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Matrona

(726 words)

Author(s): Deißmann-Merten, Marie-Luise (Freiburg) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] Term used in family law Under Roman law of the Republican period, there was a difference between the matrona as the legal wife and the mater familias, the wife who was in the manus of her husband and thus belonged to his family (Gellius 18,6,8-9). This difference disappeared along with the marriage with manus ( Marriage), and since Augustus the terms matrona and mater familias are interchangeable in legal texts. In social terms, the word matrona expresses the public function of an honourably wed wife, which in early times possibly corresponded to the functions of the patr…

Bagacum

(319 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Limes Modern Bavai, capital ( civitas) of the  Nervii, in the French Département Nord not far off the Belgian border. The Celtic place name as well as some scanty finds from the Latène period hint at the possibility that a modest pre-Roman settlement existed. However, B. is a Roman foundation, and has to be seen in the context of Agrippa's road building programme for the reorganization of Gaul (20/19 BC). At this junction of the links with Durocort…

Toxandria

(103 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Region (Amm. Marc. 17,8,3) in the modern provinces of Noord-Brabant, Antwerpen and Limburg, in the Middle Ages the earldom of Teisterbant. The population (Texuandri: Plin. HN 4,106; ILS 2556; CIL III, 6239; 14214) consisted of different groups, among them Germanic peoples which gathered in the former settlement area of the Eburones. The Salii [1], who settled in T. in Late Antiquity, were defeated in AD 358 by Iulianus [11], but may have remained in the country and made T. the starting point for their expansion in the 4th and 5th cents. Schön, Franz (Regensburg) Bibliograp…

Samara

(101 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] River in Picardy (France), modern Somme, rises north-east of St. Quentin and flows into the mare Britannicum (English Channel) at Abbeville. The form S. itself is not attested but reconstructed from the name of the city Samarobriva. Other forms of the name: Sambra (Not. Dign. Occ. 38,8: classis Sambrica), Somena (Ven. Fort. 7,4,15), Sumena (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,9), Sumina, Sumna, Summana ( cf. [1. 1335 f.]). In Not. Dign. Occ. loc. cit., the modern Somme is referred to as Sambra [2]; in Ptol. 2,9,2, the river is called Φροῦδις/ Phroûdis. Schön, Franz (Regensburg) Bibliog…

Sequani

(512 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (Σηκοανοί/ Sēkoanoí, Σηκουανοί/ Sēkouanoí). A Celtic people, ethnically and culturally related to the north and east Gallic tribes, who in the Prehistoric Period presumably lived on the Sequana [1] (Seine) first, later in present-day Franche-Comté. In the mid 1st cent. BC, the rule of king Catamantaloedes was succeeded by an aristocratic regime (Caes. B Gall. 1,3,4). The S. called the Germani into their country against the Haedui and were forced to cede to them large parts of their t…

Nasium

(249 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] City of the Leuci in Gallia Belgica (It. Ant. 365,3; Tab. Peut. 2,5; Νάσιον/ Násion, Ptol. 2,9,13) between the rivers Mosella and Matrona [2] in the region of the present-day communities of Naix-aux-Forge and Saint-Amand-sur-Ornain. The Gallo-Roman city, located in the Ornain valley, succeeded a Celtic oppidum (52 ha) situated on the neighbouring hill of Boviolles. N. is located on the military road leading from Durocortorum to Tullum and Divodurum (Tab. Peut. l.c.; It. Ant. l.c.), but its importance in transportation is prim…

Suessiones

(164 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (Οὐέσσονες/ Ouéssones, Ptol. 2,9,11). People in Gallia Belgica in the particularly fertile modern Soissonais (departement of Aisne/Oise). With the Remi to the east, the S. formed a cultural identity, linked by the same law, the same magistrates and a unified commander-in-chief (Caes. B Gall. 2,3,4 f.). In about 80 BC, Diviciacus [1] gained supremacy as far as the southeast of Britain. When Caesar invaded in 58/7 BC, the state unity of the S. and the pro-Roman Remi disintegrated. Th…

Campi Catalauni

(138 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Settlement area of the  Catalauni in modern Champagne, repeatedly the scene of significant battles, thus in AD 273 the victory of emperor Aurelianus over the Gallic usurper  Esuvius Tatricus (SHA Aurelian. 23,3; Eutr. 9,13; Jer. Chron. AD 273), and in AD 366 the victory of general Iovinus over a Germanic army (Amm. Marc. 27,2,4). The Campi Catalauni attained particular fame with the battle of Châlon of 451, when, under Avitus' leadership, a coalition between Rome and the Visigoths…

