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Catholic Reform and Counterreformation

(1,812 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
1. Terms 1.1. The Göttingen jurist J. S. Pütter (1725–1807) seems to have been the first to use the term “counterreforms” for the recatholicizing of territories by force on the basis of the principle cuius regio eius religio (Augsburg, Peace of). L. von Ranke (1795–1886), M. Ritter (1840–1923), and E. Gothein (1853–1923) then gave the term a more comprehensive significance. Since it might still suggest the suppression of Protestantism by force and a purely defensive movement, it could hardly commend itself for adoption among Roman …


(1,200 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
[German Version] I. City and Archdiocese – II. University I. City and Archdiocese The city of Freiburg was founded in 1120 by Duke Conrad of Zähringen. In 1218 the city passed to the counts of Urbach. After 1368 it belonged to the Habsburgs; from 1651 it was the administrative center for Further Austria. It was in French possession from 1679 to 1697. In 1805/1806 Freiburg became part of the Grand Duchy of Baden. From 1945 to 1952, it was the seat of government for southern Baden; since 1952 it has been in …

Cajetan of Tiene, Saint

(128 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
[German Version] (Gaietano; 1480, Vicenza – Aug 7, 1547, Naples), founder of the Theatine Order. In 1524, after studying law and serving as a lawyer to the Roman Curia, together with Gian Pietro Carafa (later Pope Paul IV) and others, Cajetan founded the Order of Theatines, a clerical reform community which quickly spread through Italy. Cajetan worked to maintain a strict form of orthodox Roman Catholicism. From 1533 to 1547 he was almost continuously in N…

Borromeo, Charles, Saint

(280 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
[German Version] (Oct 2, 1538, Arona – Nov 3, 1584, Milan). After studying law in Pavia (1559 Dr. jur. utr.), he was appointed Cardinal in 1516 by his uncle, Pope Pius IV, and, as the nephew-Cardinal, held a central position in the curia. From 1516 administrator, Borromeo, consecrated as bishop, moved in 1563 to his bishopric and from 1564 archbishop of Milan, he enforced the Reform of Trent (Trent, Council of) and Catholic confessionalization by means of provincial and diocesan synods and visitations. His Acta Ecclesiae Mediolanensis published in 1582 had an exemplary effect on…

Bellarmine, Robert, Saint

(528 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
[German Version] (Oct 4, 1542, Montepulciano, Tuscany – Sep 17, 1621, Rome) entered the Jesuit order (Jesuits) in 1560 and studied philosophy and theology at various universities: Rome, Florence, Mondovi in Piedmont, Padua, Louvain. From 1570, he taught at Louvain, the theological tradition of which influenced him; from 1576 to 1588, he held the chair of controversial theology at the Col…

Basel, Council of

(320 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
[German Version] The Council of Basel was a reform council that convened from 1431 to 1437/1449 (it moved to Lausanne in 1448). It concerned itself with church reform, the Hussite controversy, but also with peace in Christendom and negotiations with the Eastern Church. The council summoned in 1431 under Martin V in conformity with the Decree of Constance (“Fre…

Politus, Ambrosius Catharinus

(178 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
[German Version] (born Lancellotto de’Politi; 1484, Siena – Nov 8[?], 1553, Naples), Dominican controversialist. After beginning a career as a jurisprudent, he became a Dominican in 1517, taking the name Ambrosius Catharinus. In 1546 he was made bishop of Minori and in 1552 archbishop of Conza. Attacking Luther, in 1520 he wrote an Apologia (CCath 27) and in 1521 an Excusatio diputationis, to which Luther responded with Ad librum eximii Magistri nostri Ambrosii Catharini (1521, Ger. 1524). Politus also attacked Bernardino Ochino ( Sommario della Sacra Scrittura), Savonarola, and …

Duvergier de Hauranne, Jean

(188 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
[German Version] (referred to as Saint-Cyran; 1581, Bayonne – Oct 11, 1643, Paris) was an abbot. After studying in Paris and in the Jesuit college in Louvain, Duvergier became a canon in Bayonne in 1606, was ordained a priest in 1618, and became abbatocomes of the Abbey of Saint-Cyran. From 1609 on, he was a friend of C. Jansen and studied the church fathers with him for some years. Beginning in 1621, Duvergier had a relationship with Pierre Bérulle and Arnauld d'Andilly. Under this influence, he adopted an Augustinian Christocentrism after the manner of the French oratorium. The markedly …

Echter of Mespelbrunn, Julius

(212 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
[German Version] (Mar 18, 1545, Mespelbrunn – Sep 13, 1617, Würzburg), prince-bishop of Würzburg. After his studies and a church career, Echter became dean of the cathedral (1570) and bishop (1573) in Würzburg. At first, he devoted himself to the organization and centralization of the territory, founding the Julius Hospital (1576–79) and the University of Würzburg (1582), to beco…

