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Fest

(8,113 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang | Kranemann, Benedikt | Leppin, Volker | Petzolt, Martin | Rode-Breymann, Susanne | Et al.
1. Allgemein 1.1. AnlässeF. (von lat. festus, »feierlich«, »festlich«) unterbrechen die Routine des Alltags, zu dem sie als zeitlich und räumlich begrenzte »Anti-Struktur« in Gegensatz stehen und dessen strukturierender Bestandteil sie sind [21]. In der Nz. markierten F. die Phasen natürlicher, sozialer oder individueller Zeitfolgen, die entweder zyklischer oder serieller Natur sein konnten: Ersteres z. B. beim landwirtschaftlichen Jahreszyklus, dem ökonomischen Zyklus, dem Kirchenjahr mit seinen wiederkehrenden Heiligentagen und Jahrmärkten, Letzteres z. B. bei…
Date: 2019-11-19

Volksfrömmigkeit

(4,019 words)

Author(s): Fischer, Michael | Leppin, Volker | Bryner, Erich
1. Allgemein 1.1. Begriff Unter V. (engl. popular religion, franz. religion populaire) wird die alltägliche und lebensrelevante Religiosität der Vielen verstanden, unabhängig davon, ob diese aus einem theologischen bzw. religionsphänomenologischen Blickwinkel als »christl.« oder »kirchl.« anzusehen ist. V. will den gesamten Alltag und die Umwelt heiligen bzw. das Leben und die eigene Erfahrungswelt mit dem Religiösen in Beziehung setzen. In der neueren Forschung wird statt von V. auch von »populärer« bzw. »popularer« Frömmigkeit (= Fr.) gesprochen oder einfach von »…
Date: 2019-11-19

Identität

(3,650 words)

Author(s): Jarzebowski, Claudia | Schmale, Wolfgang | Leppin, Volker
1. AllgemeinEine allgemeingültige Definition von I. kann es für die Nz. ebenso wenig geben wie für die Moderne. Der Begriff I. stammt aus zwei unterschiedlichen Forschungstraditionen. Die angelsächs. Sozialpsychologie charakterisiert I. als ein Merkmal des modernen Individuums [6]; die Volkskunde favorisiert den Begriff I. in deutlicher Abgrenzung zu dem älteren und ideologisch stark aufgeladenen Begriff Volksgeist [2]. In der geschichtswiss. Forschung ist der Begriff I. umstritten [14]. Insbes. aus einer akteurszentrierten Perspektive werden Zweifel an der ze…
Date: 2019-11-19

Schriftprinzip, protestantisches

(705 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
Insbes. die konziliaristischen Streitigkeiten des späten MA um die Frage der Oberhoheit von Papst oder Konzil in der Kirche hatten die Frage nach einer autoritativen Grundlage für kirchl. Lehrentscheidungen jenseits der menschlich-kirchl. Institutionen immer virulenter gemacht. Im Rückgriff auf das Denken Wilhelms von Ockham wurden Konzepte entwickelt, die die Fraglichkeit der Entscheidungen von Papsttum und Konzil betonten und den Bezug auf die Bibel zur Regulierung der Konflikte propagierten. Damit verband sich ein immer stärkeres Insistieren auf einer w…
Date: 2019-11-19

Gemeinde

(1,096 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
1. Christliche 1.1. Spätmittelalter, Reformation und KonfessionalisierungAusgehend von der seit der Karolingerzeit gültigen parochialen Struktur der Kirche (d. h. der Zuordnung von Wohnsitz und kirchlicher G.-Zugehörigkeit) entwickelte sich im späten MA ein starkes Bewusstsein insbes. der städtischen G. als sozialer Zusammenhang in politischer wie religiöser Hinsicht, so dass man im Blick hierauf sogar von einem corpus Christianum (»christl. Körperschaft«) im Kleinen sprechen kann [3]. Aus diesem zugleich kommunalen und parochialen Selbstbewusstsein entwic…
Date: 2019-11-19

Gewissen

(738 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
Der G.-Begriff wurde im späten MA in Fortführung der Vorstellung eines G.-Funkens u. a. bei dem lat. Kirchenvater Hieronymus mit der mystischen Vorstellung vom Seelenfünklein produktiv weiterentwickelt. Für die Formierung des nzl. G.-Begriffs war die zunehmend wachsende Kluft zwischen individuellen Überzeugungen und überindividuellen Bindungen an gesellschaftliche Normen und an staatliches Recht entscheidend – eine Kluft, die zuerst in der Religionsfrage fassbar wurde. Die reformatorische Theologie Martin Luthers wurde von dem evang. Theologen Karl Holl geradezu al…
Date: 2019-11-19