Tungri

(471 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τοῦγγροι/ Toûngroi). A tribe in Gallia Belgica (It. Ant. 358,15; Ptol. 2,9,9) that had not yet appeared at the time of Caesar's capture of Gallia. At the time, the Germani [2] Cisrhenani were settling between the Scaldis (Schelde) and the Rhenus [2] (Rhine) under the hegemony of the Eburones. After the defeat inflicted upon the latter by Caesar (Caes. B Gall. 6,5; 6,29-34; 8,24 f.), the entire political structure of the Germani Cisrhenani was dissolved in accordance with Roman policy. In the Augustan Period, the civitas of the T. was founded in the western area …

Saletio

(377 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Small town between the Seltzbach and the Sauer, at the mouth of these two rivers as they flow into the Rhine (today one of the Rhine arms), present-day Sel(t)z (Département Bas-Rhin southeast of Wissembourg). S. was situated on the border of the civitates of the Triboci and the Nemetes and was classified as belonging to them at least in late antiquity. The roads Mogontiacum-Argentorate and Saravus-Vosegus-Agri Decumates crossed here (It. Ant. 354,6; Tab. Peut. 3,3). There are traces of settlements dating to the Bronze Age; a Celtic oppidum from the pre-Roman era is …

Belginum

(110 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts Vicus near Wederath (Bernkastel-Wittlich district) on the Roman road Augusta Treverorum--Mogontiacum (Tab. Peut.; CIL XIII 7555a). The burial ground belonging to it shows continuous use from the 4th cent. BC to the 4th cent. AD. The beginnings of the vicus, however, did not occur until the 1st cent. AD. A preliminary settlement of Latène or early Roman times could not yet be documented. After the turmoil of AD 275/6, B. remained inhabited until the 4th cent. due to its location and its significance for traffic. Schön, Fran…

Belgae

(762 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
(Βελγικοί; Belgikoí: Cass. Dio 39,1; 40,42; Βέλγαι; Bélgai: Str. 4,1,1). [German version] A. Origins According to Caesar's division of Gallia into three population groups (Caes. B Gall. 1,1), the B. were the one settling between the Seine, Marne, North Sea and Rhine; their southern spread is not specified. Little can be said with certainty about the origins of the B. At the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC, tribal groups, presumably from Jutland and the Baltic region, invaded this region (Mela 3,36; 57; Amm. Ma…

Turnacum

(393 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Modern Tournai/Doornik in the Belgian province of Hainault. Gallo-Roman vicus on both banks of the Scaldis (Scheldt) in the border region between the Menapii and Nervii, a node on the route from Gesoriacum (Boulogne-sur-mer) to Bagacum (modern Bavai: Tab. Peut. 2,3;  It. Ant. 367,7), from which roads lead to Castellum (modern Cassel; It. Ant. 377,5) and Tervanna (ibid. 378,11). There is evidence of traces of settlement as early as the Iron Age, the Gallo-Roman presence i…

Samarobriva

(526 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Gallia/Gaul Principal town of the civitas of the Ambiani, Late Antique Ambianis, modern Amiens (Dépt. Somme) at a crossing ( -briva) over the Samara (Caes. B Gall. 5,24,1; 47,2; 53,3; Cic. Fam. 7,11,2; 12,1,16; Tab. Peut. 2,3; CIL XIII 3490; Notae Tironianae 73 Zangenmeister; Honorius, Cosmographia 36 B1 Riese; in Ptol. 2,9,4 alternatively: Σαμαρόβριγα/ Samaróbriga; ILS 5839; It. Ant. 379,9 f.; 380,1: Samarabriva). No evidence of a preceding Celtic settlement has been found [1]. Its geographical charact…

Leuci

(159 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] People in Gallia Belgica between Matrona and Mosella, north-west of the Sequani, south-west of the Mediomatrici; their territory extended in the east and the south-east up to the Vosges (Caes. B Gall. 2,14; Tac. Hist. 1,64; Ptol. 2,9,13; Plin. HN 4,106; Luc. 1,242); civitas/capital was Tullum. A spring and healing cult has been attested with the L. - either in the form of Apollo worship (Graux, Malaincourt) or the Celtic Apollo Grannus (Tullum, Nasium, Grand) [1] or a nameless deity (Laneuveville) [2]. According to Claudi…

