king of the A.; 4,119; 125). Because of the importance of the Dacian tribes, little mention is made of the A. around the end of the 1st cent. BC (Ptol. 3,5,10). For the mythological eponymous hero Ἀγάθυρσος ( Agáthyrsos) in the Greek version of the Scythian myth regarding their origin, see Hdt. 4,10. Later references are strongly depende…

Crestones

(148 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κρηστῶνες, Κρηστωναῖοι, Γραστῶνες). Thracian tribe located south-east of the Mygdonia and in the south up to Lake Bolbe (Aristot. Mir. 122). Xerxes marched through their land on his approach from  Acanthus [1] to  Therme. The stream Echeidoros which rises near the C. could not provide enough water for his army (Hdt. 7,124; 127). At that time, the C. were led by a Bisaltaean king, which may point to the existence of an anti-Persian military alliance (Hdt. 8,116). The C. lived in s…

Nestus

(226 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Νέστος/ Néstos, Μέστος/ Méstos, Νέσσος/ Néssos). [German version] [1] River in Thrace River in Thrace which rises in the Rila mountain range, (according to mistaken classical belief from the Scomius mountains, the present-day Vitoša Mountains, : Aristot. Mete. 1,13,350b 16f.) and after 234 km flows through the swampy delta area near Abdera [1] and into the Aegean (Hdt. 7,109; Theophr. Hist. pl. 3,1,5; Ps.-Skyl. 67). N. is already known as a river god in Hes. Theog. 341. In Roman times, N. was the border between the provinces of Macedonia and Thracia. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Biss…

Eion

(204 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
(ᾘών; Ēiṓn). [German version] [1] City on the left shore of the Strymon This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars (ἡ ἐπὶ Στρυμόνι). City on the left shore of the Strymon, harbour of Amphipolis (Thuc. 1,98; Dem. Or. 12,23; 23,199), archaeological traces near Ofrini (Greece). Phoenix is said to have been buried there by Neoptolemus (Lycoph. 417 with schol.). It became a military base under Darius I and was used as a supply camp under Xerxes, commanded by  …

Myrmecium

(235 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Patricius (Μυρμήκιον; Myrmḗkion). Harbour town on the European shore of the Bosporus [2] on Cape M. (Μ. ἄκρον; M. ákron), founded in the second quarter of the 6th cent. BC. It is uncertain whether M. had been an autonomous Ionian colony or a foundation by Panticapaeum (Ps.-Scyl. 68; Str. 7,4,5).  It is located close to the modern Karantinnaya. Quite early on, M. joined the  Bosporan League, led by Panticapaeum. M. experienced its greatest prosperity in the Hellen…

Venethi

(180 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] People between the central reaches of the Vistula (modern Wisła, German Weichsel) and the modern Daugava (German Düna), to the north of the Sarmatae and the Sciri (Plin. HN 4,97; Tac. Germ. 46,2; Ptol. 3,5,19: Οὐενέδαι/ Ouenédai). According to Iord. Get. 34 they settled between the Peucini and the Fenni and incorporated various Slav tribes in the region. It is assumed that the V. were bearers of the Przeworsk culture (2nd-6th cents. AD). From the term V. the name for a Slavonic people, the Wends, developed. It is un…

Sestus

(242 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Thraci, Thracia | Colonization | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Σηστός/ Sēstós). City on the European shore of the Hellespont (Hom. Il. 2,836) where it is narrowest (known as the Heptastádion, Str. 2,5,22; 7a,1,52), connected over a stretch of about 60 m by walls with the anchorage of Apobathra (Theop. FGrH 115 F 390; Str. 13,1,22), probably near modern Yalıkavat. Founded c. 600 BC on the site of a Thracian settlement by Lesbos (Ps.-Scymn. 709 f.). It was …

Aprus

(68 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia Originally Thracian settlement on the   via Egnatia , near the modern Kestridze at the turn-off towards Aenus and Thracian Chersonesus (Plin. HN 4,47; Ptol. 3,11,7; on vessels found at Rogozen). Seat of a bishopric; in 312 noted by Hierocles as Theodosioupolis. Incursions by  Goths (Procop. Goth. 8,27,8). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Albani

(148 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀλβανοί; Albanoí). Group of tribes in  Albania (Str. 11,4), in modern Dagestan. They fought with  Darius against  Alexander III [4] (Arr. Anab. 3,8,5; 11,4; 13,1). A. appear again in connection with the 3rd Mithridatic War (74 to 63 BC): Oroizes, the king of A., attacked Pompey in 65 BC with 60,000 men infantry and 22,000 riders at Cyrus (today Kura), when the former was on the march from Armenia to the Caspian Sea through their land. Beaten, they made peace with Rome (Liv. Per. 1…

Thyni

(231 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Θυνοί/ Thynoí). Thracian tribe in the southeast of Thrace (Thraci, Thracia), to the north of Perinthus and Selymbria on the upper reaches of the Agrianes (modern Ergene; cf. Xen. An. 7,2,22; 7,4,2) probably as far as the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos) coast to the north of Salmydessus [2]. Herodotus does not mention the T. among the tribes subjugated by Darius [1] I in Thrace in 513 BC, and this suggests that they did not consolidate there until after the withdrawal of the Achaemenid…

Apulum

(181 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Daci, Dacia | Legio | Limes Capital of  Dacia Apulensis, in southern Transylvania on the Mureçs; important crossroads (Ptol. 3,8,4), today's Alba Julia. Economy based on agriculture and gold ore. Under  Trajanus the camp ( c. 24-30 hectares in size) of the legio XIII Gemina was here. To the south the municipium Aurelium Apulense (CIL III 986), under Emperor Commodus colonia Aurelia Apulensis. Nearby, the colonia Nova Apulensis (inscription of AD 250) developed over an older Dacian sett…

Xanthi

(45 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ξάνθοι; Xánthoi). Thracian people (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 180), whose location cannot be determined; mentioned in Str. 13,1,21 in a list of Thracian/Trojan homonyms as a parallel to the River Xanthus (Hom. Il. 20,74; Scamander) in the Troad. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Tearus

(171 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Τέαρος/ Téaros). Tributary of the Contadescus (modern Kaynarca), which in turn flows into the Agrianes, a tributary of the Hebrus. According to Hdt. the T. had healing water from 38 springs, some warm, some cold; the area of the source was two days' journey both from Apollonia [2] on the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos) and from Heraeum near Perinthus on the Propontis. On his campaign against the Scythae in 513 BC Darius [1] I erected a column with  inscription on the T. (Hdt. 4,89 f.)…

Beos

(50 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βέος; Béos). Ancient settlement between Aprus and Resisto, today's Bunarli. The name B. often appears on products of Thracian Hellenistic toreutic: Rogozen, Vraza, Borovo and Agighiol. Probably identical with the mutatio Bedizus (IH 570,1; 601,9). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography G. Mihailov, Rogozen Linguistique Balkanique 1, 1987, 5-19.