Cornelius a Lapide

(165 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
[German Version] (Cornelis Cornelissen van den Steen, SJ [from 1592]; Dec 8, 1567, Bocholt near Liège – Mar 12, 1637, Rome), exegete. He was professor in Leuven from 1598–1616, thereafter in the Collegium Romanum. He was an important interpreter of Scripture who commented on the entire Bible (except Job and Psalms), both in the sense of the multiple senses of Scripture as well as with a view to the literal meaning. He was influential on into the 20th century. Heribert Smolinsky Bibliography BCJ 4, 1893, 1511–1526 G. Boss, Die Rechtfertigungslehre in den Bibelkommentären des …

Eugenius IV, Pope

(199 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
[German Version] (1383, Venice – Feb 23, 1447, Rome; pope from Mar 3, 1431, to his death), born Gabriele Condulmer. He was a member of the Augustinian order. He became bishop of Siena in 1407 and was made Cardinal in 1408. His papacy was dominated by the Council of Basel, entanglement in internal Italian politics (the pope and Curia spending most of 1434–1443 in Florence), and ec…

Le Bras, Gabriel

(343 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
[German Version] (Jul 23, 1891, Paimpol, Côtes-du-Nord, France – Feb 18, 1970, Paris), jurist, historian, and sociologist of religion. Le Bras studied jurisprudence and philosophy in Rennes from 1908 to 1911 as well as at the university and the École des Hautes Études in Paris from 1911 to 1914. He earned a doctorate in politics and business sciences in 1920, and in jurisprudence in 1922. He was professor of Roman law in Strasbourg from 1922 and in Paris from 1929, where he was awarded a professor…

Aquaviva, Claudius

(170 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
[German Version] (Claudio; Sep 9, 1543, Atri – Jan 31, 1615, Rome). After law studies at Perugia and curial service in Rome, Aquaviva joined the Jesuit order in 1567 (ordained priest in 1574). He taught at the Collegium Romanum and in 1580 became head of the Roman province; in 1581 he was elected Superior General of the Jesuits. With great skill, Aquaviva led the order until …

Cassander, Georg

(228 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
[German Version] (Aug 24, 1513, Pitthem near Bruges – Feb 3, 1566, Cologne), humanist Catholic mediation theologian. He studied in Leuven, Cologne, and Heidelberg and, as a follower of Erasmus, worked literarily and politically, in the spirit of a via media, for reform and the recovery of church unity. His irenic document supporting unity, De officio pii ac publicae tranquillitatis vere amantis viri in hoc religionis dissidio (1561), appeared at the Colloquy of Poissy in 1561. In terms of content, he appealed to the Early Church and to a liturgy …

Bosio, Antonio

(104 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
[German Version] (c. 1575, on Malta – 1629, Rome). After studies in Rome and receiving the Dr. jur. utr. in 1594, Bosio was the advocate of the Knights of Malta. Together with Pompeo Ugonio, he discovered the catacombs of Domitilla in 1593. Inspired thereby, he studied the church fathers, passionarias, and martyrologies, and devoted his life to discovering the Roman catacombs. As the most mature product of the studies, the work Roma sotterranea appeared posthumously in 1632; it continues to be highly valued today. Heribert Smolinsky Bibliography E. Schäfer, RGG 3 I, 1957, 1370f. V. Saxer…

Acontius, Jacobus

(282 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
[German Version] (Giacomo; before 1515, Ossana, Val di Sole, or Trient – 1566/1567, presumably London). After studying law and a period as notary (attested 1540 in Ossana and 1548 in Trient), Acontius entered the service of Count Giovanni Francesco Landriano and Cardinal C. Madruzzo from 1549 to 1557. Because of his Protestant convictions, he fled in 1557 to Basel and Zürich, where he ma…

Felix V, Anti-pope

(154 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
[German Version] (Amadeus VIII, count and duke of Savoy; Sep 4, 1383, Chambéry – Jan 7, 1451, Geneva). After a largely successful rule as Prince of Savoy, Amadeus was elected pope by the Council of Basel on Nov 5, 1439, following the deposition of Eugenius IV by the church assembly. He was only able to secure recognition temporarily in some parts of Europe. Felix did not share the conciliarism of Basel, although he had attained his office through its agency. After 1442, he resided largely in Lausa…

Baronius, Caesar

(168 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
[German Version] (Oct 30/31, 1538, Sora, Kingdom of Naples – June 30, 1607, Rome). After studying law, Baronius entered the Oratory of Philip Neri at Rome; he became superior general of the order in 1593 and was made a cardinal in 1596. He was the librarian of the Vatican Library as well as the confessor and advisor of Clement VIII. He was himself a candidate in the papal election of 1605. He participated in the revision of the Roman martyrologies and the reform of the breviary . His major work, Annales ecclesiastici (Rome 1588–1607), seeks to demonstrate t…

Egranus, Johannes Sylvius

(196 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
[German Version] (Wildenauer; born in Eger, died Jun 11, 1535 in Joachimsthal, Erzgebirge [Ore ¶ Mountains]) began studying in Leipzig in the year 1500, earning his Master of Arts in 1507. In 1517 he became preacher at St. Marien in Zwickau, where he got into a dispute with the Franciscans over the legend of Anna. In 1518, he became involved in a literary controversy with Hieronymus Dungersheim of …