Tres Tabernae

(398 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] Town between Aricia and Forum Appii Town between Aricia and Forum Appii (modern Faiti) on the via Appia (Cic. Att. 1,13; 2,10; 2,12; It. Ant. 107,3; Tab. Peut. 6,1) where it crosses the road Antium - Satricum - Norba [1], located south-east of modern Cisterna. In TT, members of the Roman Christian community encountered Paulus [2] on his trip to Rome (Acts 28,15). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] [2] City of the Mediomatrici City of the Mediomatrici with the rank of a vicus (CIL XIII 11648), modern Saverne (Dép. Bas Rhin) on …

Vosegus

(335 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] The uplands which extend over some 200 km in eastern France (Caes. B Gall. 4,10; Luc. 1,397; Plin. HN 16,197; Vibius Sequester 145,16 Riese; Vosagus: Tab. Peut. 3,2-4; Ven. Fort. 7,4; Greg. Tur. Franc. 10,10), modern Vosges Mountains, form in the east the western edge of the Upper Rhine lowlands and in the west cross into the Lorraine plateau and the Monts Faucilles, in the north continue in the Palatinate Forest and in the south descend towards the Burgundy Gate. The V. is considered to be the boundary…

Sambra

(132 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] River in Gallia Belgica River in Gallia Belgica, mentioned in ancient saints' legends (e.g., MGH Scriptorum rerum Merovingiorum 5,634,12; 5,643,12; details in [1. 1338]), modern Sambre, rising on the western edge of the Ardennes and flowing into the Mosa [1] (Meuse/Maas) near Namur. Identification with the Sabis [1] (Caes. B Gall. 2,16,1; 2,18) is uncertain. Schön, Franz (Regensburg) Bibliography 1 Holder. [German version] [2] Modern Somme Besides the modern Sambre (= S. [1]), the Samara was also called the S.  (cf. Not. Dign. Occ. 38,8). T…

Viromandui

(555 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] A people of Gallia Belgica, Northern France, settled in the region of Picardie on the so-called 'sill of Vermandois', on the upper courses of the Samara (the modern Somme) and Isar(a) [2] (the modern Oise; Liv. Per. 104; Plin. HN 106; Ptol. 2,9,11; Oros. 6,7). In part surrounded by dense forests, the V. had as neighbours to the north and north-east the Nervii and Atrebates [1], to the west the Ambiani and Bellovaci, and to the south the Suessiones. During Caesar’s Gallic War, they…

Beda

(111 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt Today's Bitburg, vicus located on a naturally elevated site along the Roman road Augusta Treverorum -- Colonia (It. Ant. 372,4), centre of the Treverian pagus of the Bedenses. Inscriptions indicate that B. sported a lively theatre (CIL XIII 4132; BRGK 40, 1959, 125,8) and activities of   iuniores (CIL XIII 4131). After B.'s destruction around AD 275/6, it was newly built in the 4th cent. as a military fort with oval surrounding walls (two hectares) and was i…

Bratuspantium

(63 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Oppidum of the  Bellovaci, mentioned in Caes. B Gall. 2,13, localization uncertain. It is a matter of dispute whether it was a settlement on the same location as -- and preceding -- the capital of the civitas  Caesaromagus, or whether is was a Celtic settlement in a completely different location (Bailleul sur Thérain, Breteuil sur Noye). Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Orolaunum

(271 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Present-day Arlon-Arel (Belgium, province of Luxembourg), vicus of the civitas of the Treveri, probably the main town of one of their pagi . It was built by the sources of the Semois at the crossing point of the important major roads from Durocortorum to Augusta [6] Treverorum (Itin. Anton. 366,2; [1]) and from Divodurum to Aduatuca. In view of the threat from barbarians the settlement was transferred to the northern hill town (present-day St. Donat) at the end of the 3rd/beginning o…

Remi

(774 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Tribe in Gallia Belgica that settled in the Aisne, Vesle and Suippe valleys, with a heavy concentration in the middle Aisne valley, i.e. in the present-day départements of Marne and Ardennes, and in parts of Aisne and Meuse [1. 127 f.]. Encircled by forests, the territory of the R. nowhere bordered on neighbouring tribes. When the R. had become settled in this region, they drifted so far from their original 'nomadic mind-set' that they identified their concept of the boundless world around them now with th…

Moesi, Moesia

(984 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Geography The members of a group of tribes of Thracian origin who lived in the northeastern part of the Balkan peninsula were referred to, in Greek, as Moisoí (Μοισοί), Mysoí (Μυσοί), and in Latin as M. or Moesae. Other tribes settled there as well, such as the Dardani, Triballi, Timachi and Skythae, who were later counted among the Moesicae gentes as inhabitants of the province of Moesia (Plin. HN 3,149; 4,3). After the territory of the Getae was incorporated into the province of Moesia inferior, its inhabitants as well were referred t…

