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Sacrality, Transfer of

(294 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] The origins of the concept of transfert de sacralité are obscure. The earliest known occurrence is in the works of the historian Mona Ozouf, who since 1976 has studied the symbolic worlds, rituals, and “implicit theologies” (Assmann) in the festivals celebrated by the French Revolution. Syncretistic combination of pagan, Christian, and Masonic symbols and ceremonies, she believes, created a post-Christian politico-religious cult in which the revolutionary nation staged and constituted its…

Pfleiderer, Otto

(290 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Sep 1, 1839, Stetten im Remstal – Jul 18, 1908, Groß Lichterfelde near Berlin). As the last ¶ representative of F.C. Baur’s Tübingen school, Pfleiderer developed models of the history of primitive Christianity which stressed Jesus’ Jewish identity, and declared Paul the decisive founder of the Christian religion, thanks to his critique of the “orientalisms” in Jesus’ preaching, and his determined “Hellenization.” Using the historical methods of the comparative study of religion, Pfleiderer set out…

History of Ideas

(1,364 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] I The origins and the formation of the composite term “history of ideas” have hardly been investigated. Early attestations point to the late 18th century. In the centers of the Enlightenment, scholars wrote “history of ideas,” employing teleological interpretation models, in order to legitimize the emergence of the new middle-class consciousness as a progress in the awareness of freedom. The literary history of classic reflection disciplines such as philosophy and theology became c…

Krug, Wilhelm Traugott

(171 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jun 22, 1770, Radis – Jan 12, 1842, Leipzig), Protestant philosopher and successor to I. Kant at Königsberg University. Strongly influenced by Kant's philosophy as a student of theology and philosophy in Wittenberg, Jena, and Göttingen, Krug became philosophy lecturer in Wittenberg and associate of the philosophical faculty in 1794; then associate professor in Frankfurt an der Oder in 1801, full professor in Königsberg in 1805, and in Leipzig in 1809. He argued in favor of a so-c…

Wagner, Falk

(368 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Feb 25, 1939, Vienna – Nov 18, 1998, Vienna) was brought up in a middle-class family. After studying Protestant theology, primarily with H.W. Wolff and Wolfhart Pannenberg, and philosophy, especially with T.W. Adorno and Wolfgang Cramer, he quickly became active in the biblicistic, socially conservative Heliand scouting association. In 1969 he received his Dr.theol. at Munich with a thesis entitled Der Gedanke der Persönlichkeit Gottes bei Fichte und Hegel. His habilitation followed in the winter semester of 1971/1972 with a critical interpretati…

Strauß, David Friedrich

(580 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] ( Jan 27, 1808, Ludwigsburg –Feb 8, 1874, Ludwigsburg), Protestant theologian and writer. The son of a struggling merchant, Strauß attended the Latin school in Ludwigsburg and in 1821 entered the minor seminary in Blaubeuren. There he…

Hundeshagen, Karl Bernhard

(336 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jan 30, 1810, Friedewald, Hessia – Jun 2, 1872, Bonn). Although as a student of theology Hundeshagen was expelled from the university in Giessen in 1828 for participating in certain fraternity activities, he was still able to attain his Habilitation there in 1831, after which he became a professor of theology specializing in exegesis and church history. In 1834 he received an appointment in Bern (becoming a full professor in 1845), then in 1847 in Heidelberg, and in 1867 in Bonn, also serving as the editor of the ThSt…

Troeltsch, Ernst

(2,707 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Feb 17, 1865, Haunstetten near Augsburg – Feb 1, 1923, Berlin-Charlottenburg) is considered one of the leading theological diagnosticians of crises in the German classical modernity of the period around 1900. The author of a wide-ranging oeuvre, he pushed back the boundaries of systematic theology and transformed it into a cultural science (Cultural studies) of Christianity that was to demonstrate the compatibility of Christian faith with the modern standards of scientific ration…

Overbeck, Franz Camille

(893 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Nov 16, 1837, St. Petersburg – Jun 26, 1905, Basel), son of a German Protestant merchant and a Roman Catholic mother from a French family, after his initial schooling Overbeck studied in St. Petersburg, Paris, and Dresden; beginning in 1856, he studied Protestant theology at Leipzig, Göttingen, and Berlin, receiving his habilitation at Jena in 1864. In 1870 he accepted a call to Basel as associate professor of New Testament and early church history. The multilingual intellectual …

