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(414 words)

Author(s): Klein, Hans-Dieter
C. Wolff (1679–1754) brought the term “monism” into use in the academic philosophy of the German ¶ Enlightenment. It describes theories that trace all things back to one substance (e.g., the rational pantheism of B. Spinoza [1632–77]; Spinozism) versus those that do not (e.g., the system of R. Descartes [1596–1650], which began with two substances—the res cogitans, “thinking substance,” and the res extensa, “extended substance”; Cartesianism). The opposite concept is dualism. German idealism did not use the term “monism,” but it came into general use after G. W. F. Hegel (1770–1831, Hegelianism). The term also found a very different use in the second half of the 19th century relative to epistemological trends accompanying the emancipation of natural science. Toward the end of the century it was connected with…

Child of God

(2,719 words)

Author(s): Schaper, Joachim | Klein, Hans | Schlapkohl, Corinna | Börner-Klein, Dagmar
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. New Testament – III. Christianity – IV. Judaism I. Old Testament The Hebrew Bible can designate both individuals and groups as children (cf. e.g. Deut 32:5) or as sons and daughters of YHWH (cf. e.g. Deut 32:19). This usage occurs elsewhere in the ancient Near East to describe members of a deity's cultic community. The concept of childhood should be understood as mediated through creation (Deut 32:6; Isa 45:11; 64:8) or covenant (Isa 1:2, 4; Mal …