Gefühl

(2,422 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang | Leppin, Volker
1. Allgemein 1.1. Probleme der DefinitionUnter »Fühlen, Gefühl« verstand noch Zedlers Universallexikon in der Mitte des 18. Jh.s »einen der fünf äußerlichen Sinne, der sich über den ganzen Leib ausbreitet« [1], also den Tastsinn (lat. tactus). Emotionen wie Liebe, Eifersucht, Neid, Melancholie oder Traurigkeit, die man heute unter dem Begriff G. subsumieren würde, werden hingegen als »Gemüths-Neigung«, als »Gemüths-Beschaffenheit« oder als »Gemüths-Bewegung« beschrieben.G. sind tief in der Entwicklungsgeschichte der Menschheit verankert. Sie sind als Grun…
Date: 2019-11-19

Häresie

(1,695 words)

Author(s): Walter, Peter | Leppin, Volker
1. BegriffH. (von griech. haíresis, »Schule«, »Lehrmeinung«, »Parteiung«) bezeichnet eine gravierende Abweichung im Glauben (»Irrlehre«), die den Ausschluss aus der Kirche zur Folge hat ( Exkommunikation). Das im Deutschen synonyme Wort »Ketzerei« leitet sich von der Bezeichnung für die ma. Massenbewegung der »Katharer« (griech. katharoí, »die Reinen«) ab, die im 12. Jh. eine Gegenkirche bildeten und mit allen Mitteln verfolgt wurden. Von der H. als Verletzung der Integrität des Glaubens durch Einzelne oder Gruppen sind die Apostasie (griech. apostasía) als »Abfall« vom …
Date: 2019-11-19

Mystik

(3,613 words)

Author(s): Sparn, Walter | Leppin, Volker | Bryner, Erich | Grözinger, Karl Erich
1. EinleitungM., ein aus dem 17. Jh. datierender Allgemeinbegriff, hat sich allen religionswiss. und -psychologischen Definitionsversuchen des 19. und frühen 20. Jh.s entzogen [1]; [3]; [5]. Die neuere Forschung gebraucht ihn daher nur als heuristischen Begriff für sehr unterschiedliche, jeweils bestimmten kulturellen und sozialen Kontexten zugehörige Phänomene intensiver individueller Erfahrung der Verbindung oder Vereinigung (lat. unio mystica) mit dem Gott, dem Göttlichen, dem Heiligen usw. Diese Phänomene sind niemals unmittelbar zugänglich, da…
Date: 2019-11-19

Gedächtnis

(3,005 words)

Author(s): Andres, Jan | Leppin, Volker
1. DefinitionUnter G. (lat. memoria, Ort aller G.-Inhalte) versteht man allgemein einen Vorrat (Inhalte) und Speicher (Medien) von Wissen über die Vergangenheit, der durch den Prozess der Erinnerung (Anamnese) abgerufen bzw. aktualisiert werden kann. Fast alle G.-Theorien suchen nach den Verbindungen des Thesaurus-Modells mit dem eigentlichen Akt des Erinnerns. Seit Aristoteles sind G. und Erinnerung ein Bestandteil der Rhetorik unter dem Stichwort der ars memorativa (»G.-Kunst«). Die Mnemonik gehört zur Redekunst, weil sie als Technik Voraussetzung für den aus…
Date: 2019-11-19

Teufelsglaube

(899 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
1. TeufelsvorstellungenDer Teufel hatte in der Frühen Nz. eine Bedeutung sowohl als heilsgeschichtlicher Gegenspieler Gottes wie auch als negative Wirkmacht, deren Kraft unmittelbar in dieser Welt spürbar war. Für die Ausgestaltung des T. blieb entscheidend, wie sich diese reale Gegenüberstellung mit Gottes Allmacht vertrug.Insbes. im Werk Martin Luthers zeigt sich dieses Bemühen paradigmatisch für die nzl. Reflexion: Zum einen wird im anthropologisch zugespitzten Bild der Mensch als Reittier Gottes einerseits, des Teufels andererseits verstanden, wobei sich …
Date: 2019-11-19