Dolonci

(119 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Δόλογκοι; Dólonkoi). Thracian group of tribes that settled on the  Chersonesus [1] in the 6th/5th cents. BC. Harassed by the Apsinthii in the north, the D. on the advice of the Delphic Oracle in 561/560 BC brought in  Miltiades [1], who was considered the oikistḗs. He arrived in the Chersonesus with political opponents of Peisistratus and ruled over them as tyrant. His second successor, Miltiades [2], fled at the Scythian invasion of the Chersonesus (516/5), but was then recalled by the D. (Hdt. 6,34-40 [1. 79-82, 565-567]…

Sindi

(174 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σινδοί/ Sindoí). Population of Sindice on the Taman peninsula to the north of the river Hypanis between the Toretae, the Dandarii and the Psessi with capital Sindus (or Sindicus Limen: Str. 11,2,14; Ps.-Scymn. 888; cf. Hdt. 4,28; Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 69). Their culture exhibits considerable Scythian elements. Because of their strong relations with the Regnum Bosporanum they became intensively Hellenized at an early stage. Kings and coins are known from the 5th century BC onwards. T…

Strymon

(109 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Στρυμών; Strymṓn). Thracian-Macedonian river, which rises in the Scombrus mountains (Hdt. 8,115), flows through the settlement areas of the Maedi, the Agrianes, the Laeii, the Sinti, the Bisaltae and the Odomanti (Thuc. 2,96,3; Str. 7,7,4), then through the Prasias Limne and, after 408 km, into the Aegean Sea to the west of Eion, modern Struma. The S. was navigable in its lower reaches. Xerxes had a bridge built over the S. at Ennea Hodoi (later Amphipolis) in 481 BC (Hdt. 7,24-25…

Arethusa

(416 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Ἀρέθουσα; Aréthousa). Frequent name for springs. [German version] [1] Spring on Homer's Ithaca Spring on Homer's  Ithaca, where the swine of  Eumaeus graze (Hom. Od. 13,408; Plut. Mor. 776 E; Steph. Byz. s. v. A.). To identify A. with the spring of Perapigadi on the modern Ithaka, 5 km south-east of Vathy, is speculative. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography A. Heubeck, A commentary on Homer's Odyssey, 1992, 189 f. A. J. Wace, F. H. Stubbings, A companion to Homer, 1963, 414-416. [German version] [2] Name for the main spring of Chalkis on Euboia The name handed down by numerou…

Bisaltae

(114 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βισάλται; Bisáltai). Thracian tribe west of the Strymon and the Crestones, south of the Maedi and the Derrones. Silver mines and political independence enabled them to mint their own coins at the end of the 6th/beginning of the 5th cent. BC. At that time, the B. ruled over the Crestones (Thuc. 4,109) and fought against the Persians (Hdt. 8,116). A military leader by the name of Naris, who had supposedly captured Cardia, is mentioned by Charon (FGrH 262 F 9). The power of Athens and later of the Macedonians put an end to the political influence of the B. von Bredow, Iris (Bieti…

Cypsela

(125 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium (Κύψελα; Kýpsela, Cypsala). Inland Thracian town on the lower left bank of the  Hebrus at the via Egnatia (Str. 7,7,4), in a very marshy area (Str. 7,7,4; 6; 7a,1,9f.; 48; 57), mod. Ipsala. In the 4th cent. BC, C. was residence and mint of the  Odrysae dynasty. Because it was in Ptolemaic possession, the town was besieged by  Antiochus [3] II in 254 BC (Polyaenus, Strat. 4,16); in c. 200 BC, it was taken by Philip V. In 188 BC, Cn. Manlius Vulso was attacked by Thracians near C. In the Byzantine perio…

Colchis

(404 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Κολχίς; Kolchís, Lat. Colchis). [German version] I. Historical overview from early times Area of the east coast of the Black Sea ( Pontos Euxeinos) stretching as far as western Transcaucasia, bordered to the north by the Great Caucasus and by Meskheti to the south. The favourable climatic and soil conditions (fertile river valleys, forests and a proliferation of natural resources) meant that advanced civilizations emerged in C. as early as the 3rd millennium BC. Kulcha is mentioned in Urartian documents together with the capital city Ildamuša (which flourished in the 8th cent.…

Cercine

(121 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κερκίνη; Kerkínē). Uninhabited mountain chain forming the border between Sinti and Maedi in the south and Paeones in the north, through which in 429 BC  Sitalces marched to Doberus against the Macedonian King Perdiccas II. To that end, he himself had to have a path built through the mountains (Thuc. 2,98,1f.). The C. are equated with the mountain ridges of Belasica, Orbelos, or Kruša in the border region between Macedonia and Thrace. It is possible though that the name C. refers t…

Gepidae, Gepidi

(393 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Γήπαιδες; Gḗpaides). Germanic tribe, related to the  Goti according to Iord. Get. 17,94. The original area of settlement was located in the Vistula-Nogat Delta. Groups of G. began to move south-east from the 2nd half of the 3rd cent. AD onward. In 249, the son of Philippus Arabs was defeated by the G. in Dacia (Chron. pasch. 503 de Boor). The G. participated in the great anti-Roman coalition of the Germani in c. 263. C. 290, battles erupted between the G. and the Vandali against the Taifali and the Visigoths (Pan. Lat. 287 Baerens). The G. took part in…

Thynias

(102 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Θυνιάς; Thyniás). Cape, about 36 km to the north of Salmydessus [2] (Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 37; Mela 2,23), modern Cape Iğneada, or bay (Str. 7,6,1: T. chṓra = 'area of land'; Str. 12,3,3: T. aktḗ = 'coast'; Hecat. FGrH 1 F 166; Scymn. 728 f.; Ptol. 3,11,4) on the southwestern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos). The bay provided a good place of anchorage in the territory of Apollonia [2] (Scymn. 728). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography D. Müller, Topografischer Bildkommentar zu den Historien Herodots: Kleinasien, 1997, 922-924  B. Isaac, The G…

Dynamis

(110 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Δύναμις; Dýnamis). Daughter of Pharnaces; wife and successor of Asander. For a short time autonomous queen of the  Bosporan kingdom. Her second husband was the anti-Roman  Scribonius; he died during the attack of Agrippa [1] and Polemon, whom D. had to marry on Roman orders (in 14 BC, Cass. Dio 54,24,4-6). Shortly afterwards she retired with her son  Aspurgus (perhaps to the residence found 15 km from Novorosijsk). Augustus restored her to the throne after the death of Polemon. Sh…

Prytanis

(180 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
(Πρύτανις). [English version] [1] myth. König von Sparta Mythischer König von Sparta, angeblich Sohn des Eurypon (Hdt. 8,131), der als Stammvater des Hauses der Eurypontidai galt. Der Stammbaum ist aber ebenso wie der der Agiadai vor dem 6. Jh. v. Chr. fiktiv. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [English version] [2] König des Regnum Bosporanum 310-309 v. Chr. König des Regnum Bosporanum 310-309 v. Chr., jüngster Sohn des Pairisades [1] I., kämpfte nach dem Tod seines Bruders Satyros II. gegen seinen ältesten Bruder Eumelos [4] (Diod. 20,22-24). Nach dem…

