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Administrative Union

(316 words)

Author(s): Winter, Jörg
[German Version] This concept has its origin in the efforts to overcome the confessional schism of German Protestantism at the beginning of the 19th century. The aspired union (Unions, Church) between the Lutheran and the Reformed confessional churches was realized in various ways, either in the form of a confessional …

Prelate

(215 words)

Author(s): Winter, Jörg
“Prelate” (Ger. Prälat) is a legal term in the Roman Catholic Church to describe all who hold leading offices of different ranking in the church, including honorary prelates without jurisdiction. The term derives from Lat. praelatus, a participle of praefero, here in the sense of giving preference or putting at the head. In the regional churches of Baden and Württemberg, in southern Germany, the title “prelate” originally designated, not a specific church office, but membership in a regional diet, later the Parliament of a federal state. Curren…

Unions, Church

(3,878 words)

Author(s): Nüssel, Friederike | Best, Thomas F. | Winter, Jörg
[German Version] I. Germany and Europe The term “church unions” refers to mergers of churches of previously separate confessions. They take place at the institutional level, are based on a common foundation of confession of faith and doctrine (II), and have a common office. In Europe, on the one hand, there are various Eastern churches (Unions with Rome) united with Rome that belong to the Roman Catholic Church and acknowledge the primacy of the pope, but have retained their Orthodox liturgy and spiri…

Visitation

(847 words)

Author(s): Bromiley, Geoffrey W. | Winter, Jörg | Venables, Mary Noll
1. Biblical The words “visit” and “visitation” often indicate divine involvement with humans, sometimes by way of theophany. God not only observes human life, he also acts in our world. God’s visitation may bring blessing to God’s own people or to the whole earth (Ps. 65:9). More often, divine visitation punishes offenses, as in Job 35:15 and Ps. 59:5 (KJV). The Decalogue contains the familiar reference to God “visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children” (Exod. 20:5 RSV). Isaiah 26:14 (RSV) tells us that God will visit with destruction. ¶ The idea of visitation for punishme…

Marriage Ceremonies

(4,074 words)

Author(s): Idelberger, Petra | Grethlein, Christian | Hofhansl, Ernst W. | Steck, Wolfgang | Winter, Jörg | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Church History – III. Practical Theology – IV. Liturgics – V. Law – VI. Orthodox Church – VII. Judaism – VIII. Islam I. History of Religion In Christendom marriage was considered a secular act until well into the Middle Ages, before it was declared a sacrament in 1184. Many religions view marriage as a religious duty, and nuptial rites (Rites of passage; see III below) often have sacral character, but civil marriages are also obligatory in certain countries. Regulations gover…