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(2,991 words)

Author(s): Otto, Eckart | Doering, Lutz | Hollender, Elisabeth | van Henten, Jan Willem | Volp, Ulrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Old Testament In the preexilic period, Sabbath (שַׁבָּת/ šabbāt) meant the day of the full moon; from the Exile on, it denoted a weekly day of rest. The origins of this day of rest go back to the early days of Exile. The earliest…

Maccabees, Books of the

(1,868 words)

Author(s): van Henten, Jan Willem
[German Version] In his commentary on Dan 4:3, Hippolytus of Rome mentions 1 Maccabees, the first mention of a numbering of the books of Maccabees. Codex Alexandrinus (5th cent.; Biblical manuscripts: II, 2) contains all four; it and other manuscripts show that they were transmitted as part of the Septuagint (Bible translations). 4 Maccabees also circulated as a work by Flavius Josephus under the title On the Superiority of Reason and in menologies. The Roman Catholic Church includes 1 and 2 Maccabees among the deuterocanonical books; the Protestant tradition includes them among the Old Testament Apocrypha (II). …


(1,097 words)

Author(s): van Henten, Jan Willem
[German Version] The name Maccabees denotes primarily a family of Jewish freedom fighters and leaders, also called the Hasmoneans (see below). It can also refer to a collection of postcanonical Jewish writings (Maccabees, Books of the),…


(258 words)

Author(s): van Henten, Jan Willem
[German Version] Whether and how the reference to God-fearers in the NT and in (Jewish) inscriptions can be linked with the concept of the fear of God in the Hebrew Bible and in Jewish literature of the Second Temple period, has been the subject of controversy. The various references to God-fearers in Acts (10:2, 22; 13:16, 26, 43, 50; 16:13f.; 17:4, 17; 18:6f.) are often adduced to justify the assumption that Luke located the starting-point for Paul's mis…