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Antinum

(45 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Town of the  Marsi (CIL IX 3839; 3845) on the upper reaches of the  Liris, modern Cività d'Antino. In the Roman imperial age, it was a municipium of the tribus Sergia. Remains of the town walls (polygonal stonework). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Makaron Nesoi

(326 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(αἱ τῶν μακάρων νῆσοι; hai tôn makárōn nêsoi, Lat. insulae fortunatae, ‘Islands of the blessed'). [German version] [1] Mythical country Since Hes. Op. 167-173, the mythical country to which heroes are transported - instead of to dark, mouldy Hades like ‘normal people’ - when their lives on earth are over. The concept of the makaron nesoi (MN) is closely linked with the idea of Elysium (Hom. Od. 4,561ff.) as the place were the blessed reside after death (cf. Pind. Ol. 2,68-80; Hdt. 3,26; Aristoph. Vesp. 640; Eur. Hel. 1677; Aristot. Protrepticus fr. …

Ameria

(309 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Town in Umbria This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria Town in  Umbria between  Tiber and Nera, on the via Amerina (a branch of the   via Cassia , which led to  Tuder) 56 miles out from Rome (CIL IX 5833), today Amelia (Terni). According to Cato very old (HRR Cato fr. 49; Plin. HN 3,114). 406 m high chalk walls, which especially on the north side offer protection; these were strengthened with massive polygonal masonry.   Municipium of the   tribus Clustumina . Cults of Jupiter, Mars, Fortuna and seviri augustales are attested. Base of a temple (S. Mar…

Morgetes

(106 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] People (named after their king Morges) originally settled in Lower Italy, who migrated from there (Antiochus FGrH 555 F 9: M. driven by the Oenotri; otherwise F 2) to Sicily (Strab. 6,2,4), where the city of Morgantina has preserved their name (Antiochus l.c.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μοργέντιον/ Morgéntion). Murgantia, the name of a city of the Samnites, is probably also related (Liv. 10,17,3; 11). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography G. Devoto, Gli antichi Italici, 31967  J. Bérard, La colonisation grecque, 21957  R. Peroni, Enotri, Ausoni,…

Gazioura

(154 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Diadochi and Epigoni (Γαζίουρα). Fortress of the Pontic kings in Zelitis on an isolated mountain peak near Turhal with a flight of steps from the Hellenistic period and late Byzantine wall remains. Also an inscription from the time of Mithridates VI, and two Roman milestones on the road from  Amasea to Nicopolis [1. 251-253 no. 278; 2. 348f. no. 960f.]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 Anderson/Cumont/Grégoire 3,1 2 D. French, Roman Roads and Milestones of Asia Minor 2 (British Institute of Arc…

Barbosthenes

(63 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Βαρβοσθένης; Barbosthénēs). Mountain, 14.8 km from Sparta, where  Nabis was defeated by Philopoemen in 192 BC (Liv. 35,27,13; 30,9 incorrect Barnosthenem), perhaps an eastward continuation of the  Olympus in the  Parnon near Vresthena or Varvitsa. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography C. Bursian, Geogr. von Griechenland 2, 1868, 117 n. 1 A. Forbiger, Hdb. [in titles] der Alten Geogr. 3, 1877, 679 n. 77.

Arcathias

(110 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἀρκαθίας; Arkathías). Son of  Mithridates VI (different from Ariarathes IX [1; 2; 3]), led 10,000 horsemen from Lesser Armenia into the opening battle of the Mithridatic Wars (autumn of 89 BC) at the Amnias against  Nicomedes IV; he marched with a Pontic army in 88/87 BC through Macedonia and organized the conquered territories into  satrapies. He fell ill at the Tisaeum in Magnesia and died (App. Mith. 63-65; 137; 156). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 Magie, 1105 note 41 2 B.C. McGing, The Foreign Policy of Mithridates VI Eupator King of Pont…

Celadon

(92 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Κελάδων; Keládōn). Tributary of the  Alpheius between Pylos and Arcadia, rising on Mt. Lycaeum -- its identification is a Homeric problem (Hom. Il. 7,133-135: Nestor's tale of the fight of the Pylians against the Arcadians ‘by the rapid river C. under the walls of Pheia, and round about the waters of the river Iardanus’). Even ancient Homeric philologists tried in vain to determine the location of the C. in the coastal region (cf. Didymus, schol. Hom. Il. 7,135; Str. 8,3,21; cf. also Paus. 8,38,9: Κέλαδος/ Kélados). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Pelorias

(222 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πελωριάς; Pelōriás). Northeastern cape of Sicily (Pol. 1,11,6; 42,5; Diod. Sic. 4,23,1; 5,2,2; 23,1,3; Diod. 4,85,5; 14,56,3; 6; 57,2: Πελωρίς/Pelōrís), modern Capo Peloro or Capo di Faro; in a narrower sense a narrow easterly tongue of land, in a broader sense the whole mountainous promontory running northeast. According to myth, Orion [1] constructed the tongue of land and built a temple to Poseidon there (Hes. fr. 183). According to erroneous ancient ideas about the orientation…

Tarusco

(74 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] City in Gallia Narbonensis City in Gallia Narbonensis in the territory of the Salluvii (Str. 4,1,3; 12: Ταρούσκων; Ptol. 2,10,15), modern Tarascon. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography A. L. F. Rivet, Gallia Narbonensis, 1988, 300. [German version] [2] City in the territory of the Volcae Tectosages City in the territory of the Volcae Tectosages on the northern slopes of the Pyrenees (Pyrene [2]; Plin. HN 3,37), modern Tarascon sur Ariège. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Segobrigii

(84 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Ligurian Celtic people settled around the mouth of the Rhodanus, whose king Nannus and his son Comanus appear in the founding legend of Massalia  (Iust. 43,3,4-13,  cf.  Aristot. fr. 503 R.). A connection with terms such as Segovii, Segobriga and Segovia is discussed. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 207 f.  D. Pralon, La légende de la fondation de Marseille, in: M. Bats et al. (eds.), Marseille greque et la Gaule (Études Massaliètes 3), 1992, 51-56.