Patriotism

(384 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] The term patriotism first appeared in the 16th century, as a borrowing from Neo-Latin (derived from patria) and French ( patriotisme); in the classic discussions of political virtues, it stands for the close moral bond uniting the citizens with their homeland, to which they owe devotion, selflessness, loyalty, and love. The popularity of the term in the 18th century, especially in the moral weeklies, was closely connected with the invocation of public spirit, civic virtue, and national morality: beyo…

Wellhausen, Julius

(876 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (May 17, 1844, Hameln – Jan 7, 1918, Göttingen), the son of a conservative Lutheran pastor, studied Protestant theology at Göttingen, where he was strongly influenced by H. Ewald, who taught him Syriac and Arabic as well as biblical exegesis. In 1870 he received his Göttingen licentiate and habilitation in Old Testament; in 1872 he was appointed full professor at Greifswald. On the grounds that the “ecclesiastical and academic viewpoints” are fundamentally different and a professo…

International Association for Liberal Christianity and Religious Freedom

(158 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] In the wake of the initiatives set in motion by the Boston Unitarian Charles William Wendte, the international organization of religious liberals was founded on May 25, 1900 as the International Council of Unitarian and other Liberal Religious Thinkers and Workers on the occasion of the celebrations accompanying the 75th anniversary of the American Unitarian Associatio…

Dictionaries/Encyclopedias, Theological

(1,109 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] I. The exposition of Christian theological knowledge in lexicons, encyclopedias, and similar reference works has not yet been the subject of scholarly study by academic theology. Nevertheless, by focussing on this literary genre, which has been central to the theologies of all denominations since 1770, profound transformations of the academic e…

Hengstenberg, Ernst Wilhelm

(402 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Oct 20, 1802, Fröndenberg near Unna – May 28, 1869, Berlin), Protestant theologian and church politician. After intensive private tutoring from his father, a Reformed pastor, Hengstenberg studied oriental and classical philology in Bonn. Thanks to his mildly rationalist upbringing, he became enthusiastic about fraternities. He experienced an awakening in 1823/1824 in the neo-Pietist circles of the Basel Mission. Hengstenberg obtained his Habilitation in oriental studies in Berlin in 1824, but because of his close contacts with leading propo…

Sengelmann, Heinrich Matthias

(215 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (May 25, 1821, Hamburg – Feb 2, 1899, Alsterdorf, Hamburg). Sengelmann, brought up in an atmosphere of evangelistic Pietism, was a student and friend of F.A.G. Tholuck. As pastor in Moorfleet since 1846, in 1850 he opened a Christian Arbeitsschule (“activity school”) in his parsonage to help young people who had received no education because school attendance was not compulsory, ¶ preparing them for a vocation through instruction and practical training. The great demand led to the expansion of the school to Sankt Nikolai in Hamburg in 1853.…

Iwand, Hans Joachim

(303 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jul 11, 1899, Schreibendorf, Silesia [Pisary, Poland] – May 2, 1960, Bonn), systematic theologian and politically involved churchman. After studying theology at Breslau and Halle, he was appointed superintendent of studies at the Lutherheim in Königsberg. He received his doctorate in 1924 and gained his Habilitation in 1927. In 1934 he became instructor in New Testament at the Herder Institute in Riga. Deprived of his venia legendi for membership in the Confessing Church, he served from 1935 to 1937 as director of illegal seminaries in Bloestau…

Martensen, Hans Lassen

(280 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Aug 12, 1808, Flensburg – Feb 3, 1884, Copenhagen), Danish theologian and churchman. Influenced by the works of N.F.S. Grundtvig as ¶ a young student, he later turned to German Idealism. During a study tour in 1834, he made contact with such figures as P.K. Marheineke, F.W.J. Schelling, F.X. v. Baader, and N. Lenau. After receiving his doctorate in 1836, in 1840 he was appointed professor of systematic theology int Copenhagen. The politically divisive clergyman was appointed court chaplain in 1845 and…