Tradition

(5,274 words)

Author(s): Walther, Gerrit | Walter, Peter | Leppin, Volker | Reichmuth, Stefan
1. Geschichte und Kultur 1.1. ÜberblickT. bedeutet »Überlieferung«. Idealtypisch versteht man darunter einen je spezifischen Fundus von Wissensbeständen und Techniken, Sitten und Bräuchen, Einstellungen und Haltungen, Normen und Institutionen, der innerhalb einer Gemeinschaft relativ unverändert von einer Generation an die folgende weitergegeben wird und deren Kultur dadurch Kontinuität und Identität verleiht. »Als Träger von T. im engeren und weiteren Sinne gelten bevorzugt die kleinen sozialen Einheiten (Eltern, Familie, Clan) oder Beruf…
Date: 2019-11-19

Congregation

(1,187 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
1. Christian 1.1. Late Middle Ages, Reformation, and ConfessionalizationThe parochial structure of the church had been the norm since the Carolingian period (i.e. the association of one’s place of residence with membership in an ecclesiastical congregation). In the late Middle Ages, there developed a strong sense – especially in urban areas – of the congregation as a social nexus politically as well as religiously, so that in this context we can even speak of a  corpus Christianum (“Christian body”) in microcosm [3]. This self-conception, both communal and parochial, g…
Date: 2019-10-14

Identity

(4,038 words)

Author(s): Jarzebowski, Claudia | Schmale, Wolfgang | Leppin, Volker
1. Introduction A universally valid definition of identity is as elusive for the early modern period as for the late. The concept derives from two distinct traditions of research. Anglophone social psychology characterizes identity as a characteristic of the modern individual [6], whereas German ethnology prefers the term Identität in clear rejection of the older and ideologically explosive term  Volksgeist (“folk spirit”) [2]. The concept of identity is disputed among historians [14]. From an actor-centered perspective in particular, doubts are articulated ov…
Date: 2019-10-14

Conscience

(792 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
In the late Middle Ages, the notion of a “spark of conscience” found, for example, in the work of the Latin church father Jerome, was developed productively into the mystical notion of the spark of the soul. For the formation of the early modern term  conscience, the decisive factor was the increasing gap between individual convictions and supraindividual obligations to social norms and laws imposed by the state – a gap that first became identifiable in the religious question. The Protestant theologian Karl Holl has even called the Reform…
Date: 2019-10-14

Mysticism

(3,883 words)

Author(s): Sparn, Walter | Leppin, Volker | Bryner, Erich | Grözinger, Karl Erich
1. IntroductionThe noun mysticism, a general term dating from the 17th century, eluded all attempts of students of religion and the psychology of religion to define it in the 19th and early 20th century [1]; [3]; [5]. More recent researchers therefore use it only as a heuristic term for highly diverse phenomena of an intense individual experience of bonding or union (Latin  unio mystica) with God, the divine, the holy, etc. – always in specific cultural and social contexts. These phenomena are never accessible directly, since we know of them only through (…
Date: 2020-04-06

Heresy

(1,791 words)

Author(s): Walter, Peter | Leppin, Volker
1. DefinitionThe term heresy (from Greek  haíresis, “school (of thought),” “faction”) denotes a serious deviation in the faith (“false doctrine”), resulting in exclusion from the church (Excommunication). The German synonym Ketzerei is derived from the name of the medieval mass movement of the Cathars (Greek  katharoí, “pure ones”), which formed an anti-church in the 12th century and were persecuted relentlessly. Heresy, as a violation of the integrity of the faith by individuals or groups, must be distinguished from apostasy (Greek  apostasía) as “renunciation” of the fa…
Date: 2019-10-14

Devil, belief in

(1,027 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
1. Concepts of the DevilThe Devil in the early modern period had a double role as an opponent of God in the narrative of salvation and as a negative force whose effects were tangible in the everyday world. The key factor in the shaping of belief in the Devil was how this concept of opposition worked in relation to the omnipotence of God.Concern for this issue in early modern reflection is well exemplified in the works of Martin Luther. On the one hand, there is a pointedly anthropological idea of the human individual as a vehicle for both God and the Dev…
Date: 2019-10-14

