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(1,581 words)

Author(s): Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) | Wagner, Jörg (Tübingen) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna) | Weiß, Peter (Kiel) | Et al.
(Ἀντιόχεια; Antiócheia). [German version] [1] on the Orontes Founded as Antigonea on the Orontes 307 BC, but after the defeat of Antigonus I by Seleucus I Nicator at  Ipsus (301 BC), the town was moved to the site of present-day Antakya (Turkey) in 300 BC, and renamed as A. in honour of the latter's father Antiochus. Capital city of the Seleucid kingdom; it developed under the Seleucids through incorporating numerous settlements into a tetrapolis, each with their own boundary walls. Thanks to its positi…


(99 words)

Author(s): Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] Iron Age cemeteries south-west of  Karkemish, Syria. Most of the graves which are mainly urn graves (phase I) date to the 8th cent. BC. Worth stressing in particular are imported Cypriot, eastern and island Greek, Phrygian (?), Egyptian-Phoenician and lo…


(158 words)

Author(s): Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] Settlement with citadel c. 20 km south-east of Karkamis in northern Syria. Possibly this was the location of a la…


(1,883 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Up to subjugation by Rome Region and Roman province to the north and east of the Danube (Ister [2]), bordered in the south by the region south of the Savus; the western border ran west of the line between Vindobona, Poetovio and Emona, now the western part of Hungary, the Slovakian territory around Gerulata, the Austrian around the Viennese Basin and Burgenland, as well as the northern strip of Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The country was named after its original inhabitants (Παννόνιοι/ Pannónioi, cf. Str. 7,5,2; Παίονες/ Paíones, cf. 1,1,10). This lllyrian group…

Phryges, Phrygia

(1,046 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] (Φρύγες/ Phrýges, Φρυγία/ Phrygía). An Indo-European people who emigrated from Thracia, and an area on the Anatolian plateau in central Anatolia. Previously, scholars believed that the P. were identical with the Muški known from cuneiform sources, and that the Muški king Mita attested for the 8t…

Hagia Irini

(275 words)

Author(s): Senff, Reinhard (Bochum) | Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen)
This item can be found on the following maps: Kypros [German version] A. Location Near the modern village of Hagia Irini (HI) on the northwest coast of  Cyprus there are remains of an …


(215 words)

Author(s): Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Kypros | Aegean Koine Fortified Bronze Age port settlement of the late Cypriote phase (LC III A) in east Cyprus with palace and sanctuaries (e.g. of the ‘horned’ or ‘ingot god’); workshops for coppersmiths; graves in the town and necropolis; rich finds, especially of metallic material (some inscribed in the Cypriote syllabic script), several hoardfinds. Probably founded early in the 2nd millennium, flowered in the 16th/15th cents. BC because of the…

Moesi, Moesia

(984 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Geography The members of a group of tribes of Thracian origin who lived in the northeastern part of the Balkan peninsula were referred to, in Greek, as

Asia Minor

(16,327 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Genz, Hermann (Istanbul) | Schoop, Ulf-Dietrich (Tübingen) | Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Et al.
[German version] I. Name Strabo was the first to refer to the peninsula of Asia Minor (AM) west of the  Taurus (Str. 2,5,24; 12,1,3; cf. Plin. HN 5,27f.; Ptol. 5,2) as a single unit by the name of Asia in the narrower sense, as opposed to the continent of Asia. The term of Asia minor in this sense is first used in Oros. 1,2,26 (early 5th cent. AD). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] II. Geography AM is the westernmost part of the Asian continent between 36° and 42° northern latitude, and 26° and 44° eastern longitude, stretching from the Aegean to the Euphrates ( c. 1,200 km), and from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean ( c. 600 km). Within the Eurasian fold belt, AM forms part of the Mediterranean mountain chain, which is…