Schneckenburger, Matthias

(281 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jan 17, 1804, Thalheim, near Tuttlingen – Jun 3, 1848, Bern), elder brother of the writer Max Schneckenburger, author of the 1840 “Die Wacht am Rhein” (“The Watch on the Rhine”), the most important German patriotic anthem during the 1870/1871 Franco-Prussian War. Matthias rapidly completed all the stages of theological education in Württemberg. In Berlin in 1826 he attended the lectures of F.D.E. Schleiermacher, P.K. Marheineke, J.W.A. Neander, and G.W.F. Hegel. As a lecturer at the Tübingen Stift at the age of 23, he belonged to the Geniepromotion class that inclu…

Hahn, August

(304 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Mar 27, 1792, Großosterhausen – May 13, 1863, Wrocław [Ger. Breslau], Poland), Protestant theologian. At the age of eight, Hahn lost his father, a cantor. His pietistic mother shaped his religion. In rationalist Leipzig, he studied Protestant theology and oriental philology. After three years as tutor, Carl Ludwig Nitzsch, Johann Friedrich Schleusner and Heinrich Leonhard Heubner in the Wittenberg seminary brought him back to revivalist piety and supranaturalism in 1817. In 1819,…

Dechristianization

(816 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] I. History of the Concept – II. Concept in Cultural Studies I. History of the Concept Dechristianization can be identified since c. 1820 as a translation for déchristianisation, which was coined in the struggles over religious policy in the French Revolution. Déchristianiser initially referred to the spontaneous acts of violence by lower-class groups against the church, that is, the theft of church property, the destruction of churches, and the execution …

Lieb, Fritz

(203 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (June 10, 1892, Rothenfluh, Switzerland – Nov 6, 1970, Basel), Reformed theologian. Lieb, who was fascinated by the religious socialism of H. Kutter and L. Ragaz, studied Assyriology and then (1915) theology. After joining the Swiss Social Democratic Party, he was involved in demonstrations against the war and clashes in Basel during the general strike of 1919. In 1920, impressed by the October Revolution, the Slavophile joined the Communist Party and collected books and liturgical objects of Russian Orthodoxy. Lieb, also a friend of K. Barth, received his Habilitati…

Gerlach

(1,122 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] 1. Ludwig Friedrich Leopold von (Oct 17, 1790, Berlin – Jan 10, 1861, Potsdam). In 1806, after graduating from ¶ the Prussian military academy, Gerlach fought against Napoleon. Following the Prussian defeat, he studied law (in particular with F.K. v. Savigny and Gustav Hugo), joining the Christlich-deutsche Tischgesellschaft and the Maikäferei group that grew out of it. Promoted to officer status in the Wars of Liberation, he remained in the military; in 1826 he was appointed personal adjutant to the…

Germanization of Christianity

(367 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] This expression was coined in 1896 by the liberal Protestant clergyman Arthur Bonus, who combined old antithetical notions of “Romanism” and “Germanism” with P.A. de Lagarde's call for a new “national religion” in a program designed to “modernize” the traditional elements of Christianity on the basis of German national culture. His modern neo-Germanic concept of Christianity was intended to infuse a uniform ethos into the disintegrating society of imperial Germany. Especially among the culturally critical haute-bourgeoisie, a feeling of distress in the f…

Fascism

(1,633 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] I. The Term – II. Italian Fascism – III. Fascism and Christianity – IV. Fascism and the German Public I. The Term Fascism, the term for a very significant aspect of 20th-century politics, has a wide range of meanings. It was initially used for Benito Mussolini's system of authoritarian-corporatist rule in Italy from 1922 to 1943/45. Even in the 1920s, nationalist protest movements (Nationalism) in other European countries were taking up the concept of fascism in order to legitimize their struggle a…

Lehmus, Adam Theodor Albert Franz

(249 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Dec 2, 1777, Soest – Aug 18, 1837, Nuremberg), theologian. As a student in Halle an der Saale and Jena, Lehmus was enthused by Rationalism, I. Kant's criticism, and J.G. Fichte's idealism. A deacon from 1807 in Dinkelsbühl and Ansbach, he initially espoused, with F. Schelling and G. Hegel, a speculative theology in order to prove the internal rationality of the symbols of faith. After his appointment in 1814 as associate professor of theology and preacher at the university church…