Festival

(8,958 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang | Kranemann, Benedikt | Leppin, Volker | Petzolt, Martin | Rode-Breymann, Susanne | Et al.
1. General 1.1. OccasionsFestivals (from Latin  festus, “joyful, festive”) interrupt the routine of the everyday world, to which they contrast as a temporally and spatially limited “anti-structure” of which they are the structuring element [21]. In the early modern period, festivals marked the phases of natural, social, or individual chronologies, which could be either cyclic or linear. Cyclic chronologies included the annual agricultural cycle, the economic cycle, the church year with its recurring saint's days (Saint), and …
Date: 2019-10-14

Memory

(3,348 words)

Author(s): Andres, Jan | Leppin, Volker
1. DefinitionMemory (Latin  memoria, “faculty of recollection”) is generally understood as a reservoir (in the sense both of content and container) of knowledge of the past, available for recollection or refreshment through the process of “calling to mind” (Greek anamnēsis). Almost all theories of memory seek to link the thesaurus model with the actual act of remembering. Memory and recollection have since Aristotle been a subject of rhetoric under the heading of the  ars memorativa (“mnemotechnics”). Mnemonics belongs to rhetoric because it is an essential techni…
Date: 2019-10-14

Emotion

(2,539 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang | Leppin, Volker
1. General 1.1. Problems of definitionEmotions are deeply rooted in human developmental history. As a fundamental phenomenon of subjective experience, they were common to humans and higher animals, and are based on a physiological state with measurable physical reactions (e.g. changes in pulse or breathing, motor expression in mime and gesture). However, they are characterized by cultural variation [4] in the expression and moral evaluation of emotions, as well as in their precise definition and frequency. To this extent, emotions are also subject …
Date: 2019-10-14

Henry of Kalkar

(169 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (1328, Kalkar – Dec 20, 1408, Cologne). Henry of Kalkar received the M.A. in Paris in 1357, and later the Bacc.theol. Renouncing already acquired benefices, he entered the Charterhouse of Cologne (Carthusians) in 1365. From 1368 to 1396, he held leading positions in charterhouses near Arnhem and Roermond, in Cologne, and near Strasbourg, while also officiating as visitor of his province from 1375 ¶ onward. In performing the spiritual dimension of these offices, he developed a devotional theology of monastic discipleship which aimed to achieve …

Millenarianism/Chiliasm

(4,324 words)

Author(s): Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria | Aune, David E. | Fitschen, Klaus | Leppin, Volker | Boyer, Paul S | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. New Testament – III. Church History – IV. North America – V. Systematic Theology – VI. Islam – VII. China I. Religious Studies Millenarianism (chiliasm) refers to the notion of a 1,000-year (Lat. millenarius, Gk χίλια/ chília) period ¶ immediately preceding the Last Judgment and the end of the world. This conception of world history (see also II) derives from Jewish apocalypticism (III) and became widespread over time, being interpreted in various ways depending on the age and cultural envi…

Heidelberg, University of

(493 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] The university founded in 1386 by Rupert I, Elector Palatine, was initially staffed by scholars forced out of Paris and Prague because of ecclesial and national opposition. The founding rector Marsilius of Inghen guided Heidelberg on the path of a moderate via moderna; from 1452, the via antiqua shared equal rights. The scholastic manner of instruction (Scholasticism) was supplemented after 1456 with the humanist (Humanism: III), but not profoundly altered. Brought to the Lutheran Reformation in 1558 by Ottheinrich (1556–1559)…

Sudermann, Daniel

(137 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (1550, Liège – after 1630, Straßburg [Strasbourg]). Though born into a Catholic family, Sudermann came into contact with Calvinism, Lutheranism, and Anabaptism early on. Having worked as a private tutor, after 1585 he served as an educator of the nobility at the Bruderhof in Straßburg. He had already come in contact with the ideas of K. v. Schwenckfeld, some of whose writings he began publishing in 1584. He dated his own attraction to Schwenckfeld’s teaching from a conversion expe…

Joris, David

(158 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (Georgsohn; 1501, Flanders – Aug 25, 1556, Basel). The glass painter Joris's public criticism of a Host procession in Delft in 1528 led to his mutilation and banishment. After receiving adult baptism in 1534/1535, Joris promoted his claims to leadership when he mediated between the Melchiorite Anabaptists (who were divided after the fall of Münster), seeking an – at least temporary – renunciation of violence (Bocholt meeting, 1536). Ecstatic visions in December 1536 confirmed his …