Levaci

(52 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] In Caes. B Gall. 5,39,1 a people of Gallia Belgica - mentioned in the context of the events of the winter of 54/53 BC - who were immediate neighbours of the Nervii, with whom they had a relationship of dependence; cannot be localized more precisely. Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Geidumni

(34 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] A people of Gallia Belgica mentioned only in Caes. B Gall. 5,39,1 as being subject to the Nervii. Their home in Flanders cannot be located with certainty. Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Argentorate

(155 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Legio | Legio | Limes | Limes | Raeti, Raetia Modern Strasbourg, epigraphically first mentioned at the time of Vespasian (CIL XIII 9082). A smaller military installation from the Augustan period was replaced by a legionary fortress following  Varus' defeat in AD 9, where the   legio II was garrisoned until  Claudius' invasion of Britain in AD 43. After use by detachments from other units, recent archaeological research points to A.'s use once again as a permanent garri…

Mediomatrici

(467 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Tribe in Gallia Belgica; capital of their civitas was Divodurum (modern Metz). Their territory in modern Lorraine comprised the upper basins of the rivers Maas, Moselle and Saar (Str. 4,3,4; Ptol. 2,9,7), and originally extended eastwards as far as the Rhine (Caes. B Gall. 4,10,3; Str. l.c.). It is unlikely they participated in the Gallic War ( Caesar). In 52 BC they sent 5000 men to support Vercingetorix who was besieged in Alesia (Caes. B Gall. 7,75,3); they had to cede their territori…

Vertunum

(374 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Roman vicus, name only mediaeval, in the western part of the civitas Treverorum (Belgium, province of Luxemburg, Treveri), at the point where the Rivers Ton and Vire meet. V. developed as a centre on the right bank of the Ton, which gradually rises to a height of 20 m (modern Vieux-Virton) and ultimately merges into the Majeroux plateau; also on the left side in the narrow floor of the Vire valley, where a trade quarter (modern Saint-Mard) developed. V. lay on an old, presumably pre-Roman, ro…

Contionacum

(79 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] A palace complex was developed at Konz bei Trier, above the point where the Saar joins the Moselle, in the middle of the 4th cent. AD and used as a palace until the early 5th cent.; identified as the summer palace C. where Valentinianus I issued several decrees in AD 371 (Cod. Theod. 2,4,3; 4,6,4; 9,3,5; 11,1,17); Auson. Mos. in 369 probably also refers to C. Schön, Franz (Regensburg) Bibliography A. Neyses, Die spätröm. Kaiservilla von Konz, 1987.

Arduenna

(55 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Wooded mountains in  Gallia; exact location and extent unclear even in antiquity (Str. 4,3,5; Tac. Ann. 3,42). They centred on the modern Eifel and Ardennes, but evidently extended to the north-west over the hills of Artois to the territory of the  Atrebates and  Morini on the English Channel. Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Noviomagus

(1,862 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] [1] City of the Bituriges Vivisci in Aquitania The city of the Bituriges Vivisci (Βίτουργες Οὐβίσκοι/ Bítourges Oubískoi) in Aquitania mentioned in Ptol. 2,7,7 (Νουιόμαγος/ Nouiómagos) is generally identified with a Roman vicus near Brion (Saint-Germain-d'Esteuil) in the Médoc between Lesparre and Pauillac ( département of Gironde). This town with an ancient sanctuary of the Medulli had been inhabited from the 3rd cent. BC; urban development is recognisable from the time of Claudius (41-54 AD). It was in this period that the fanum (sanctuary) and the theatre we…

Dubis

(40 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] River in Gallia, modern Doubs, rises in the French Jura, crosses the territory of the Sequani and flows into the  Arar at Verdun-sur-le-Doubs (Caes. B Gall. 1,38; Str. 4,1,11; 14; 4,3,2; Ptol. 2,10,3). Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Catalauni

(78 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] A tribal group of Gallia Belgica, who probably originally settled in the area of the Remi, in the modern Champagne. Its name and its capital of the same name, modern Châlon-sur-Marne, are only mentioned by later authors (Amm. Marc. 15,11,10; 27,2,4; Eutr. 9,13; Jer. Chron. AD 274; Not. Gall. 6,4; Durocatalauni: It. Ant. 361). The  Catuvellauni, who migrated to southern Britannia, are probably part of the same tribal group.  Campi Catalauni Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Bellovaci