Chersonesos

(925 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
(Χερσόνησος). [English version] [1] h. Halbinsel Gallipoli Die h. Halbinsel Gallipoli (über 900 km2); mit vorgesch. Siedlungsspuren, strategisch günstig gelegen und fruchtbar. Erstmals bei Hom. Il. 2,844f. als Heimat der Thraker Akamas und Peiroos erwähnt. Aiol. Kolonisation im 7.Jh. v.Chr (Alopekonnesos, Madytos, Sestos), die ion. (Kardia, Limnai von Miletos und Klazomenai, Elaius von Teos) etwas später. Die starken thrak. Stämme (Apsinthoi, Dolonkoi) blieben noch lange feindlich. Um die Ch. zu schützen, l…

Pagrai

(75 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Πάγραι). Hafensiedlung an der kaukasischen Küste des Pontos Euxeinos, 180 Stadien von Hieros Limen (Arr. per. p.E. 28; Anon. peripl. m. Eux. 10r 9; evtl. identisch mit Torikos bei Skyl. peripl. m. Eux. 74), beim h. Gelenǧik, 43 km südöstl. des h. Novorossijsk. Gehörte wohl zum Regnum Bosporanum. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V.F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 237f.  D.D. und G.T. Kacharava, Goroda i poseleniya Pričernomor'ya antičnoy epochi, 1991, 207, 280f.

Bistones

(82 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Βίστονες). Thrakischer Stamm am Aigaion Pelagos um die Βιστονὶς λίμνη ( Bistonís límnē) bis zum Unterlauf des Nestos; Nachbarn der Kikones und Sapaioi. In ihrem Gebiet wurden Abdera, Dikaia und Stryme gegründet. Nur als Durchgangsstation des persischen Heeres genannt (Hdt. 7,110). Vielfach in myth. Erzählungen und Genealogien gen. (Strab. 7 fr. (43) 44 nennt von Diomedes beherrschte B. auf Thasos; Val. Fl. 3,159: Heimatland des Orpheus). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography A. Fol, T. Spiridonov, Istoričeska geografija, 1983, 24, 78.

Nestos

(196 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Νέστος, Μέστος, Νέσσος). [English version] [1] Fluß in Thrakien Fluß in Thrakien, der im Rila-Gebirge entspringt (nach ant. Vorstellung fälschlicherweise aus dem Skomios, h. Vitoša-Gebirge: Aristot. meteor. 1,13,350b 16f.) und nach 234 km in einem Sumpfdelta bei Abdera [1] in die Ägäis mündet (Hdt. 7,109; Theophr. h. plant. 3,1,5; Ps.-Skyl. 67). Als Flußgott ist N. schon Hes. theog. 341 bekannt. In röm. Zeit Grenze zw. den Prov. Macedonia und Thracia. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography B. Isaac, The Greek Settlements in Thrace until the Macedonian Co…

Beos

(48 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Βέος). Ant. Siedlung zw. Apros und Resisto, h. Bunarli, deren Name oft auf Werken thrak. hell. Toreutik auftritt: Rogozen, Vraza, Borovo und Agighiol. Wohl identisch mit der mutatio Bedizos (IH 570,1; 601,9). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography G. Mihailov, Rogozen Linguistique Balkanique 1, 1987, 5-19.

Olbia

(966 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meloni, Piero (Cagliari) | Et al.
(Ὀλβία). [English version] [1] Milesische Kolonie Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Apollon | Handel | Hellenistische Staatenwelt | Kolonisation | Regnum Bosporanum | Regnum Bosporanum | Roma | Roma | Schwarzmeergebiet | Skythen | Thrakes, Thrake, Thraci | Wein Milesische Kolonie (Kolonisation) südl. vom h. Parutino (Ukraine) am Zusammenfluß von Hypanis und Borysthenes (Ps.-Skymn. 808f.), daher auch Borysthenes (Βορυσθένης) genannt (Hdt. 4,24; 78), gegr. Anf. des 6. Jh.v.Chr. (Hdt. 4,18,5: Ὀλβιοπολῖται; Ps.-Skymn. 813f.)…

Odomantoi

(98 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Ὀδόμαντοι). Thrakischer Stamm am Ostufer des unteren Strymon am Westfuß des Pangaion (Strab. 7a,1,36) in der Gegend des h. Serres (Nordgriechenland). Die O. waren an der Ausbeutung der Goldbergwerke beteiligt (Hdt. 7,112; Thuk. 2,101,3). Megabazos [1], dem Feldherrn des Dareios, gelang es 512 v.Chr. nicht, die O. zu unterwerfen (Hdt. 5,16). Ein König der O., Polles, stellte 425 v.Chr. den Spartanern ein Söldnerheer (Thuk. 5,6,2). Nach 424 v.Chr. wurden sie von den Makedonen unterworfen. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography Chr. Danov, Altthr…

Konstantinopolis

(1,554 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
( Constantinopolis). [English version] I. Lage Residenzstadt, 324 n.Chr. von Constantinus [1] d.Gr. an der Stelle von Byzantion gegr. Im Norden vom Goldenen Horn, im Osten vom Bosporos [1] und im Süden vom Hellespontos begrenzt, war K. nur von einer Landseite her angreifbar. Durch seine Lage beherrschte K. Handel und Verkehr zw. Europa und Asien, zw. der Ägäis und dem Schwarzen Meer (Pontos Euxeinos; Herodian. 3,1,5; Pol. 4,38-45). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [English version] II. Topographie Die Stadtplanung folgte nicht dem üblichen kaiserzeitlichen Schema…

Iyrkai

(102 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Ἰύρκαι, Hdt. 4,22; Tyrcae, Plin. nat. 6,19; Mela, 1,116). Jägervolk östl. der Thyssagetai, im Osten des Tanais, wohl im Uralgebiet, in den Ebenen von Kama, Vjatka, Belaja und Wolga. Genaue Lokalisierung und ethnische Bestimmung sind umstritten und auf Grund der Quellen nicht auszumachen. Die russ. Forsch. verbindet die I. mit der Ananino-Kultur (8.-3. Jh. v.Chr.), von der Grabhügel und befestigte Siedlungen bekannt sind und deren Tauschhandel bis an den Kaukasos reichte. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography J. Harmatta, Quellenstud. zu d…

Haemimontus

(75 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] One of the six provinces of the diocese of Thrace with the capital  Hadrianopolis [3]. It comprised the territory on the Danube between the confluence with the Vit and the delta, the western Pontic coast up to Constantinople (excluding the city itself), the Propontis and the northern Aegean to the mouth of the Nestus. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. Velkov, Cities in Thrace and Dacia in Late Antiquity, 1977, 61 Soustal, Thrakien.