John of Jandun

(144 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (1285/1289, Jandun – 1328, Todi). John, who received his M.A. in Paris in 1310, regarded Averroes as a normative authority, more definitively so than the consistent Aristotelians of the 13th century did. He accepted Averroes's doctrine of the soul and cosmology as philosophically correct but did not intellectually harmonize them with Christian doctrine, which he never explicitly disputed. Together with Marsilius of Padua, whom he influenced intellectually (although he did not co-author the Defensor pacis), he escaped the Inquisition in 1326 and fled to …

French Revolution

(765 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] I. Course – II. French Revolution and Religion – III. Effects on Germany In the French Revolution, discontent exploded over the inability of French absolutism under Louis XVI to achieve reform. It signaled the dissolution of the old European estates (Estate-based society) and absolutism, to be replaced by bourgeois society (Bourgeoisie) and the constitutional state based on the rule of law. I. Course The struggle of the aristocracy in the parlements to preserve their traditional privileges frustrated the govern-¶ ment, which, facing a major financial cris…

Michael of Cesena

(170 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (died Nov 29, 1342, Munich). After receiving his doctorate in theology in Paris in 1316 and being elected minister general of the Franciscans, Michael became the key figure in the transition from the practical to the theoretical poverty (IV) debate. In agreement with John XXII, he opposed the Spiritual Franciscans, whom he had been unable to reintegrate into the order; after the chapter in Perugia in 1322, however, he rejected its denial of the total poverty of Christ and his disc…

Loën, Johann Michael von

(193 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (Dec 11, 1694, Frankfurt am Main – Jul 24, 1776, Lingen). After studying jurisprudence in Marburg and Halle (C. Thomasius) and undertaking educational journeys, especially to the courts of European rulers, Loën lived in Frankfurt am Main from an inherited fortune from 1724. Drawing on the form of the courtly Baroque novel, he developed an ¶ enlightened conception of state politics in Der redliche Mann am Hofe (The candid man at court; 1740). In the essay Die einzig wahre Religion (The only true religion; 1750f.), he elaborated an irenic program on the basis …

Niclaes, Hendrik

(156 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (Jan 9/10, 1502, Münster? – after 1570). Gifted as a visionary from his youth, Niclaes moved from Amsterdam to Emden after his calling as a prophet in 1540. He expanded late medieval mystical concepts into a prophetic-chiliastic spiritualism. Against a background of pantheistic ontology, he saw himself as the reincarnation of Christ. Through his missionary journeys, the “Family of Love” (Familists) spread, through their experience of the Spirit transcend-¶ ing the bounds of confession and religion; this was not rightly understood in the many accusa…

Til, Salomo(n) van

(136 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (Dec 26, 1643, Wees – Oct 31, 1713, Leiden). After studying in Utrecht and Leiden ( J. Cocceius), in 1666 Til became pastor of the Reformed church in Huisduinen. After other positions, he came to Dordrecht in 1683, where the next year he was also appointed to a chair at the Schola Illustris. In 1702 he moved to Leiden. The focus of his work was scholarly philological exegesis of the Old Testament prophets. He modified the covenant theology he learned from Cocceius by including Cartesian (R. Descartes) elements, paving the way for the early Enlightenment by giving theologia n…

Human Rights

(5,661 words)

Author(s): Steiner, Udo | Cancik, Hubert | Leppin, Volker | Wielandt, Rotraud | Mokrosch, Reinhold
[German Version] I. Concept and Terminology – II. History – III. Ethics – IV. Constitutional and International Law – V. Education I. Concept and Terminology In the usage of international law and national constitutional states, human rights are rights possessed by every individual (Human beings) by virtue of his or her humanity, independent of cultures, nationalities, and periods (universality). Their guiding principle is that of human dignity (inviolable, indisposable, inalienable). Guarantees of human rights can a…

Henry Bate of Mechelen/Malines

(119 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (Mar 24, 1246, Mechelen – c. 1310). Henry Bate studied the artes in Paris c. 1266–1272; after 1281 he held various clerical offices in Liège. Besides his interest in astronomy and astrology (translating treatises of Ibn Ezra and Abu Ma'zar, Tabulae mechlinenses), he composed a metaphysically oriented, compilatory Speculum based on a hierarchical structure of the intelligible world, displaying influences ranging from Aristotelianism (including Siger of Brabant) to Neoplatonism (esp. Proclus). Volker Leppin Bibliography Works: Speculum divinorum et quorund…

