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(1,257 words)

Author(s): Kersting, Wolfgang | Krötke, Wolf | Sigrist, Christian
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Dogmatics – III. Sociology, Politics, and Social Ethics I. Philosophy Any systematic political philosophy confronts two fundamental problems: the problem of the justification for dominion and the problem of the limitation of rule. The justification for dominion requires a refutation of anarchism, requires a demonstration that there are good grounds for abandoning the natural condition and for establishing a ruling order at all. These grounds can demonstrate the rational advantages of a life under state protection, as in T. Hobbes's Leviatha…

Cape Verde,

(474 words)

Author(s): Sigrist, Christian
[German Version] since 1975 República de Cabo Verde, approx. 600 km west of Dakar. Fifteen islands (4,033 km2), of which nine are inhabited, population 50,000, with at least the same number living abroad. The official languages are Portuguese, and the vernacular Crioulo. The Portuguese discovered several of the islands in 1456. Soon afterwards, Portuguese colonists established the first European colony on the “other side” of the Atlantic. On the basis of a feudal means of production d…


(1,109 words)

Author(s): Sigrist, Christian
1. Term Pariahs (a simplified form of Tamil paraiyar, sing. paraiyan, “drummer”) were originally the members of a caste in South India (in Tamil Nadu and Kerala) made up of lower workers who earned their living as (at one time slave) farm laborers, though some also as drummers or handlers of animal carcasses. Their work, and especially their cutting of flesh, made them ritually unclean (U. von Ehrenfels; Cultic Purity). Along the line of Sanskrit etymology the Abbé de Raynal (1713–96) at the end of the 1…