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Hochdorf

(361 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Etrusci, Etruria Close to the south-west German town of Eberdingen-H., a levelled large grave mound was excavated in 1978-1979 that proved to be one of the few unrobbed Celtic  princely graves of the late  Hallstatt culture (2nd half of the 6th cent. BC) investigated in modern times. The hill was surrounded by a stone ring with a diameter of 57 m and originally had a height of c. 6 m. In the north there was a ramp-like access that led to the 2 m deep, central tomb chamber. The chamber consisted of a double-walled block constru…

Marne culture

(298 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic cultural group in the early La Tène period (5th cent. BC) in the catchment area of the rivers Marne, Seine and Aisne (Champagne). French scholars also call it ‘Aisne-Marne culture’; already in the 19th cent., it was called ‘Marnia’ on the basis of numerous grave finds (over a hundred necropoleis with several thousand graves), being an independent group at the northwest edge of the early La Tène culture. Typical are especially the full body burials in shallow grave necropole…

Sapropelite

(114 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] A dark-brown raw material of organic sapropel carbon with a dull shine, similar to jet or lignite, occurring in Bohemia and Moravia; it was worked, primarily by the Celts (6th-1st cents. BC), for jewel rings. Unworked and half-worked pieces in workshop finds, e.g. on the Heuneburg (6th cent.) and in the oppidum of Manching (2nd/1st cents. BC) show that jewellery was produced by cutting and carving and by turning on a lathe. Crafts, trade; Celtic archaeology; Jewellery Pingel, Volker (Bochum) Bibliography O. Rochna, Zur Herkunft der Manchinger Sapropelit-Ring…

Murus Gallicus

(201 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] Building technique for defensive walls of Gaulish oppida (Oppidum), described in Caes. B Gall. 7,23 and regarded as particularly resistant to siege engines. There is archaeological evidence for muri Gallici in several places in Gaul (Basilia/Basel), but they occur only sporadically east of the Rhine in late Celtic oppida (e.g. Manching). They consist of horizontal beams laid lengthwise and across, which were built up to form a timber-framed structure (cf. fig.). The lower beams were firmly joined with large i…

Bibracte

(176 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Caesar | Celts | Oppidum Oppidum of the Haedui in Gallia Celtica, later Lugdunensis (modern Mont-Beuvray), located on a hilltop, separated by valleys from the rest of the Morvan massif. In 58 BC, B. was the location of Caesar's victory over the Helvetii (Caes. B Gall. 1,23; 7,55; 7,63). Excavations particularly since 1984. More recent investigations have above all opened up the (pre-)Caesarean B., with its Celtic workshops and dwellings, as well as typical fortifications (walls built using the murus gallicus techniq…

Jastorf Culture

(87 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] Term for culture groups of the pre-Roman Iron Age in North Germany ( Germanic archaeology, with map), derived from the urnfields of Jastorf, in the district of Ülzen (Lower Saxony). The burial complexes and furnishings with jewellery, pottery, and occasionally also weapons and equipment, are typical of the Germanic Jastorf culture. It is the first iron-working culture in the nordic area.  Iron;  Jevenstedt Pingel, Volker (Bochum) Bibliography H-J. Häßler (ed.), Ur-und Frühgesch. in Niedersachsen, 1991, 380 G. Schwantes, Die Urnenfriedhöfe in Niedersachs…

Basilia

(291 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum) | Walser, Gerold (Basle)
This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Basle). [German version] I. Celtic The Roman B. was preceded by a Celtic settlement of  Helvetii and  Rauraci. First, a large, open settlement existed in the late 2nd cent. in the Rhine plain (Basel-Gasfabrik), to which also belonged a field of cremation graves. During the early 1st cent., the Münsterhügel housed an  oppidum fortified with murus gallicus, which perhaps was vacated when the Helvetii left the area in 58 BC.  Fortifications;  Celtic archaeology Pingel, Volker (Bochum) Bibliography E. Major, Gallische Ansiedlung mit…

Hunsrück-Eifel culture

(224 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] Special group from the Celtic Iron Age in the western highlands area between Luxembourg, the Rhine, the high Eifel and the Nahe Valley. The Hunsrück Eifel culture (HEC) is part of both the late  Hallstatt culture and the early  La Tène culture (6th to the middle of the 3rd cent. BC). It is primarily characterized by continuously attested burial mound fields with body burials. Additional peculiarities are special pottery shapes as well as its own grave furnishings (a lot of ring je…

Torques

(475 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
('torque'; Lat. also torquis; Gr. στρεπτόν/ streptón, 'twisted'). [German version] I. Classical Antiquity Helically twisted collar of bronze, gold or silver with open but almost touching ends, which were thickened or figure-shaped and could sometimes be turned outwards. Torques are known from the Bronze Age onwards and numerous examples survive. The Greeks learned of torques from the Medes and Persians, where they were worn by people of high status (Hdt. 8,113,1; 9,80,4; Xen. Cyr. 1,3,2-3; cf. Curt. 3,3,13),…

Urnfield culture

(176 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] Final section of the Central European Bronze Age (13th-8th cents. BC), named after the predominant custom of cremating and burying the dead in urns in largish burial fields (Necropolis IX). UC extends - connected by these shared ideas across Central Europe in various regional groups - from the northern edges of the German uplands to the Alps and from central France to the Carpathians. As a precursor to the Iron Age Hallstatt Culture (8th-5th cents. BC), which is regarded, at least…
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