Name

(5,597 words)

Author(s): Udolph, Jürgen | Figal, Günter | Hutter, Manfred | Assel, Heinrich | Rüterswörden, Udo | Et al.
[German Version] I. Linguistics – II. Philosophy – III. Religious Studies – IV. Philosophy of Religion – V. Old Testament – VI. New Testament – VII. Church History – VIII. Judaism – IX. Islam I. Linguistics Linguistically, a name is a proper noun ( nomen proprium) as opposed to a common noun ( nomen appellativum); both function grammatically as substantives. Proper nouns (names) designate individual persons, places, things, and ideas or collectives thought of as individuals; they do not ascribe common attributes to their referents. Outside…

Thomä, Nikolaus

(91 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (1492, Siegelsbach, near Heilbronn – 1446, Bergzabern), matriculated at Heidelberg in 1510 and became a pastor in Flinsbach in 1519. In 1520 he received his master’s degree. From 1524 on he was a clergyman and Latin teacher in Bergzabern. Having sided with the Swiss in the Eucharistic controversy (Eucharist: II, 3), he came increasingly under M. Bucer’s influence, especially after conflict with the Anabaptists (meeting with H. Denck in 1527). Volker Leppin Bibliography J.P. Gelbert, Magister Johann Baders Leben und Schriften, Nikolaus Thomä und seine Briefe, 1868.

Jena, University

(992 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] After the loss of the Kurkreis with Wittenberg University (Wittenberg, University of) ¶ as a consequence of the Schmalkaldic War, the University of Jena constituted the state university of Ernestine Saxony and its successor states. During the imprisonment of Ernst Friedrich, a school of higher education was established in Jena in 1548. Its first teachers included such important but contrasting figures as V. Strigel, a student of Melanchthon, and the strict Lutheran E. Schnepf (from 1549). The fact that the Ernestin…

Matthew of Krakow

(161 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (before 1350, Krakow –Mar 5, 1410, Heidelberg). Matthew studied in Prague (1367, M.A.; 1384, professor of theology), where he worked also as a clergy-critical preacher and as an edifying writer. In 1394, he went to Heidelberg University, where he became rector in 1396/1397. After supporting the building up of theological studies in Krakow from 1397, he returned to Heidelberg before 1400, and carried out diplomatic missions for the Electors. His criticism of the curia, aimed at cleansing the see of Rome, especially against simony ( De squaloribus curiae Romanae, 1403;…

Marbeck, Pilgram

(246 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (c. 1495, Rattenberg, Tyrol – 1556, Augsburg). In his home town Marbeck was given in 1525 the office of Bergrichter (mountain magistrate). He resisted the unreasonable request to use this function to put an end to Anabaptist activity. He gave up his office after the execution of the Anabaptist preacher Leonhard Schiemer in 1528, and was probably baptized himself in Krumau (Bohemia). In 1528 he was granted citizenship of Strasbourg. With his mystical theology of suffering discipleship leading through…

Hut, Hans

(164 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (c. 1490, Haina – Dec 6, 1527, Augsburg). From 1524 and under the influence of A. Bodenstein von Karlstadt and T. Müntzer (Anabaptists), Hut, a bookkeeper, rejected infant baptism and was baptized in 1526 by H.Denck. After participating in the Peasants' War in the hope that it might bring about the eschatological cleansing, he reacted to its failure by prolonging Müntzer's millenarianism (III, 3), now expecting the judgment of the wicked and the thousand-year kingdom to commence i…

Kautz, Jakob

(163 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (c. 1500, Großbockenheim – after 1532, probably in Moravia). On Jun 9, 1527, Jakob Kautz, then preacher (from 1524) in Worms, publicly posted “Seven Articles” that stressed the importance of the “inner word” under the influence of H. Denck and rejected infant baptism as well as the notion of the Real Presence; the intended disputation was probably meant to initiate a reformation in line with spiritualistic Anabaptism (Anabaptists). Expelled from Worms on July 1, Kautz took part in…

Bader, Johannes

(181 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (c. 1470, Zweibrücken – Aug 10 or 15, 1545, Landau). Formerly a teacher and chaplain at the court of Zweibrücken, Bader became pastor in Landau in 1518. Because of his Reformational preaching from 1522 onward, the clerical court of Speyer banned him in 1524, but the council of Landau protected him. His work influenced the education of youths (…

