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(182 words)

Author(s): Görg, Manfred
[German Version] (פּוּט), according to Gen 10:6 (P; cf. 1 Chr 18), one of the four sons of Ham, the ancestral father of the Hamite peoples, in what appears to be a traditional order: Cush (Ethiopia), Egypt, Put (without further genealogy), and Canaan (Nah 3:9 substitutes Libya). The groupings with Libya (Nah 3:9), with Cush and Lud (Jer 46:9; Ezek 30:5), with Persia and Cush (Ezek 38:5) or Persia and Lud (Ezek 27:10) all clearly suggest a military role for the people of Put (e.g. as mercenaries empl…

Urim and Thummim

(319 words)

Author(s): Görg, Manfred

Community and the Individual

(5,279 words)

Author(s): Williame, Jean-Paul | Görg, Manfred | Popkes, Wiard | Zenkert, Georg | Thomas, Günter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Philosophy – V. Dogmatics – VI. Sociology, Ethics – VII. Practical Theology I. Religious Studies In the context of their understanding of God and related obligations, human beings make connections of solidarity and feel, with more or less intensity, that they are members of the same community. Religion brings people closer together and creates social ties: the umma of the Muslims, Christian brotherhood and ecumeni…

Israel and Egypt

(646 words)

Author(s): Görg, Manfred
[German Version] According to the biblical account, the history of the relations between Israel and Egypt begins with the ascent of Jacob's son Joseph in Egypt and the subsequent immigration of the whole clan of Jacob, whose enslavement was ended with an Exodus under the leadership of Moses as a fundamental act of deliverance. This recollection of a process no longer reconstructable historically in detail nonetheless has support from extra-biblical information concerning the expulsion from Egypt o…

Bread of the Presence,

(210 words)

Author(s): Görg, Manfred
[German Version] לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים/ leḍem happānîm, “Bread of the Presence (of God)” or “showbread” (Luther: Schaubrot) a term for a kind of sacrificial bread that was presented on a table in the sanctuary as in the “ tabernacle” (Sinai/Sinai traditions; Wilderness wanderings/Wilderness traditions); Exod 24:23–30 [P]; cf. also Heb 9:2) and in the visionary temple of Ezekiel (Ezek 41:22). The Bread of t…


(1,593 words)

Author(s): Görg, Manfred
[German Version] I. The Term – II. Tradition History – III. Historical Background – IV. Liturgical Application I. The Term Exodus is the Latinized form of the Greek term ἔξοδος/ éxodos (“departure”) for the second book of Moses, which is essentially devoted to a spectrum of traditions concerning Israel's stay in Egypt, its departure under the leadership of Moses, and its sojourn in the wilderness (Wilderness wa…


(2,357 words)

Author(s): Lorenz, Günther | Görg, Manfred | Avemarie, Friedrich | Riedel-Spangenberger, Ilona | Bader, Günter
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Voluntary promises to do something, either materially or ideally, in order to obtain the support of a divinity or ¶ some other metaphysical effects…

History/Concepts of History

(12,750 words)

Author(s): Rudolph, Kurt | Görg, Manfred | Schlüter, Margarete | Römer, Nils | Cancik, Hubert | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Ancient Near East and Israel – III. Judaism – IV. Greece and Rome – V. New Testament – VI. Church History – VII. Dogmatics – VIII. Ethics – IX. Philosophy I. Religious Studies History is a major aspect of the study of religion. Apart from its roots in the Enlightenment idea of tolerance, it owes its scholarly development to the historicism of the 19th century. As a result, the expression history of religions ( Religionsgeschichte, histoire des religions, storia delle religioni) has remained dominant in continental Europe, in contrast to the fuzzy religious studies or study of religion(s). This philological and historical approach to the world of religions, as in other areas of social studies and the humanities, had consequences that influenced both the material under study and the self-conception of the scholars studying it. Strict historical study leads to relativism, i.e. indire…


(5,988 words)

Author(s): Woschitz, Karl M. | Görg, Manfred | Wischmeyer, Oda | Sparn, Walter | Lohberg, Gabriele | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament– IV. Church History – V. Philosophy of Religion – VI. Dogmatics – VII. Art History – VIII. Practical Theology – IX. Judaism – X. Islam…