Jaeger, Werner Wilhelm

(255 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jul 30, 1888, Lobberich – Oct 19, 1961, Boston), a classical philologist, studied philosophy and ancient philology beginning in 1907 in Marburg and Berlin, became an instructor in Berlin in 1914, and was professor in Basel (1914), Kiel (1915), and Berlin (1921). He was dismissed from the Prussian civil service in 1936 at his own request for political and family reasons and emigrated to the United States, where he was professor in Chicago (1937) and Harvard (from 1939). After defi…

Rosenstock-Huessy, Eugen

(567 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jul 6, 1888, Berlin – Feb 23, 1973, Norwich, VT), jurisprudent, cultural philosopher, and sociologist. Rosenstock-Huessy, from a Jewish banking family, was a highly creative religious intellectual. He combined studies in diverse fields of cultural studies with a search for meaning, moral education, and center-left social reform. In 1905, at the age of 17, he converted to Protestantism. After studying law, history, and philosophy in Zürich, Berlin, and Heidelberg, he received his …

Wendland, Heinz-Dietrich

(476 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jun 22, 1900, Berlin – Aug 7, 1992, Hamburg) grew up in the “nationalistic German tradition of the Protestant parsonage” ( Wege, 18); in 1913 he joined the Wandervogel (Jugendbewegung) and in 1919 the Wingolf. In 1921 he was a co-founder of the Jungnationaler Bund. Beginning in 1919, he studied theology in Berlin and Heidelberg. In 1924 ¶ he received his doctorate under Willy Lüttge with a dissertation on A.E. Biedermann; in 1929 he received his habilitation under M. Dibelius with a thesis on the eschatology of the kingdom of God in the…

Heydenreich, August Ludwig Christian

(196 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jul 25, 1773, Wiesbaden – Sep 26, 1858, Wiesbaden). During his studies at Erlangen, Heydenreich became strongly critical of theological rationalism and the Kantian critical method. His Romantic supranaturalism was influenced by F.D.E. Schleiermacher and the revival movement. After a series of pastorates, in 1818 he received a call to the Protestant seminary in Herborn. An advocate of a united Lutheran/Reformed church, he rejected historical-critical exegesis in three volumes of studies entitled Ueber die Unzulässigkeit der mythischen Auffassung des H…

Ronge, Johannes

(327 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Oct 16, 1813, Bischofswalde, Silesia – Oct 26, 1887, Döbling near Vienna), the most influential representative of German Catholicism. He came from a farming family with strict church convictions. While studying theology and philosophy in Breslau from 1836 to 1839, Ronge belonged to a student fraternity and was an enthusiastic supporter of the cultural ideals of the Enlightenment and German Idealism, and also of the early liberals’ demands for emancipation. From 1841 he was chapla…

Renan, Joseph Ernest

(635 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Feb 27, 1823, Tréguier, Brittany– Oct 2, 1892, Paris). Ernest Renan, French historian of religion and scholar of ancient New Eastern studies, began by studying Roman Catholic theology, philosophy, and philology at the ecclesiastical Grand Séminaire of St. Sulpice in Paris. Full of enthusiasm, he absorbed the works of German Idealist philosophy and of F.C. Baur’s Tübingen School, especially D.F. Strauß’s Leben Jesu. His youthful desire for freedom and knowledge caused him to leave the seminary in 1845, shortly before his ordination as subdea…

Fatherland

(753 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Ethics I. Dogmatics Since the 18th century, terms such as fatherland, love for the fatherland and patriotism have played a central role in the proclamation of all Christian churches and in the discourse of academic theologians, and have also influenced debates on Jewish self-understanding at least since M. Mendelssohn. In view of the striking methodical reticence of scholarship in church history and the history of theology, there is a deficit of historical terminolog…

Rupp, Julius

(198 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Aug 13, Königsberg [Kaliningrad] – Jul 11, 1884, Königsberg). After studying philosophy and Protestant theology, Rupp went on to the seminary in Wittenberg. From 1832 to 1845 he taught at the Altstädisches Gymnasium in Königsberg, and from 1832 to 1851 he was a lecturer in the Königsberg faculty of theology. In 1842 he was appointed Divisionspfarrer and was ordained on Apr 22. Five days later he was also chosen as pastor of the Reformed congregation. Rupp, a religious rationalist and political liberal, criticized the renewed confessi…