Hoffmann, Melchior

(364 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (c. 1500, Schwäbisch-Hall – 1543, Strasbourg) was a Spiritualist (Spiritualism: II, 1) and an Anabaptist. Hoffmann was active from 1523 as a lay preacher in Livonia. He placed the mysticism of suffering imparted by A. Bodenstein von Karlstadt in an apocalyptic context. The time before the Last Day announced for 1533 was to bring Christians suffering, but also knowledge, directly conveyed by the Spirit. Despite a certificate of orthodoxy issued by Luther in 1525, Hoffmann was expel…

Hospitality

(2,520 words)

Author(s): Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria | Wilson, Walter T. | Dell, Katharine | Koenig, John | Leppin, Volker | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Ancient Near East – III. Greco-Roman Antiquity – IV. Old Testament – V. New Testament – VI. Church History – VII. Judaism – VIII. Islam I. History of Religion “Hospitality” refers to the customs that regulate the temporary admittance of a stranger to a particular group. This aspect can be well illustrated, for instance, with the Greek term for hospitality, ϕιλοξενία/ philoxenía (the “welcoming of a stranger”). The host protects the guest from the numerous perils to which he or she is exposed in his precarious …

Schwenckfeld, Kaspar von

(733 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (1489, Ossig [Osiek] – Dec 10, 1561, Ulm). After studying at Cologne and Frankfurt an der Oder, Schwenckfeld v. Ossig, scion of a noble Silesian family, returned to diplomatic service in the duchy of Liegnitz, a position he had to resign for health reasons in 1523. An early follower of Luther, he sought to spread the Reformation in Silesia by extensive ¶ preaching and personal influence on Duke Frederick II of Liegnitz (1480–1547). Along with his early dependence on Luther, he also incorporated strong strains of mysticism into his own theology, which h…

Denck, Hans

(291 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (c. 1500, Heybach – Nov 1527, Basel). After completing his studies at Ingolstadt (1517–1519), where he was formatively influenced by humanism, ¶ Denck acted as a school rector in Nuremberg from 1523, upon the recommendation of J. Oecolampadius. The ideas of A.B. v. Karlstadt and T. Müntzer strengthened his criticism of the Nuremberg Reformation, which, in his opini…

Campanus, Johannes

(159 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (c. 1500, Maaseik – after 1574). After studying at Cologne and a stay in the duchy of Jülich, Campanus came to Wittenberg c. 1527/1528. His exclusion from the debate at the Colloquy of Marburg (Disputations, Religious: I) marked the beginning of his conflict with the Wittenberg Reformers, which was intensified in 1530 when he disputed the divinity of the Holy Spirit. He soon returned to Jülich, where a warrant for his arrest (at first not executed) was issued in 1532. His Göttlicher und Heiliger Schrift … Restitution (1532) expounded his anti-trinitarian th…

Walch

(485 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] 1. Johann Georg (Jun 17, 1693, Meiningen – Jan 13, 1775, Jena). Walch began studying classical languages and ancient history in 1710 at Leipzig, where he delivered his first lectures on classical philology as Magister. In 1718 he was appointed professor of philosophy and antiquities at Jena; in 1719 rhetoric was added and poetry in 1722. In 1724, even before he received his doctorate in theology (1726), he was appointed associate professor of theology. In 1728 he was made full professor. He took the lectures of hi…

Hilten, Johann

(151 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (Johannes Herwich aus Ilten; 1425, Ilten – c. 1500, Eisenach). Hilten enrolled at Erfurt in 1445 and received his Bacc. artium in 1447. Later he entered the Franciscan order. In 1463 he moved to Livonia, where in 1472 be became lector and preacher in Dorpat (modern Tartu). He was held under claustral house arrest on various charges in Weimar and Eisenach after 1477. He is mentioned in the Apology of the Augsburg Confession (Augsburg Confession, Apology of the; art. 27; BSLK, 378), because the Wittenberg Reformers thought that in the context of his apo…

Entfelder, Christian

(186 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (died after 1547). From 1526 to 1528, he was the preacher of an anabaptist congrega-¶ tion (Anabaptists) in Eibenschütz (Bohemia). From 1529 he worked in Strassburg, where he had contact with H. Bünderlin and K. v. Schwenckfeld. Realizing that anabaptism was coming under threat, he clearly distanced himself from the movement. No later than 1536, he became adviser to Albert of Prussia in Königsberg. Af…
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