Zerynthus

(183 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ζήρυνθος/ Zḗrynthos, Ζηρυνθία/ Zērynthía). City with a grotto (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ζήρυνθος) to the west of the mouth of the Hebrus (modern Marica; Liv. 41,38,4; Nicander, Theriaka 461f.) on the coast (Ov. Trist. 1,10,19: Zerynthia litora) of the Thracian peraia of Samothrace; there was a grotto sanctuary Z. on Samothrace as well (schol. Aristoph. Pax 277b α 3f.). The cult connected with the two Z.es was that of the goddess Zerynthia (Lycophron, Alexandra 958: Μήτηρ Ζηρυνθία/ Mḗtēr Zērynthía), probably a Thracian chthonic deity with a local epiclesis, who wa…

Panticapes

(89 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Παντικάπης; P antik ápēs). Iranian name for the Bosporus [2] (Ps.-Scymn. 850; Eust. Ad Dion. Per. 311; Steph. Byz. s.v. Παντικάπαιον/ Pantikápaion), which gave Panticapaeum its name; it probably means  “fish road”. In Hdt. 4,18 it is the strait itself that is meant by the river P.; this reflects the idea that the Tanais flows into the Pontus Euxinus to the south of Lake Maeotis (Arr. Per. p. E. 29). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography E. Diehl, s.v. Pandikapes, PE, 825f.  V.I. Abaev, Osetinskij jazyk i folklor, 1949, 170, 175.

Tralleis

(628 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] Tribe in the south of Illyricum (Τράλλεις, Τράλλοι/ Trálleis, Trálloi). Tribe in the south of Illyricum, which, according to Hesych. s.v. Τραλλεῖς was of Thracian origin, but to Steph. Byz. (s.v. Βῆγις; Βόλουρος; Τραλλία) and Liv. (27,32,4; 31,35,1: Tralles; 38,21,2: Tralli) was of Illyrian extraction. The T. were known as mercenaries in Hellenistic armies (Diod. Sic. 17,65,1; Liv. 37,19; Hesych. loc. cit.). The towns of Begis and Bulorus were situated in their territory (according to Steph. Byz. loc. cit.). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) …

Cerdylium

(41 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κερδύλιον; Kerdýlion). Elevated settlement on the right bank of the Strymon within the territory of Argilus near  Amphipolis in Thrace. There Brasidas took up position against the Athenians in 422 BC (Thuc. 5,6,3ff.). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Phasis

(683 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
(Φάσις; Phásis). [German version] [1] River in the southwestern Caucasus River in the southwestern Caucasus that flowed into the Pontos Euxeinos near Ph. [2], present-day Rioni. Its estuary shifted several times, resulting in the growth of the mainland (cf. Str. 1,3,7). An ocean bay at the estuary of the P. is mentioned by Ptol. 5,10,1. The P. is first mentioned by Hesiod (Hes. Theog. 337-344). It was navigable over a course of 180 stadia (Ps.-Scyl. 81). The river's upper course was a rapid mountain strea…

Tauri

(255 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ταῦροι/ Taûroi). Pre-Scythian people on the Chersonesus [2] (Crimea), probably descendants of the bearers of the Kizil-Koba culture, in the 7th/6th cent. BC driven by the Scythae and Greek colonists into the inland hills. They occupied themselves especially with agriculture and animal husbandry; there is evidence of trade with Greek poleis only from the 4th cent. BC onwards. A goddess worshipped among the T. was identified by the Greeks with Artemis or Iphigenia (Hdt. 4,103). In 513 BC the T. declined to help the Scythae against…

Palacium

(57 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Παλάκιον; Palákion). Scythian fortress in the steppe region of the Crimea (Str. 7,4,7); together with the fortified settlements Chabon and Neapolis it was founded by Scilurus and his sons (Str. 7,4,3). The Scythians used P. as a base against Mithridates [5] V. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V.F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 309.

Hunni

(847 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Οὖννοι; Oûnnoi, Χοῦννοι; Choûnnoi), the Huns. [German version] A. History Nomadic people, origin debatable. In all probability they came from central Asia shortly after the time of Christ. As Χοῦννοι ( Choûnnoi) first mentioned in Ptol. 3,5,25 between  Bastarnae and Roxolani (additional later localizations in Amm. Marc. 2,1; Iord. Get. 36f.). Some of the Hunnic tribes moved to the Caucasus region; from the eastern Hunnic branch, several states emerged (Hephthalitae, Avares, Chazars and Protobulgarians). Around AD 376 Hunnic …

Hermonaktos kome

(73 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἑρμώνακτος κώμη; Hermṓnaktos kṓmē). Settlement at the mouth of the  Tyras (Str. 7,3,16) or at a distance of c. 16.5 km from it (Ptol. Geog. 3,10,7). Perhaps identical with the remains of an ancient settlement near modern Kosovka. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography M. V. Arbunov, K voprosu o lokalizacii bašni Neoptolema u Germonaktovoj derevni [On the problem of locating the tower of Neoptolemos and H.K.], in: VDI 1, 1978, 43-51.

Maedi

(270 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μαῖδοι, Μαίδοι; Maîdoi, Maídoi, M(a)edi). Thracian tribal league on the middle reaches of the Strymon, between Kresna and Rupel (modern Macedonia). According to the earliest witness (Thuc. 2,98), neighbours of the Sinti and Paeoni. In 429 BC, Sitalces moved through their territory, which did not belong to the kingdom of the Odrysae, against the Macedons. After the withdrawal of Sitalces, the M. expanded their tribal territory to the north, probably subjugated the Dentheleti and estab…

Polemon

(1,776 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Πολέμων/ Polémōn). [German version] [1] Academic philosopher, 4th-3rd cents. BC Academic philosopher, born c. 350, died probably in 276/5 BC. Xenocrates [2] introduced him to philosophy (legendary account of his vocation in Diog. Laert. 4,16 f.). P. succeeded him as head of the Academy. He taught Crates [3] and Crantor, as well as the Stoics Zeno of Citium and Ariston [7] of Chios. Very little remains of his many writings mentioned in ancient sources (Diog. Laert. 4,20; Suda s. v. Π 1887) (fr. collected in …

Bastarnae, Basternae

(289 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg)
[German version] Germanic tribal group (Plin. HN 4,81; Str. 7,3,17) originally from the upper Vistula (face urns). Since c. 233 BC, they have been found in the area between Olbia and the Danube delta (IOSPE 12 32; Pomp. Trog. 28). In the period before the change from BC to AD, the B. were one of the largest south-east Germanic tribes. The B. who settled in the Carpathian Basin until late antiquity were known under the name of Peucini. In 182 BC, Philip V required the B. to move into the area of the Dardani. In 179, they attacked …