Climax

(50 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Κλῖμαξ; Klîmax). [German version] [1] Pass Wide pass provided with steps, which led out of the Inachus Valley of the Argolis near Melangea (possibly modern Pikerni) into the high plain of Mantinea (Paus. 8,6,4; cf. 2,25,3), modern Portes. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] see Pamphylia see  Pamphylia

Cleon

(1,003 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Κλέων; Kléōn). [German version] [1] The most influential politician in Athens after 430 BC The most influential politician in Athens after 430 BC, as the operator of a tannery was the first important demagogue from the circle of tradesmen who were rising to political leadership. Sources paint a picture of a man who put his loyalty to the people ( dḗmos) before that to his friends, who cleverly exploited the moods prevalent among the people and procured a following for himself by promising material gains. C. opposed  Pericles at the beginning of the Pelo…

Pharis

(113 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta (Φᾶρις, Φαραί; Phâris, Pharaí). Town in Laconica (Hom. Il. 2,582; Ephor. FGrH 70 F 117; Str. 8,5,1; the form Φαραί is used in later literature such as Paus. 4,16,8; Hierocles, Synecdemus 647,10; Liv. 35,30,9), c. 10 km south of Sparta, 2 km east of Amyclae [1], probably Vaphio with the well known Mycenaean beehive tomb, abandoned in the time of Pausanias [1. 76f.; 2. 168f.]. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 H. Waterhouse, R.Hope Simpson, Prehistoric Laconia I, in: ABSA 55, 1…

Asia Minor

(16,327 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Genz, Hermann (Istanbul) | Schoop, Ulf-Dietrich (Tübingen) | Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Et al.
[German version] I. Name Strabo was the first to refer to the peninsula of Asia Minor (AM) west of the  Taurus (Str. 2,5,24; 12,1,3; cf. Plin. HN 5,27f.; Ptol. 5,2) as a single unit by the name of Asia in the narrower sense, as opposed to the continent of Asia. The term of Asia minor in this sense is first used in Oros. 1,2,26 (early 5th cent. AD). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] II. Geography AM is the westernmost part of the Asian continent between 36° and 42° northern latitude, and 26° and 44° eastern longitude, stretching from the Aegean to the Euphrates ( c. 1,200 km), and fro…

River

(230 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Terrestrial relief and climate determine the size and direction of river courses; and for their part, the major river valleys of the inhabited world determined the trade and commerce of those societies through whose regions they passed, offering them both infrastructural and economic advantages. They seldom represented insurmountable obstacles to traffic. Rather, in varying degree they directed traffic flow over particular routes (fords, bridges). The economic usefulness of river …

Ichthys

(568 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] [1] Fish Fish (Greek ἰχθῦς/ ichthŷs; Latin piscis) was a common food in Greece and Rome, certain fishes in Rome were even considered a luxury food. This explains the Greek curiosity about neighbouring cultures such as Egypt or Syria, where conspicuous food prohibitions were observed and generalized (priests in Egypt: Hdt. 2,37; Plut. De Is. et Os. 7, 353b; Plut. Symp. 8,8,2; Syria: Ov. Fast. 2,473f.; Porph. De abstinentia 2,61 etc.) that probably relate to the worship of fish in these cu…

Mare Nostrum

(941 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (μεγάλη θάλασσα/ megálē thálassa, Mediterranean). Because of various earth movements that are still ongoing (rising, sinking; formation of numerous islands, e.g. the archipelago between Greece and Anatolia and Cyprus, Crete, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, the Balearic Islands; still active volcanoes and earthquakes) the appearance of the Mare Nostrum (MN) changed constantly (connections to the various adjoining seas, e.g. the Atlantic, the Miocene seas in the northern foothills of the Al…

Nola

(572 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Villa | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Pilgrimage Town in Campania, north east of the Vesuvius (Str. 5,4,8; It. Ant. 109,2; Tab. Peut. 6,4); it still bears the same name today. N. lies at the foot of the Appennines, on a broad plain approximately halfway from Capua to Nuceria, on a major traffic artery leading from Etruria to Poseidonia/Paestum, subsequently known as via Popilia. We do not know what part the inhabitants of Chalcis [1] played in its foundation (Sil. Pun. 12,161; Just. Epit. 20,1,1…

Heraeum

(88 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Ἥραιον; Hḗraion). The outermost cape (today Cape Melangavi) of the peninsula that is formed by the foothills of the Geraneia opposite Corinth with a settlement, fort and sanctuary of Hera Akraia and Limenia (rich finds from the 9th cent. BC onwards) on a small bay on the south side of the cape (Xen. Hell. 4,5,5ff.; Xen. Ages. 2,18f.; Str. 8,6,22; Plut. Cleomenes 20,3; Liv. 32,23,10). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography H. Payne et al. (ed.), The Sanctuaries of Hera Akraia and Limenia, 2 vols., 1940/1962.
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