Daub, Carl

(248 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Mar 20, 1765, Kassel – Nov 22, 1836, Heidelberg). From a poor background, Daub began his studies of philology, philosophy, history, and theology in Marburg in 1786. He passed the theological exam in Marburg in 1789, became Stipendiatenmajor (tutor for scholarship students), and Privatdozent in 1790. In 1794, he became professor of philosophy in the Hohe Landesschule Hanau. On Nov 13, 1795, he was appointed second professor – of dogmatics a…

Lepsius, Johannes

(715 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Dec 15, 1858, Berlin – Feb 3, 1926, Merano), Protestant clergyman, after 1896 head of the humanitarian Armenian relief organization. Lepsius was the son of the famous Egyptologist Carl Richard Lepsius. His mother Elisabeth, a neo-Pietist supporter of J.H. Wichern's Inland Mission, played a decisive role in his religious development. He studied philosophy (doctorate in 1880) and theology with A. Cremer, as advised by F. Fabri. He served as curate and teacher with the German Protes…

Religion Conferences

(839 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] are more or less regularly organized international conferences attended by theologians, leaders, officials, and believers from different religions. The prototype of all religion conferences is the World’s Parliament of Religions hosted in 1893 in conjunction with the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago. At this conference, university theologians and church leaders from all Christian denominations, as well as Reform Jewish (Reform Judaism) rabbis, theosophists (Theosophy), Hind…

Civilization

(1,329 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] I. The neologism “civilization,” probably coined around 1700 by French legal scholars with the Latin semantic field of civis (citizen), civilitas, and civiliter in mind, originally referred to the transformation of a criminal procedure into a civil procedure. Initially in French, English, and Spanish, but later also in other European languages including German, “civilization” soon acquired broad meaning in the history of philosophy. Civilization now stood both for the lifest…

Robertson, Frederick William

(256 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Feb 3, 1816, London – Aug 15, 1853, Brighton), Anglican theologian and social reformer. Robertson is considered one of the great, epoch-making preachers of the 19th century. After being ordained priest in Oxford, the stark confrontation with the catastrophic consequences of rapid capitalist industrialization in the poverty-stricken areas of Winchester and Cheltenham made such an impression on his sensibility that he suffered several nervous breakdowns. He was a Germanophile trans…

Lamparter, Eduard

(218 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Nov 21, 1860, Geislingen, Württemberg – Feb 24, 1945, Stuttgart), pastor in Stuttgart, president of the Evangelische Arbeitervereine of Württemberg, from 1913 Landtag deputy and from 1919 a delegate to the Landeskirchenversammlung (meeting of regional churches) drafting a constitution for the regional church. In the 1920s, Lamparter became active in the Verein zur Abwehr des Antisemitismus. In 1928 a collection of his essays was published under the title Evangelische Kirche und Judentum. He demanded legal and social equality for Jews, emphasized the…

Schmitt, Carl

(588 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jul 11, 1888, Plettenburg – Apr 7, 1985, Plettenburg), Roman Catholic jurisprudent and political theorist. Firmly rooted in the traditional Catholic milieu, Schmitt must be considered one of the most brilliant German intellectuals of the 20th century. Despite his partisan advocacy of the “German revolution” of the National Socialists – in part emotional and positional, in part opportunistic, Schmitt, a radical anti-Semite, exercised a strong influence even after his dismissal in …

Paulus, Heinrich Eberhard Gottlob

(552 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Sep 1, 1761, Leonberg – Aug 10, 1851, Heidelberg). After the early death of Paulus’s mother, his father was the major influence on his religious education. In 1771 the father was dismissed from his position as deacon by the Stuttgart Consistory on account of his mystical separatism. While still a seminary student in Tübingen, from 1781 Paulus developed basic elements of a critical rational exegesis, rejecting the supranaturalism (Rationalism) of his teacher G.C. Storr. He was hig…

Piper, Otto Alfred

(299 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Nov 29, 1891, Lichte, Thuringia – Feb 13, 1982, Princeton, USA). Piper’s mother, descended from French Huguenots, provided contacts with France that helped to shape his life. A forerunner of the youth movement, he expressed that generation’s typical criticism of capitalism and individualism. He was severely traumatized by voluntary service at the front, and in 1920, having gained his doctorate in Göttingen, he became a socialist advocate of pacifism and ecumenism ¶ (Ecumene). He rejected the identification of faith and politics made by Religious Soci…