Tyras

(182 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Thraci, Thracia | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Patricius | Rome | Rome (Τύρας/ Týras). Colony of Miletus [2] on the northwestern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos), modern Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi, at the mouth of the river of the same name, modern Dnister (Ps.-Skymn. 7,98; 7,802 f.; Plin. HN. 4,82). The Ionian character of the polis is confirmed by inscriptions (IOSPE I2 2-19), the calendar and the cult of Apollo Ietrus. The date of foundatio…

Cotys

(1,209 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Κότυς; Kótys). I. Hellenistic period [German version] [I 1] Important king of the Odrysae 383/2-360/59 BC Important king of the  Odrysae 383/2-360/59 BC (Suda s.v. C.; characterization in Ath. 12,531e-532a), successor to Hebryzelmis [1]. C.'s diplomatic and military skill -- suppression of the uprisings of Adamas (Aristot. Pol. 1311b) and Miltocythes (Dem. Or. 23,115) -- led to a consolidation and expansion of the kingdom of the Odrysae. With the help of his son-in-law, the Athenian mercenary leader  Iphicra…

Agathopolis

(123 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀγαθόπολις; Agathópolis). Modern Ahtopol on the western coast of the Black Sea. Inscriptions on coins allow a probable trace of the name to the 5th cent. BC; according to Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 36 Aulaiou teichos, Ptol. 3,11,3 Perontikon, Geographus Ravennas 4,6,2-5 Burtinum; from Middle Ages verified as A. Traces of settlements from the aeneolithic period onward; in the 3rd/2nd cents. BC Greek polis (IGBulg 474-478). It was integrated into the Roman province of  Thracia in the midd…

Cimmerii

(943 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κιμμέριοι; Kimmérioi, Lat. Cimmerii). Nomadic tribe probably of Iranian descent, attested for the 8th/7th cents. BC. The Assyrian and Babylonian forms of the name were Ga-mir, Gi-mir-a-a and similar; in the OT they were referred to as gmr, in the Masora Gȯmär. According to a document from the time of Sargon II [1. no. 30-32], the Urartian King Rusa I invaded the land of Gami(ra) (between 720 and 714 BC) and was defeated there. A further document from the same period attests to a Cimmerian intrusion into  Urartu from the region south of La…

Scupi

(504 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Macedonia, Macedones | Moesi, Moesia | Rome (Σκοῦποι/ Skoûpoi, Lat. Scupi). [German version] I. Location, Roman Period City of the Illyrian Dardani [4] on the Axius, on the road from Stobi to Naissus (Ptol. 3,9,6; 8,11,5; Scunis, Tab. Peut. 7,4; Hierocles, Synecdemos 655,8), 5 km northwest of present-day Skopje. S. was a Roman colonia beginning in the Flavian Period (AD 69-96; ILS 2461), fortified under Hadrianus (ILS 3860). As evidenced by veteran inscriptions, S.…

Regnum Bosporanum

(1,439 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
The 'Bosporan kingdom' on the northern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos), the heart of which was the Kerč peninsula on the so-called Cimmerian Bosporus [2], called Kimmerikòs Bósporos or simply Bósporos (Diod. Sic. 12,36; 20,22). Cf. the two maps below. [German version] I. The founding of the kingdom The Greek cities on the straits of Kerč joined together c. 480 BC under the leadership of Panticapaeum, probably originally as a protective alliance against the native Scythians. The first dynasty was the Archaeanactids, whose founder Archaeanax proba…

Limnae

(329 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Λίμναι; Límnai). [German version] [1] Oldest sanctuary to Dionysus in the municipal area of Athens Oldest sanctuary to Dionysus ἐν Λίμναις ( en Límnais) in the municipal area of Athens south of the Acropolis (Thuc. 2,15,4), now localized in the area of the Makrygianni/Chatzchristou streets [2. 332 fig. 219, 379, 435]. The identification with a triangular temenos on the south-western slope of the Areopagus [1; 3] is obsolete [2. 274f. fig. 351]. The sanctuary was opened only on the second day of the Anthesteria, the 12th day of the month of Anthesterion. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliograph…

Pythodoris

(321 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
(Πυθοδωρίς/ Pythodōrís). [German version] [1] P. Philometor Daughter of the Asiarch Pythodorus [4], wife of Polemon [4] I c. 12 BC (Π. Φιλομήτωρ/ P. Philomḗtōr). Daughter of the Asiarch Pythodorus [4] of Tralleis and Antonia [2]; after the divorce of Polemon [4] I from Dynamis, P. became his wife ( c. 12 BC). She had three children, of whom Zeno and Antonia [7] Tryphaena are known by name (IGR 4,144). When Polemon d. 8 BC, P. inherited his kingdom, thus becoming queen of Pontus, Colchis and the Regnum Bosporanum (Str. 12,3,29). When Dynamis ass…

Mastusia

(30 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μαστουσία/ Mastousía, Μαζουσία/ Mazousía). Unidentified location on the southern tip of the Thracian Chersonnesus [1] (Str. 7, fr. 52; Ptol. 3,2,9; 12,1; Mela 2,2,25). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Scombrus

(47 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σκόμβρος; Skómbros). Heavily forested mountains with ore deposits in the west of Thrace (Thuc. 2,96,3; Scopius, Plin. HN 4,35), modern Vitoša south of Sofia. Aristot. Mete. 350b 16f. mistakenly locates the sources of the  Nestus [1] and the Hebrus there. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Pagrae

(82 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Πάγραι; Págrai). Port settlement on the Caucasian coast of the Pontos Euxeinos, 180 stadia from Hieros Limen (Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 28; Anon. Peripl. m. Eux. 10r 9; possibly identical with Toricus in Scyl. Peripl. m. Eux. 74), near modern Gelenǧik, 43 km to the southeast of modern Novorossiysk. Probably part of the Regnum Bosporanum. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V.F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 237f.  D.D. and G.T. Kacharava, Goroda i poseleniya Pričernomor'ya antičnoy epochi, 1991, 207, 280f.

Treres

(126 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Τρῆρες/ Trêres, Τρᾶρες/ Trâres). Thracian tribe, located in the Plain of Serdica (modern Sofia) to the north of the Scombros (modern Vitoša) Mountains and to the west of the River Oescus [1] (modern Iskăr). In the kingdom of the Odrysae they were among the northwestern border tribes. They were neighbours of the Triballi and the Tilataei (Thuc. 2,96,6; Str. 1,3,18; Plin. HN 4,35). According to Str. (1,3,21; 13,1,8; 14,1,40) they were supposed to have been among the Cimmerii who migrated to Asia Minor. Ancient oriental sources do not mention them, however. von Bredow, I…

Eunones

(57 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] King of the Aorsi, supported C.  Iulius Aquila and  Cotys I against  Mithridates IX. However after the capture of Uspe, he received the latter but handed him over later on the condition that his life would be spared (Tac. Ann. 12,15-20).  Aorsi von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 342f.

