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Sacrifice

(13,083 words)

Author(s): Borgeaud, Philippe | Marx, Alfred | Chaniotis, Angelos | Bremmer, Jan N. | Moscovitz, Leib | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The word sacrifice denotes both the living creature or offering sacrificed and the ritual action (e.g. destruction) through which that creature or object is dedicated to a supernatural being. If a distinction needs to be made, English and the Romance languages can use sacrifice (Eng. and Fr.; sacrificio Ital. and Span.) for the ritual action while using victim (Fr. victime, Span. víctima, Ital. vittima) for the creature sacrificed. Etymologically sacrifice suggests an action in which the sacrificed object is “made holy/sacred” (Lat. sacrum fac…

Perpetua and Felicitas

(140 words)

Author(s): Bremmer, Jan N.
[German Version] were two young Christian women from Thuburbo near Carthage, who were martyred on Mar 7, 203. Perpetua’s prison diary, which describes her interrogation and four visions, was edited a short time later by an anonymous editor, together with a vision of her teacher Saturus and the report of the martyrdom of Perpetua, Felicitas, and their group. Perpetua’s visions give us a unique insight into her family life, her interrogation, the deep impression the first Eucharist made upon her, and the strength of faith that enabled her to face martyrdom.…