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Mīr K̲h̲āwand

(212 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, H.
, historian, author of the Rawḍat al-Ṣafāʾ (“Garden of Purity”). He was son of Burhān al-Dīn Ḵh̲āwand S̲h̲āh, native of Transoxiana, and, apparently, of Buk̲h̲ārā. He lived much in Herāt and died there on June 22, 1498, aged 66. His work is a universal history in seven volumes, beginning with the Creation and ending at the death of Sulṭān Ḥusain of Herāt in 1505. The last volume, however, is really the work of his grandson, Ḵh̲wāndāmīr [q. v.]. His work is not so interesting as his grandson’s Ḥabīb al-Siyar, for it is a compilation and wants the personal note. The style too is bomb…

Lamg̲h̲ānāt

(43 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, H.
, a district in eastern Afg̲h̲ānīstān. It is often referred to by Bābur, see W. Erskine’s translation of his “Memoirs”, p. 141 and P. de Courteille, i. 287. The name is fancifully connected with Lamech, the father of Noah. (H. Beveridge)

Ḳudsī

(166 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, H.
, poetical name of Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Muḥammad Ḵh̲ān. He adopted this name (meaning holy) because he was a native of Mas̲h̲had. He came to India in the 5th year of S̲h̲āh Ḏj̲ahān (1631—1632). There is a notice of him, with some extracts, in vol. i., p. 351, of the Bāds̲h̲āhnāma. He is highly praised by the author of the Amal-i Ṣāliḥ, who gives the couplets which Ḳudsī composed for the Peacock-throne (see also Bāds̲h̲āhnāma, i., part ii., p. 80). He wrote a poetical S̲h̲āhd̲j̲ahānnāma and a poem in praise of Kas̲h̲mīr. He died at Lahore in 1056 (1646). Rieu (ii. 684b) is mistaken in saying that he di…

Bairam K̲h̲ān

(933 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, H.
, k̲h̲ān-k̲h̲ānān, whose name is also spelt Bairām, was the son of Saif ʿAlī Beg, and the fourth or fifth in descent from ʿAlī S̲h̲ukr Turkaman. ʿAlī S̲h̲ukr (cf. Bābur’s Memoirs, ed. Erskine, p. 30), belonged to the Bahārlū tribe. and held large possessions in Hamadān etc. His son or grandson S̲h̲īr ʿAlī, who seems also to be known as Pīr ʿAlī, was an officer of Ḏj̲ahān S̲h̲āh Barānī of the Black Sheep. When the dynasty of the Black Sheep was overthrown by Uzun Ḥasan, S̲h̲īr ʿAlī entered into the service of Aba Saʿīd, and w…

Ḏj̲ahānārā Bēgam

(426 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, H.
was commonly known as the Bēgam Ṣāḥib, and is also sometimes called Pāds̲h̲āh Bēgam. She was the eldest surviving child of S̲h̲āh Ḏj̲ahān, and was born in March 1614, probably at Ad̲j̲mīr. Her mother was the Ard̲j̲ūmand Bānū, or Mumtāz Maḥal or Mumtāz al-Zamānī the daughter of Āṣaf Ḵh̲an (No. II.) and niece of Nūr Ḏj̲ahān, for whom the Tāj Maḥal was built. Ḏj̲ahānārā was never married, and was distinguished for her beauty and accomplishments, and her affection for her father and ¶ for her brother and spiritual guide, Dārā S̲h̲ikōh. Both Bernier and Manucci have a good deal of…

Bāyazīd

(595 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, H.
Anṣārī Pīr Rōs̲h̲ān, son of S̲h̲aik̲h̲. ʿAbdullāh and his wife Banīn, born at Ḏj̲ālandhar in the Pand̲j̲āb about 1525. His parents were Afg̲h̲āns, and when Bābur defeated Ibrāhīm Lōdī and destroyed the Afg̲h̲ān dynasty, they removed to Kānigūram in the hill-country near Kandahār. Bāyazīd was descended from the saint Sirād̲j̲ al-Dīn Anṣārī and early showed a tendency to religion and mysticism. He is said in his youth to have rigidly conformed to the ordinances of orthodox Islām, but later on his th…

Bahādur S̲h̲āh Gud̲j̲arātī

(454 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, H.
, second son of Muẓaffar S̲h̲āh II. Having had a disagreement with his father he went to the court of Ibrāhīm Sulṭān the last king of the Lōdī dynasty. He was present at the battle of Pānīpat, but did not take ¶ part in it. On hearing of the death of his father and of the succession of his elder brother Sikandar S̲h̲āh, he proceeded towards Gud̲j̲arāt, and on the way heard of his brother’s assassination. He became king of Gud̲j̲arāt in August 1526 and avenged his brother in a cruel manner so that he is described by Bābur (ed. Erskine, …