Melanchlaeni

(108 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg)
[German version] (Μελάγχλαινοι; Melánchlainoi). Greek designation (‘those dressed in black’) of a tribe whose region of settlement was 20 days' journey from the Pontos Euxeinos (Hdt. 4,101), bordering to the south the ‘royal’ Scythians (Hdt. 4,20), to the west the Androphagi (Hdt. 4,100) and to the east the Geloni and Budini. North of them there were said to be only swamps and lakes. Although they were supposedly not Scythians (Hdt. 4,20, contra Hecat. FGrH 1 F 185), they are said to have lived according to Scythian customs (Hdt. 4,108). No more precise localisation or ethnicity is known. v…

Bosporus

(736 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg)
(Βόσπορος; Bósporos). [German version] [1] Early link between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean In Turkish, İstanbul Boğazi or Boğaziçi. There is debate over the B.'s geological genesis: the lack of marine fossils argues for it to have originated from a valley floor, while marine biological evidence suggests an early link between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean (Izmit -- Sapanca Gölü -- Sakarya), from which the masses of water were pushed back, by the silt build-up, to the depression of the B. The B. is the source of saltwater for the Black Sea (average influx per annum 193 km3); 31.7 k…

Athyras

(74 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀθύρας; Athýras). Small river, which flows into the Propontis west of Byzantium, today Kara-su (Plin. HN 4,47; according to Ptol. 3,11,4 several branches). In the late Roman era, the fortified harbour settlement (Amm. Marc. 22,8,8) was restored by Justinian (Procop. Aed. 4,8,18). The fortified stone bridge, which was destroyed by Krum in 812, was famous. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. Zlatarski, Istorija na bălgarskata dăržava prez srednite vekove 1,1, 21994, 275.

Mimas

(231 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Μίμας). [German version] [1] Titan Giant, killed either by Zeus' thunderbolt in the fight to rule Olympus (Eur. Ion 212ff.), or by Ares' lance, after M. had torn the island of Lemnos out of the sea and hurled it at the god (Apoll. Rhod. 3,1227 with scholia). The field of battle was Phlegra on the Macedonian peninsula of Pallene; the struggle of M. and the Giants against other gods such as Pallas Athena and Hera was equally fruitless (schol. Apoll. Rhod. loc. cit.; Hor. Carm. …

Traianopolis

(254 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Τραιανόπολις; Traianópolis). [German version] [1] City in the Hebrus plain This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | Thraci, Thracia | Rome Founded by Traianus [1] at the beginning of the 2nd cent. AD on the northern coast of the Aegean (Aegean Sea) in the plain of the lower Hebrus on the site of Doriscus on the via Egnatia (Ptol. 3,11,13; It. Ant. 175,1-9), modern Loutrós. Minting of its own coins is documented. After Diocletianus' administrative reform, T. was one of the most important cities in the province of Rho…

Skardon oros

(103 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σκάρδον ὄρος/ Skárdon óros; Latin mons Scordus). High mountains, placed by Str. 7a,1,10 in the chain of mountains bounding Macedonia in the north beyond Bertiscus (nowadays in Montenegro) and this side of Orbelus, Rhodope (modern Rhodope, Rila and Prin) and Haemus (modern Stara Planina). According to Liv. 44,31,4 f. (cf. 43,20,1; Pol. 28,8,3, in connexion with the third of the Macedonian Wars) SO is surrounded in the east by Dardania, in the south by Macedonia and in the west by Illyricum. Thus SO is generally identified with modern Šar Planina. von Bredow, Iris (Bie…

Odomanti

(111 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ὀδόμαντοι; Odómantoi). Thracian tribe on the east bank of the lower Strymon at the western foot of Pangaeum (Str. 7a,1,36) in the area of modern Serres (northern Greece). The O. were involved in exploiting the gold mines there (Hdt. 7,112; Thuc. 2,101,3). Megabazus [1], commander of the forces of Darius, failed to subject the O. in 512 BC (Hdt. 5,16). A king of the O., Polles, provided a mercenary force to the Spartans in 425 BC (Thuc. 5,6,2). They were conquered by the Macedonians after 424 BC. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography Chr. Danov, Altthrakien…

Arzus

(61 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἄρζος; Árzos). River in Thrace, modern Sazlijka; at its mouth into the  Hebrus (not the Propontis, cf., however, Ptol. 3,11,4), there was a statio of the same name (It. Ant. 136,7; Tab. Peut. 8,2), modern Kalugerovo, district of Haskovo, in the territory of Augusta Traiana (IGBulg 3,1704-1706). Fortified by  Justinianus. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography IGBulg, 3,2, 131.

Pharsanzes

(71 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Pharzanes). King of the Regnum Bosporanum in AD 253-254; he interrupted the reign of Rhecusporis V probably as a usurper who was hostile to the Romans. He is known on account of the coins he issued PIR2 P 343. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V.F. Gaidukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 470  A.N. Zograph, Ancient Coinage. Ph. II: The Ancient Coins of the Northern Black Sea Littoral, 1977, 334-335.

Satyrus

(1,465 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Σάτυρος/ Sátyros). [German version] [1] S. I King of the regnum Bosporanum from 433/2 to 389/8 BC. Son of Spartocus I. S.' co-regent may have been (until 393/2) his brother Seleucus [1]. S. directed his attention at the Asiatic coast of the Cimmerian Bosporus (Bosporus [2]). He restored the Sindian King Hecataeus following a revolt, and allied with him through a dynastic marriage. S.'s divorced wife then sent the King of the Ixomates against him (Polyaenus, Strat. 8,55). S. died during the siege of Theodosia. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gajdukevič, Da…

Trausi

(83 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Τραυσοί/ Trausoí, Latin Trausi). Thracian tribe, which can be located in the southwestern part of the Rhodope mountains; their customs are supposed to have been distinct from those of the other Thraci  (Hdt. 5,3 f.). According to Liv. 38,41,5 the T. lived on robbery; he mentions them in connection with the defeat of  Manlius [I 24] Vulso at Tempyra. According to Steph. Byz. s. v. T., the Greeks called the T. Agathyrsi. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography A. Fol, Političeska istorija na trakite, 1972, 58.

Scythae

(3,516 words)

Author(s): Rolle, Renate | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Σκύθαι/ Skýthai). I. Archaeology and culture [German version] A. Introduction; heartlands Economic systems with a strong nomadic element developed from Mongolia in the east to the Carpathian Alps in the west during the 1st millennium BC. This led to the emergence of a characteristic material culture with defining features of striking similarity across great distances. As far as is known so far, armed warriors on horseback can be assumed to have emerged in eastern Europe in the second quarter of the 2nd mi…

Taurike Chersonesos

(24 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ταυρικὴ Χερσόνησος; Taurikḕ Chersónēsos) see Chersonesus [2]. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography J. M. Mogaričev (Hrsg.), Problemy istorii i arheologii Krymy, 1994.

