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Edomite and Hebrew

(703 words)

Author(s): Lemaire, André
Edomite is the language of Edom, a territory southeast of the Dead Sea that was a kingdom from ca. 845 to ca. 552 B.C.E., extending into the Negev in 597 B.C.E., and into the Judean Shephelah as far as Lachish and Maresha in 587 B.C.E. (Lemaire 2011). The corpus of Edomite inscriptions is still very limited (Israel 1987; Bartlett 1989:209–229; Vanderhooft 1995): an ostracon from Umm el-Biyara (Milik 1966), another one from Ḥorvat ʿUza (Beit-Arieh and Cresson 1985; Beit-Arieh 2007:133–137; Beckin…

Ammonite and Hebrew

(1,446 words)

Author(s): Lemaire, André
Ammonite is the language that was spoken in the territory and kingdom of Ammon, east of the Jordan, during the Iron Age. It is attested in inscriptions dating from circa 800 B.C.E. until the beginning of the 6th century B.C.E. The kingdom of Ammon apparently disappeared during a neo-Babylonian campaign ca. 582 B.C.E. (Josephus, Jewish Antiquities X, 181–182) and later inscriptions are in Aramaic. The corpus of Ammonite inscriptions (Aufrecht 1989; 1999; Hübner 1992:15–129; Israel 1997) is still limited. It contains mainly seals and bullae, many of which were…


(388 words)

Author(s): Lemaire, André
[German Version] Mareshah, modern Tell Sandahannah, 38 km southwest of Jerusalem, identified on the basis of Eusebius of Caesarea's Onomasticon and a Greek inscription that mentions a Sidonian community “living in Marisa.” Joshua 15:44 names Mareshah as a city of the Shephelah, related to Caleb (1 Chr 2:42) and Judah (1 Chr 4:21). Mic 1:15 prophesies its capture by Assyria. Its mention in 2 Chronicles (11:8; 14:8,* 9*; 20:37) is a token of its significance at the time when Chronicles was composed. Rehoboam's suppo…

Aramaic Inscription Of The Xanthos Trilingual Stele (4.30)

(717 words)

Author(s): Lemaire, André
Commentary In 1973, the excavations of Xanthos, directed by H. Metzger, brought to light a late Persian Period monumental stele dating to 337 bce. Sometimes referred to as the Letoon Trilingual Stele, its three inscriptions are in Aramaic (in the front), in Lycian (on the left side), and in Greek (on the right side). Both Greek and Lycian texts seem practically identical and are a kind of civic version presenting the decision from the point of view of the city while the Aramaic text is a satrapic version presenting th…

Samʾalian Funerary Stele: Ördekburnu (Istanbul Archaeological Museum, Number 7696) (4.24)

(739 words)

Author(s): Lemaire, André
Commentary This stele was pointed out to von Lushan (1888) in Ördekburnu, 18 km south of Zincirli, but its interpretation and language was very uncertain for more than a century after the detailed study of the inscription by Lidzbarski who reluctantly proposed to consider it an Anatolian inscription in Aramaic script. Because of this proposition, it was not included in KAI and Tropper 1993, even though several epigraphers (Bowman, Landsberger) proposed to consider it a West Semitic inscription. After a new detailed study of the inscriptio…


(6,872 words)

Author(s): Kooij, Gerrit van der | Knauf, Ernst Axel | Lemaire, André | Bloedhorn, Hanswulf
[German Version] I. Paleography Today – II. Palestine – III. Texts I. Paleography Today Paleography is the study of the development of writing; as an important element in codicology, it examines early forms of writing, particularly those of antiquity and the Middle Ages. The distinction between the use of ink and “epigraphic” writing is irrelevant. Writing is an empirical bridge between archaeology and the historical sciences (History/Concepts of history); it provides two starting points for paleography, one …


(5,662 words)

Author(s): van der Kooij, Gerrit | Knauf, Ernst Axel | Lemaire, Andre´ | Bloedhorn, Hanswulf
[English Version] I. Stand der Forschung, allgemeinP. ist die Wiss. von der Entwicklung der Schrift und untersucht als wesentlicher Bestandteil der Handschriftenkunde die alten Schriftformen, v.a. die der Antike und des MA. Dabei spielt keine Rolle, ob Tinte verwendet wurde oder ein »epigraphisches« Schriftwerk vorliegt. Die Schrift ist eine empirische Brücke zw. der Archäologie und der Geschichtswiss. (Geschichte) und liefert der P. zwei Ansätze: einen philol. und einen archäologischen. Philol. gese…