Kopak

(110 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, H.
, a Persian and Transoxiana coin. Kopakī dīnārs are mentioned in the S̲h̲arafnāma (the life of Tīmūr), and Bābur ( Memoirs, G. M. S., p. 185) speaks of 300 tomān Kopakī (see also P. de Courteille’s transl. i. 420). P. de la Civise, as quoted by Quatremère ( N.E., xiv. 74, n.) says that dīnārs copghies are gold ducats worth 7.10 French money. See also Tavernier, Hobson-Jobson, and Murray’s English Dict., s. v. Copeck. Though the Transoxiana and Persian Kopak was a gold coin, the word may still be etymologically identical with the Russian Copeck, just as dīnār and denarius degenerated from bein…

K̲h̲ān Ḏj̲ahān Lōdī

(229 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, H.
An Afg̲h̲ān favourite of the emperor Ḏj̲ahāngīr [q. v.], who called him his son ( farzand). His original name was Pīr Ḵh̲ān, and he was a son of Dawlat Ḵh̲ān and descended from the Dawlat Ḵh̲ān Lōdī, who was supreme in the Pand̲j̲āb when Bābur entered India. Pīr Ḵh̲ān nrst had the title of Ṣalābat Ḵh̲ān, and afterward that of Ḵh̲ān Ḏj̲ahān. When Ḏj̲ahāngīr died, he behaved badly, made the mistake of not recognising S̲h̲āh Ḏj̲ahān, and of not even answering his autograph letter, and sold the Balāg̲h̲āt of the D…

Ibrāhīm Lodī

(166 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, H.
The last king of India of the house of Lodī [s. Sikandar Lodī], came to the throne in 1510, and reigned at Agra for about 16 years when he was overthrown and slain by Bābur at Pānīpat in April 1526. He was violent and tyrannical, and alienated his nobles who called in Bābur to help them. He fell, however, fighting bravely, along with thousands of his Afg̲h̲āns. Like Harold, he had trouble with his own family, before being called upon to encounter a foreign foe. His father’s brother, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn, attempted …

K̲h̲ān K̲h̲ānān

(76 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, H.
, “Lord of Lords”, a title given by the Dihlī emperors to their highest officer. It corresponds to the Turkish Beglerbeg. It was in use in Bābur’s time, the title having been given to Dilāwar Ḵh̲ān, son of Dawlat Ḵh̲ān. The most famous Ḵh̲ān Ḵh̲ānān’s were Akbar’s ministers, Bairām and his son ʿAbd al-Raḥīm. — Ḵh̲ān Dawrān, “Lord of the age”, and Ḵh̲ān Ḏj̲ahān, “Lord of the world”, are similar titles. (H. Beveridge)

Ḏj̲ahāngīr

(776 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, H.
, eldest son of the Emperor Akbar. He was born at Fatḥpūr Sikri on 31 August 1569. His mother was a Rād̲j̲pūt, the daughter of Rād̲j̲ā Bihārī Mal Kačhulāhī, who afterwards was styled Miryam al-Zamānī, “The Mary of the Age”. His father gave Ḏj̲ahāngīr the name of Sulṭān Salīm, though he generally called him S̲h̲aik̲h̲ū Bābā, in allusion to the belief that he was born in answer to the prayers of the derwīsh. Salīm Čis̲h̲tī, and in his cell. When Ḏj̲ahāngīr ascended the throne on 24 October 1605 he…

Hilālī

(210 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, H.
, the pen-name of Badr al-Dīn. Of Čag̲h̲atāi origin and born at Astarābād he was educated at Herāt, and was patronised by ʿAlī S̲h̲ēr. The fullest account of him is by Sām Mīrzā who was a friend of his. (See Silvestre de Sacy in Not. et Extraits, iv. 285). The account there given of his begging to be put to death by a certain young man is not in the B. M. copies of the Tuḥfat-Sāmī and may be an interpolation. Hilālī’s best known poem is the S̲h̲āh u Darwīs̲h̲ (S̲h̲āh u Gadā). Bābur severely criticises its morality, and Rieu, II, 656, seems to take the same view, but Professor Ethé clai…

Ḥusain Mīrzā

(818 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, H.
b. Manṣūr b. Bāiḳarā (Black Prince?), and styled Abu’l G̲h̲āzī. This famous king of Ḵh̲urāsān was born at Herāt in Muḥarram 842 a. h., June 1438, and reigned there, with one interruption, from Ramaḍān 873 (March 1469), to the last month of 911 (May 1506). He was a distinguished soldier and sovereign, and was a munificent patron of letters. He also attempted poetry, and composed a dīwān, but it does not seem to have been of much value. According to Sām Mīrzā, he is also the author of a book called the Mad̲j̲ālis al-ʿUs̲h̲s̲h̲āḳ, which is a mixture of prose and poetry, and contains biogra…