(109 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Tribe in Gallia Belgica (Picardy region) south of the Ambiani in the Thérain valley (Ptol. 2,9,4; Str. 4,3,5). Beauvais ( Caesaromagus), once the capital of the civitas, and the surrounding Beauvaisis owe their names to the B. This mightiest tribe of the  Belgae was defeated by Caesar in 57 BC (Caes. B Gall. 2,4,5; 2,13-15). They were hesitant participants in the revolt led by  Vercingetorix in 52 BC (Caes. B Gall. 7,75), but in the following year, they organized resistance against Rome (Caes. B Gall. 8,6…

Lacus Lemanus

(161 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Largest of the Alpine lakes (581 km2), modern Lake Geneva. Documented by Caes. B Gall. 1,2,3; 8,1; 3,1,1; Str. 4,1,11; 6,6; 11; Luc. 1,396; Mela 2,74; 79; Plin. HN 2,224; 3,33; Ptol. 2,10,2; Amm. Marc. 15,11,16. It. Ant. 348,2: lacus Lausonius; Tab. Peut. 3,2: lacus Losanenses. It was the border between Gallia Belgica or Germania superior and Gallia Narbonensis and thus separated the Helvetii in the north from the Allobroges in the south. In Genava harbour installations have been established through dendrochronological methods for the…

Titelberg

(460 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Celtic oppidum in the western area of the Treveri near Pétange (Luxembourg) on the southern edge of the Ardenne mountains, c. 100 m above the valley of the Chier (a side arm of the Meuse), situated on a rocky ledge which served as the settlement area (43 ha). From the 1st half of the 1st cent. BC, the area was secured along the edges of the cliff with a fortification wall (2700 m) and with a barrier in the shape of a murus Gallicus at the narrowest connection to the plateau behind it, later with a 'Belgian type' wall. Two gates connected by…

Sabis

(253 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] River in northern Gaul River in northern Gaul (Caes. B Gall. 2,16,1; 2,18), where in 57 BC Caesar fought against the Nervii and their allies, the Atrebates [1] and Viromandui ( ibid. 2,16-27), on his way from Samarobriva. The river's identification and location are contested. Older scholarship identified the S. with the Sambra [1] (modern Sambre), suggesting that the battle took place 6 km outside of Maubeuge near Hautmont-Boussières [1; 2]. Recently these claims have been countered by topological, historica…

Mosomagus

(104 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (‘Market on the Mosa’), present-day Mouzon (Dépt. Ardennes); town on the road from Durocortorum to Augusta [6] Treverorum, between the civitates of the Remi and the Treveri on an island between two arms of the Mosa [1]. It was a significant  trading centre especially from the 2nd cent. AD. A fortification dating from Late Antiquity has been archaeologically authenticated. Musmagenses under a magister equitum inter Gallias  are documented (Not. Dign. Occ. 7,105); Merovingian coins mention Mosomo castri. Schön, Franz (Regensburg) Bibliography J.-P. Levant, Mouzon…

Belgica

(390 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Originally, B. is the settlement area of the  Belgae (Caes. B Gall. 2,4) as designated by Caesar in his division of Gallia into three parts (Caes. B Gall. 1,1). It was governed uniformly until Augustus established the imperial province of B. in 16/13 BC in the course of reorganizing the Tres Galliae. Based on records by Plin. HN 4,105 and Ptol. 2,9 about the tribes of B., the boundaries of the province can be approximately determined, but they differ strongly from Caesar's division. The boundary in the north was formed by the Nort…

Scaldis Pons

(48 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Roman station on the Turnacum-Bagacum road at a bridge over the river Scaldis, which formed the boundary between the Menapii and the Nervii (It. Ant. 376,8; Tab. Peut. 2,3). Cf. the modern place name Escau(t)pont (in the département du Nord). Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Sapaudia

(147 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Territory in Gallia ripariensis. The earliest evidence (Amm. Marc. 15,11,17) is corrupt and cannot be used to support localisation in modern Savoy. Further evidence: Not. Dign. Occ. 42,15 ( praefectus barbaricorum Ebruduni, modern Yverdon-les-Bains on Lake Neuchâtel, Sapaudiae) and 42,179 ( tribunus cohortis Flaviae Sapaudi[ c] ae Calarone). In AD 443, the Burgundiones escaping from their annihilation at the hands of the Hunni were settled here by Aetius [2] (Chron. min. 1, 660,128). Ground studies suggest that S. was in the Swiss highlands north of lacus Lemanus