Cremer, August Hermann

(773 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Oct 18, 1834, Unna – Oct 4, 1903, Greifswald), Protestant theologian. A graduate of the Gütersloh Protestant Gymnasium, from simple origins and shaped by the revival movement (Revival/Revival movements), he studied in Halle from 1853 with F.A.G. Tholuck and Julius Müller and in Tübingen from 1856 with J.T. Beck. Here he established a close friendship with M. Kähler. After a brief stay at the Wittenberg Seminary for Preachers, Cremer received the Lic.Theol. on the basis of his Die eschatologische Rede Jesu Christi Matthäi 24.25 (“The Eschatological Discou…

Tittmann, Johann August Heinrich

(259 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Aug 1, 1773, Langensalza – Dec 30, 1831, Leipzig). Tittmann’s father, Karl Christian Tittmann, later became chief consistorial councilor in Dresden. Tittmann studied philosophy and Protestant theology at Wittenberg and Leipzig, where in 1796 he was appointed associate professor, initially in the faculty of philosophy, then (1800) in the faculty of theology; in 1805 he was appointed full professor of theology. He was appointed to a number of church offices (a capitulary of Meißen …

Hausrath, Adolf

(392 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jan 13, 1837, Karlsruhe – Aug 2, 1909, Heidelberg), a Protestant church historian. The son of a prominent pastor from Baden, Hausrath studied Protestant theology and history from 1856 onward in liberal Jena, where K.A. v. Hase became his teacher and close friend. Following study visits to Göttingen, Berlin, and Heidelberg, Hausrath earned his Lic.theol. in Berlin with a study entitled Der Ketzermeister Konrad von Marburg (1861). After completing his curacy, he gained his Habilitation in Heidelberg in 1862 and was employed as an assessor in the…

Eucken, Rudolf Christoph

(384 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jan 5, 1846, Aurich – Sep 15, 1926, Jena), a fashionable philosopher of cultural Protestantism, studied classical philology and philosophy at Göttingen with R.H. Lotze and Gustav Teichmüller (1832–1888) from 1863 to 1867. While writing his dissertation on Aristotle's language, he corresponded with F.A. Trendelenburg. From 1871 to 1874 he …

Nation

(936 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] The Latin word natio (from nasci, “be born”) denotes the place of origin of a person or thing. Natio was the goddess of birth. The Latin word also meant a tribe or people. Since the Middle Ages, nation (or natio) has had a wide range of heterogeneous meanings. The medieval nationes of universities, councils, merchants, clerics, and nobility were not precursors of modern ideas of a nation, although clerics and landed nobility in the late Middle Ages developed notions of a German national consciousness or sense of a German Reich. Formulas using the word natio and references …

Zahn-Harnack, Agnes von

(201 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jun 19, 1884, Gießen – May 22, 1950, Berlin), daughter of A. v. Harnack; journalist and campaigner for women’s rights. After teacher training and earning her Dr.phil. (1912), from 1914 to 1918 she tested a career in social planning concretely in the civil service. After joining the German Democratic Party in 1919, she earned a reputation as a high-profile, culturally sensitive internationally-minded organizer of the bourgeois women’s movement; from 1931 to 1933 she chaired the Fe…

Cultural Studies

(795 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] The term cultural studies (Ger. Kulturwissenschaft) appeared as early as the late 18th century. It gained programmatic content, however, only around 1900 in the controversies concerning the independence of the humanities in relation to the natural sciences and concerning the normative integration of modern capitalist mass societies shaped by multiple crises. Since the “linguistic turn” and the “culturalist turn” in the 1980s, it has served the trans-d…

Kahnis, Karl Friedrich August

(160 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Dec 22, 1814, Greiz, Vogtland – Jun 20, 1888, Leipzig). Kahnis became associate professor in Breslau (Warcław) in 1844 and professor of dogmatics in Leipzig in 1850. He emerged as a proponent of a moderate Lutheran confessionalism which is evident from his major work Die lutherische Dogmatik historisch-genetisch dargestellt [Lutheran dogmatics presented historically and genetically] (3 vols., 1861–1868; 2 vols., 21874/1875). His theology emphasizes Scripture and confession. In opposition to K.I. Nitzsch, he was critical of union (Unions, …
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