Dunax

(52 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Δοῦναξ; Doûnax, Dunuca, Dinax). Mountain range in western Thrace, probably the Rila mountains in Bulgaria (Ptol. 34,10,15 = Str. 4,6,12; Liv. 40,58,2: battle of the Thracians with the Bastarnae, 179 BC). It is not really possible to link homonymous personal names with this name. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Hebrus

(217 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἕβρος; Hébros). Southern Thracian river, modern Bulgarian Marica, Byzantine/Modern Greek Εὖρος, longest river after the Danube on the Balkan peninsula. According to Ps.-Plutarchus (De fluviis 3), its earlier name is supposed to have been Rhombus. Its headwaters lie in the Rila mountains (Thuc. 2,96,4). From there, it flows in an easterly direction through the fertile Thracian plain to  Hadrianopolis, where it is joined by the Tonzos, then turns toward the south and empties into th…

Lazi

(120 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Λᾶζαι, Λάζοι; Lâzai, Lázoi). People of the Caucasus mountains who migrated into Colchis about 100-75 BC, initially settled on the river Phasis (modern Rioni; Plin. HN 6,12; Ptol. 5,10,5) and later spread widely. About AD 300, they founded the Lazic state in the belief they were the true descendants of the Colchi. Colchis then became known as the Lazica (Λαζική/ Lazikḗ; in Old Georgian sources also Egrisi). In the Byzantine period the Lazi were the cause of battles between imperial and Persian troops because of the important trade routes across the Caucasus. von Bredow, …

Bessi, Bessoi

(240 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βεσσοί; Bessoí). Term given to various Thracian tribal groupings, first mentioned by Hdt. 7,111 as part of the  Satrae in the western Rhodope mountains, but thereafter not again until the 2nd cent. BC (Pol. 23,8,4; Syll.3 710 A). The B. gained political significance because of their opposition to the Romans: defeated by Lucullus in 72 BC, by C. Octavius (ILS 47) in 59 BC, and brought to battle c. 15 years later by Brutus (Liv. Per. 77); in 29 BC M. Licinius Crassus attacked them, took away from them the Dionysus sanctuary in the Rhodope and trans…

Machairophoroi

(181 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(μαχαιροφόροι; machairophóroi). [German version] [1] In the Ptolemaic period, part of the royal guard and especially used for rural policing purposes and for the protection of high civil officials (later also for the kōmárchēs or the práktōr laographías); the members of the guard did not necessarily have to be Egyptians (cf. e.g. OGIS 737). In the Imperial period the term is often simply used as a synonym for ‘soldier(s)’; there were machairophóroi in the service of the imperial household and as bodyguards for officials who had to handle taxes and other monies. To …

Skapte Hyle

(68 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σκάπτη ὕλη/ Skáptē Hýlē, Σκαπτησύλη/ Skáptēsýlē). Unlocated township in the peraia of Thasos in the Pangaeum mountains with gold mines from which Thasos extracted 80 talents a year before the Persian Wars (Hdt. 6,46; Thuc. 1,100,2). The historian Thucydides had estates and also died there (Plut. Cimon 4,3; Markellinos, Vita Thucydidis 19,25,47). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography P. Perdrizet, Skaptésylé, in: Klio 10, 1910, 1-27  Müller, 100 f.

Amardi

(94 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἄμαρδοι; Ámardoi). Iranian town in  Media on the south bank of the  Caspian Sea, west of the Hyrcani ( Hyrcania), east of the  Cadusii (Str. 11,6,1; 8,1; 8; Plin. HN 6,36; Mela 3,39; 42 - joint source is  Eratosthenes). Not likely to be identical with the A. in the Persian armed forces under Xerxes (Aesch. Pers. 994), just as unlikely to be identical with the neighbours of the Persae (Arr. Ind. 40,6). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography F. C. Andreas, s. v. A., RE 1, 1729-1733 F. H. Weissbach, s. v. Mardoi, in: RE 14, 1648-1651.

Melas

(695 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Et al.
(Μέλας/ Mélas). [German version] [1] Brother of Oeneus Son of Porthaon (Portheus) and Euryte in Calydon [3], brother of Oeneus, Agrius [1], Alcathous [2], Leucopeus and Sterope (cf. Hom. Il. 14,115ff.; Apollod. 1,63). M.'s eight sons were killed by Tydeus for pursuing their uncle Oeneus (Apollod. 1,76 = Alcmaeonis fr. 4 EpGF). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Son of Phrixus and Chalciope Son of Phrixus and Chalciope [2], the daughter of Aeetes, brother of Argus [I 2], Phrontis and Cytis(s)orus (Apollod. 1,83). In the older myth M., like Argus, prob…

Sinti

(119 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σιντοί/ Sintoí). Thracian tribe on the western bank of the Strymon, probably between the mountains Malaševska and Ogražden, possibly somewhat more in the south; western neighbour of the Illyrian Dardani (Str. 7a,1,36; App. Mithr. 55); the westernmost tribe of the kingdom of the Odrysae ( cf. Thuc. 2,98,1 on Sitalces' [1] campaign against Macedonia in 429 BC). The main centre of the S. was Heraclea Sintica, which has not yet been located (Diod. Sic. 31,8,8; Liv. 45,29,6). The Sínties in Hom. Od. 8,294 are not the same as the S. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibli…

Pharnaces

(490 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Φαρνάκης; Pharnákēs). [German version] [1] Ph. I. King of Pontus, 2nd cent. BC King of Pontus (185-160/154 BC), son of Mithridates [3] III. After the conquest of Sinope in 183 BC, Ph. fought in 182-179 BC (Pontian War Pol. 25,2; Diod. Sic. 29,24) together with the dynast Mithridates of Armenia Minor against a gradually emerging coalition of the kings Eumenes [3] II, Ariarathes IV (Cappadocia), Prusias II and Artaxias [1] I, the dynasts Acusilaus (territory unknown), Gatalos (Sarmate) and Morzius (Paphlagone…

Pliska

(227 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Slavonic; Greek Πλίσκοβα/ Plískoba). Residency in the first kingdom of the Bulgari, one of the successor states on the soil of the Roman Empire, in the years 681-843, 25 km to the east of Šumen at modern Pliska (formerly Aboba) in northeastern Bulgaria, to the north of the Haemus, where important mountain passes can be controlled, probably founded by Khan Asparuh. Originally built as a military fortress 23 km2 in area, with rectangular and circular wooden buildings and three concentric embankments, the innermost ring enclosing the palace area (0·5 km2). This city,…

Caeni

(136 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Καινοί; Kainoí). Thracian tribe between Astae and Corpili in the region of the Paeti (Hdt. 7,110 Arr. Anab. 1,11,4). After the fall of the Odrysean kingdom, the C. were located in the area east of the river Hebrus spreading to the coasts of the Propontis and the Aegean Sea. The province Caenica at the lower reaches of the river Hebrus was named after this tribe (Plin. HN 4,47; Ptol. 3,11,6). In 188 BC, the C. followed the advice of Philip V and attacked the baggage train of Cn. Ma…