Raeti, Raetia

(1,599 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] I. Ethnography of the Raeti The oldest, indirectly transmitted information about the R. comes from Cato [1], who praises Raetian wine (Serv. Georg. 2,95; Plin. HN 14,16; 67; Str. 4,6,8; Suet. Aug. 77); this was produced, as can be deduced from Plin. loc. cit., in the region of Verona. Ancient historiographers suggest repeatedly that the R. were in fact Etruscans who, having been driven out of Upper Italy by the invading Celts, had conquered the Alps under their eponymous ancestor Raetus and founded the race of the R. (Plin…

Dalheim

(167 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Roman vicus in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, possibly identical with Ricciacus (Tab. Peut.); Indications of a late La Tène period settlement ( c. 1st cent. BC). It was refounded as a road-station ( mansio) during the construction of the Metz-Trier road in the Augustan period [1]. After the uprising of the Treveri in AD 69/70 the town developed into the economic and particularly religious centre of the region (CIL 13,1,2 p. 635-638) [2; 3]; in the 2nd half of the 3rd cent. it was devastated by invasions of German…

Mediolan(i)um

(673 words)

Author(s): Heucke, Clemens (Munich) | Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Et al.
(Μεδιολάν[ι]ον/ Mediolán[i]on). [German version] [1] Modern Milan This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Italy, languages | Pilgrimage | Regio, regiones | Rome | Batavian Revolt The modern city of Milan. It was founded in the early 4th cent. BC by the Insubres (Liv. 5,34,9) at the juncture of several Alpine valleys in the Padus/Po plain (Pol. 2,34,10); in 222 BC, it was captured by Cn. Scipio; it was later to become the most important city of that region (Pol.…

Atrebates

(287 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] [1] People in Gallia Belgica People in Gallia Belgica, Artois region (Ptol. 2,9,4; Str. 4,3,5), settled in the catchment area of the Scarpe, especially in the area around Nemetacum. After their subjection together with the neighbouring Nervii (in the east) and the Viromandui (in the south-east) by Caesar in 57 BC (Caes. B Gall. 2,4,9; 16,2f.; 23,1) the A. maintained a friendly relationship with Rome. Their king  Commius received sovereignty over the Morini (in the north and north-west)…

Pleumoxii

(56 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] People of Gallia Belgica, mentioned only in Caes. B Gall. 5,39,1 in the context of the events of the winter of 54/3 BC, who were in a relationship of dependence on their immediate neighbours the Nervii. Their homelands were probably in Brabant or in the Belgian province of Namur. Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Isar(a)

(251 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Left tributary of the Rhodanus Left tributary of the Rhodanus, modern Isère, has its source in the  Alpes Graiae as a mountain stream ( torrens: Plin. HN 3,33; maximum flumen: Cic. Fam. 10,15,3) and flows through the territory of the Allobroges. In 218 BC Hannibal marched upstream from the confluence of the I. and the Rhodanus (Pol. 3,49; Liv. 21,31). It was here that Q. Fabius Maximus beat the Arverni in 121 BC (Flor. Epit. 1,37,4). Further evidence: Str. 4,1,11; 2,3; 6,6; Ptol. 2,10,4; Cass. Dio 37,47. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography P. Guichonnet (ed.), Histoir…

Helvetum

(195 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (It. Ant. 252; 350; Ἔλκηβος; Élkēbos, Ptol. 2,9,18). Previously often equated with  Helellum (Tab. Peut. 3,4) or Alaea (Geogr. Rav. 26) and already confused with this in It. Ant. 354, but its location should not be pinpointed as near Ehl in the Alsace but as being on the right bank of the Rhine on the Mons Brisiacus-Argentoratus route near modern Riegel, district of Emmendingen [1]. Forts from the Claudian and Vespasian periods, which as a continuation of the series of forts on the Upper Danube secured the link with the Rhine. After the conquest of the   Decumates agri

Divodurum

(311 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Limes | Batavian Revolt The chief town of the Gallo-Roman civitas of the Mediomatrici, now Metz, on a long ridge between the Moselle and the Seille before their confluence (Ptol. 2,9,7). A Hallstatt oppidum destroyed in the 6th cent. BC was succeeded by a La Tène age camp taken in the war against Caesar. When the Augustan settlement fell victim to a conflagration under Tiberius, the new town was given a typical Roman ‘grid pattern’, whose main coordinates were formed by the roads between Lyons and Trier (  cardo
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