K̲h̲wāfī K̲h̲ān

(952 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, H.
, muḥammad hās̲h̲im niẓām al-mulkī , historian; his title of K̲h̲wāfī K̲h̲ān was given him by Muḥammad S̲h̲āh and is derived from a family connection with K̲h̲wāf [ q.v.], a district of eastern Persia, famous for its distinguished men. He was a son of K̲h̲wād̲j̲a Mīr, a confidential servant of Murād Bak̲h̲s̲h̲, youngest son of S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān. The place and date of his birth are not known, but it seem probable that he was born in India, and a statement in his history (i, 739) implies that his birth took place about 1074/1664. The statemen…

Mumtāz Maḥall

(140 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, H.
, wife of S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān, and the lady for whom the Tād̲j̲ Maḥall [ q.v. and hind. vii. Architecture] was built. She was the daughter of Abu ’l-Ḥasan Āṣaf K̲h̲ān, who was Nūr D̲j̲ahān’s brother. Her name was Ard̲j̲umand Bānū, the title Mumtāz Maḥall being conferred on her after S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān’s accession. She was his favourite wife and bore him fourteen children, seven of whom grew up. She was born in 1001/1593, married in 1021/1612, and died, at Burhānpūr in the Deccan, very shortly after the birth of a daug…

K̲h̲wāfī K̲h̲ān

(934 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, H.
(Muḥammad Hās̲h̲im Niẓām al-Mulkī), historien dont le titre de Ḵh̲wāfī-Ḵh̲ān, qui lui fut donné par Muḥammad S̲h̲āh, vient des rapports de sa famille avec Ḵh̲wāf [ q.v.], district de la Perse orientale célèbre pour les hommes remarquables qui y naquirent. Le lieu et la date de sa naissance sont inconnus, mais il semble probable qu’il naquit dans l’Inde, et un passage de son Histoire (I, 739) montre qu’il doit être né vers 1074/1664. Il résulte de ce passage que 74 ans après la mort de Saʿd Allāh (1066/1656), ministre de …

K̲h̲wāndamīr

(1,550 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, H. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, nom de famille de l’historien persan G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-dīn, né vers 880/1475 dans une famille de savants et de hauts fonctionnaires. Son père, Ḵh̲wād̲j̲a Humām al-dīn Muḥ. b. Ḵh̲wād̲j̲a Ḏj̲alāl al-dīn Muḥ. b. Ḵh̲wād̲j̲a Burhān al-dīn Muḥ. S̲h̲īrāzī, fut pendant de longues années le ministre du sultan Maḥmūd b. Abī Saʿīd qui, à la fin de sa carrière politique, fut le souverain tīmūride de Samarḳand de 899 à 900/1494-5. L’historien Mīrk̲h̲wānd [ q.v.], qui était son oncle maternel, participa largement à son instruction primaire. Il est donc probable que Ḵh̲wāndamīr naquit à Herāt où de…

Mumtāz Maḥall

(133 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, H.
, épouse de S̲h̲āh Ḏj̲ahān, pour laquelle le Tād̲j̲ Maḥall [ q.v.] a été construit. Elle était la fille d’Abù l-Ḥasan Āṣaf Ḵh̲ān. qui était le frère de Nūr Ḏj̲ahān. Elle s’appelait Ard̲j̲umand Bānū, le titre de Mumtāz Maḥall lui ayant été conféré après l’avènement de S̲h̲āh Ḏj̲ahān. Elle fut son épouse favorite et lui donna quatorze enfants, dont sept vécurent. Née en 1001/1593, elle se maria en 1021/1612 et mourut à Burhānpūr, dans le Deccan, très peu de temps après la naissance d’une fille, en 1041/1631. Elle était belle et aimable, et S̲h̲āh Ḏj̲ahān l’aimait tendrement. (H. Beveridge) Bibl…

K̲h̲usraw Sulṭān

(152 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, H.
, fils aîné de l’empereur mng̲h̲al Ḏj̲ahāngīr [ q.v.]; sa mère était la fille du Rād̲j̲a Bhagwān Dās. Il naquit à Lahore en 995/1587 et fut le favori de son grand-père Akbar, qui voulait peut-être faire de lui son successeur. Il se révolta contre son père dans la première année de son règne (1015/1606), mais fut défait et emprisonné. II mena une seconde conspiration en Afg̲h̲ānistān, et celle-ci ayant été découverte, il fut, sauf pendant quelque temps, détenu le reste de sa vie. Il mourut à Asīrgaŕh, pr…
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