Caspian Sea

(290 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κασπία θάλαττα; Kaspía thálatta; also known as ‘Hyrcanian Sea’ after the pre-Iranian Caspii or Hyrcanii who settled on its south-western shore). The world's largest drainless salt lake (371,000 km2) with c. 50 smaller islands; in the west, it borders on the Caucasus, in the east on the Iranian highlands, in the south on the Elburz range, and in the north on the Russian lowlands. Rivers flowing into the Caspian Sea (CS) are: Volga (Tanais), Ural, Terek (Atrek), Sulak, and Kura (Cyrus). Whereas the CS was seen…

Melanditae

(69 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μελανδῖται/ Melandîtai). Greek name for a Thracian tribe north of Perinthus (Xen. An. 7,2,32; cf. the name of the region in Steph. Byz. s.v. Μελανδία). North of them was the tribal territory of the Thyni, in the east the ‘Thracian delta’ of Byzantium. Their territory belonged to the Hellenistic stratēgia of Astikḗ. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography T. Spiridonov, Istoriceska geografija na trakijskite plemena, 1983, 40f., 111f.

Cillae

(38 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κέλλαι; Kéllai). Mansio on the road from Philippopolis to Hadrianopolis, modern Černa gora (Bulgaria). Honorary decrees and dedications from the imperial period (IGBulg 1515ff.); It. Ant. 136; Tab. Peut. 568. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Berezan

(193 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Island (still a peninsula in antiquity) located in front of the mouth of the  Borysthenes and on which the oldest traces of settlement by Milesian colonists on the northern coast of the Black Sea have been found: Rhodian-Ionic ceramics from the end of the 7th cent. BC; the locality B. arose in the 2nd half of the 7th cent. (numerous graffiti; flourished at the end of the 6th to the beginning of the 5th cent.). Cult of Apollo Ietros and of Apatouria (Aphrodite). Olbia was possibly …

Dyme

(269 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Δύμη). [English version] [1] Stadt an der Westküste von Achaia Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Achaioi, Achaia | Bildung | Coloniae | Dunkle Jahrhunderte | Makedonia, Makedones Stadt an der Westküste von Achaia beim h. Kato-Achaia auf einem weitläufigen, an drei Seiten durch Steilhänge geschützten Plateau am linken Ufer des Peiros. Im Schutz einer Festung (Pol. 4,59,4) konnte D. den natürlichen Reichtum der Landschaft am Kap Araxos nutzen. Als eine der alten 12 Städte von Achaia (Hdt. 1,145) war D. aus der…

Abrit(t)os

(168 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Thrakes, Thrake, Thraci | Straßen (Ἄβριττος). Röm. Kastell und Zivilsiedlung, 2 km östl. vom h. Razgrad, Bulgarien; vorröm. thrak. Siedlung, vermutlich das Verwaltungszentrum der Strategie Rysiké unter den letzten thrak. Königen (IGBulg 743). Seit 45 n. Chr. Teil der Moesia Inferior; spätestens ab 78 n. Chr. Lager von auxilia (CIL XVI 22); im 2. Jh. n. Chr. Standlager der cohors II Lucensium (CIL III 13727); im 4. Jh. n. Chr. stark befestigt. Inschr. belegt ist eine von Veteranen, Thrakern und frem…

Mygdones

(126 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Μυγδόνες). Thrakische Bewohner der Landschaft Mygdonia [1] (Μυγδονία; Makedonia) zw. dem unteren Axios, der Bucht von Thermai, der Bolbe und den Kruša- und Bogdanska-Gebirgen im Osten (Hdt. 7,123f.; 127; Strab. 7a,1,11; 36). Zur Zeit Herodots (5. Jh.v.Chr.) lebten hier Teile der Paiones, Sitones und Krestones; nach Thuk. 2,99,4 wurden die Edones von den Makedonenkönigen aus M. vertrieben (nach 479 v.Chr.? [4. 15]), z.Z. Strabons lebten dort Makedones, Paiones und Teile der Edone…

Kerkinitis

(126 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Regnum Bosporanum | Schwarzmeergebiet (Κερκινῖτις). Ion. Gründung des 6. Jh. v.Chr. im nordwestl. Teil der Krim beim h. Dorf Evpatorija (Hellanikos FGrH 4 F 70; Strab. 12,3,18; Arr. per. p. E. 19,5), ab Mitte 4. Jh.v.Chr. im Besitz der Chersonesos [3] [1. 352] und eng mit ihr verbunden; zweitgrößte Stadt mit wichtigem Hafen, Landwirtschaft und Handwerk, auch dor. Inschr. [1. 339]. Im 2.-1. Jh. v.Chr. mehrmals von Skythen eingenommen. Diophant…

Limnai

(281 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Λίμναι). [English version] [1] Ältestes Dionysosheiligtum im Stadtgebiet von Athen Ältestes Dionysosheiligtum ἐν Λίμναις im Stadtgebiet von Athen südl. der Akropolis (Thuk. 2,15,4), h. im Bereich der Straßen Makrygianni/Chatzchristou lokalisiert [2. 332 Abb. 219, 379, 435]. Die Identifizierung mit einem dreieckigen Temenos am SW-Hang des Areopag [1; 3] ist obsolet [2. 274f. Abb. 351]. Das Heiligtum war nur am zweiten Tag der Anthesteria, dem 12. Tag des Monats Anthesterion, geöffnet. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Deubner, 93 2 Travlos, Athen 3 W. Zschietzschmann,…

Kerkine

(94 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Κερκίνη). Unbewohntes Grenzgebirge zw. Sintoi und Maidoi im Süden und Paiones im Norden, durch das Sitalkes (429 v.Chr.) gegen den Makedonenkönig Perdikkas II. nach Doberos zog. Dazu mußte er selbst einen Weg durch K. anlegen lassen (Thuk. 2,98,1f.). K. wird mit den Bergrücken Belasica, Orbelos oder Kruša im Grenzgebiet zw. Makedonia und Thrakia gleichgesetzt. Möglicherweise ist K. aber der Name mehrerer kleiner Gebirge auf der Linie Kočani-Boboševo, Struma und Belasica, die später als Orbelos bekannt waren. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliogr…

Mesambria

(720 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] [1] Stadt an der Westküste des Schwarzen Meeres Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Apollon | Kolonisation | Moesi, Moesia | Schwarzmeergebiet | Thrakes, Thrake, Thraci (Μεσ(σ)αμβρία, Μεσ(σ)ημβρία, lat. Mesembria). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [English version] I. Lage Stadt an der Westküste des Schwarzen Meeres (Pontos Euxeinos), am Nordeingang zur Bucht von Burgas auf einer kleinen Felshalbinsel, die 850 m lang und 300 m breit ist, h. Nesebâr (im h. Bulgarien). Sie ist über eine 400 m lange, …
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