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Konfessionalismus

(1,087 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
1. Begriff und BegriffsgeschichteIn seiner umgangssprachlichen Verwendung – auch im angloamerikan. Sprachraum ( confessionalism) – häufig etwa gleichbedeutend mit Konfessionalisierung verwendet (»Zeitalter des K.« für Konfessionelles Zeitalter oder Epoche der Konfessionalisierung), ist der Begriff K. zumeist negativ konnotiert; er dient der Bezeichnung von Verhaltensweisen und Haltungen, die in einem als ungebührlich, unzeitgemäß oder ökumenisch inakzeptabel empfundenen Maße konfessionelle Standpunkte mit dem Ansp…
Date: 2019-11-19

Melanchthon, Philipp

(901 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
Philipp Melanchthon (1497–1560) was the most significant German reformer after Martin Luther. Melanchthon was born in Bretten, Palatinate, as the son of the armorer George Schwarzerdt. After attending the distinguished Pforzheim Latin School, he matriculated in Heidelberg in 1509 at the early age of 12. (That year also his surname was changed from Schwarzerdt to the Greek equivalent, Melanchthon [black earth].) He received his bachelor of arts in 1511 and from 1512 studied in Tübingen, where he …

Calvin, John

(1,439 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
Born July 10, 1509, at Noyon in northern France, John Calvin became one of the most influential of the second generation of Reformers. His work was of significance throughout Europe and beyond. His theological development, confessional importance, ecclesiastical consolidation, and international training of reformers were lasting impulses throughout his life and for ages to come. The son of a notary in the bishop’s secretarial service who was excommunicated for financial conflicts with the church in 1528, Calvin was at first destined for a career in …

Bucer, Martin

(909 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
Modern research has rightly come to see in Martin Bucer (1491–1551) one of the main leaders of the Reformation. Educated at the famous Schlettstadt grammar school, he became the reformer of the imperial city of Strasbourg. Having first made an intensive, Thomistically oriented study of Scholastic theology, he then came under the lasting influence of the humanism of D. Erasmus (1469?-1536). His crucial experience, however, was his encounter with M. Luther (1483–1546) at the Heidelberg Disputation…

Zwingli, Ulrich

(936 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
Ulrich (Huldrych, Huldreich) Zwingli (1484–1531), a Zurich reformer, was perhaps the most important figure in German Switzerland and southwest Germany for the initial phase of the early Reformation. His theology, distinctively formed above all in the theological argument with Martin Luther and related particularly to the urban experience, represents a specific interpretation of the Reformation message and forms an essential theological-historical element of the development of the Reformed confession, which had been evolving since the late 1520s. Zwingli was born on Janua…

Müntzer, Thomas

(785 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
Little is known about the early life of the radical reformer and theologian Thomas Müntzer (ca. 1489–1525), who was born in Stolberg, Thuringia. The first reliable witness to his life is his 1506 matriculation entry at the University of Leipzig. He was definitely enrolled in the University of Frankfurt an der Oder in 1512, from which he probably graduated. After ordination in the Halberstadt Diocese, he was active as a minister in Brunswick, though he also had a sinecure in Aschersleben. He apparently studied…

Thorner Religionsgespräch

(350 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[English Version] . Das auf Einladung des polnischen Königs Władislaw IV. (1632–1648) am 28.8.1645 im Rathaus der zum königlichen Preußen gehörigen Stadt Thorn durch den polnischen Kanzler Georg von Teschen eröffnete sog. Colloquium charitativum sollte offiziell der interkonfessionellen Verständigung der auch polit. gegeneinander stehenden konfessionellen Konfliktparteien im Königreich Polen dienen, war faktisch aber von vornherein Teil einer gegenreformatorischen Rekatholisierungspolitik (Gegenre…

Nadere Reformatie

(210 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[English Version] . Der Begriff N.R. bez. die unter personell (W. Amesius) bzw. lit. vermitteltem puritanischen Einfluß im niederländischen Reformiertentum (reformierte Kirchen) entstandene Bewegung einer »näheren« im Sinne von »weitergehenden«, »zweiten Reformation« der persönlichen Lebensgestaltung der Gläubigen, die die in der »ersten Reformation« erreichte Erneuerung der Lehre im Sinne einer ethisch verbindlichen, asketisch geprägten Frömmigkeitspraxis zu vertiefen und weiterzuführen beabsicht…

Voetius

(346 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[English Version] Voetius, Gisbert (3.3.1589 Heusden, Holland – 1.11.1676 Utrecht). Einem im Krieg verarmten Rittergeschlecht entstammend, studierte V. seit 1604 Theol. in Leiden, wo er als Schüler des F. Gomarus mit den Auseinandersetzungen zw. Remonstranten (Arminianer) und Contraremonstranten intensiv vertraut wurde; 1611 Pfarrer in Vlijmen, 1617 in seiner Heimatstadt Heusden, 1629 in 's-Hertogenbosch. 1618/19 nahm er an der Dordrechter Synode teil, deren contraremonstrantischer Prädestinationsl…

Confessionalism

(1,131 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
1. Definition and historyThe term  confessionalism is commonly treated as roughly synonymous with confessionalization (“Age of Confessionalism” for the Confessional Age or the Era of Confessionalization), usually with negative connotations; it serves to denote modes of behavior and attitudes that champion confessional positions, claiming their contemporary validity to a degree felt to be improper, anachronistic, or ecumenically unacceptable. The German term  Konfessionalismus was first used around 1830 as a pejorative battle cry of liberal theologians …
Date: 2019-10-14

Confessionalization

(5,441 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
1. Concept and state of research 1.1. Basics, epistemological interests, and boundariesThe term  confessionalization denotes a concept used for interpreting the history of the state, politics, and society (Society [community]) at the beginning of the early modern period. Building on the works of the historians Wolfgang Reinhard [30]; [31] and especially Heinz Schilling [36]; [37], since the 1980s it has been developed into a leading interpretive model for the investigation of European history. The traditional  epochal structure (Epoch) of an e…
Date: 2019-10-14

Konfessionalisierung

(4,850 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
1. Konzept und Forschungsstand 1.1. Grundlagen, Erkenntnisinteressen und AbgrenzungenDer Begriff der K. bezeichnet ein Interpretationskonzept der frühnzl. Staats-, Politik- und Gesellschafts-Geschichte, das, ausgehend von den Arbeiten der Historiker Wolfgang Reinhard [30]; [31] und v. a. Heinz Schilling [36]; [37], seit den 1980er Jahren zu einem maßgeblichen Deutungsmodell für die Erforschung der europ. Geschichte weiterentwickelt worden ist. Das traditionelle Epochen-Gefüge einer an die vornehmlich modernisierungstheoretisch gedeutete Reformation anschließ…
Date: 2019-11-19

Königsberg, University

(1,154 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] Founded by Duke Albert of Prussia (the elder) on Oct 24, 1541 and opened on Aug 17, 1544, with four faculties and eleven chairs, the University of Königsberg followed Marburg (1527) as the second newly founded university in the century of the Reformation. As the most easterly German Protestant university before the founding of Dorpat (1632; Tartu), Königsberg fulfilled a central cultural mediating function for Poland and the Baltics. Experts from the University of Königsberg were …

Hauck, Albert

(358 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] (Dec 9, 1845, Wassertrüdingen, – Apr 7, 1918, Leipzig), the most important Protestant church historian of Wilhelmine Germany besides A. v. Harnack, studied Protestant theology in Erlangen and Berlin. He experienced formative impulses of Erlangen Lutheranism from J.C. von Hofmann and Gustav Leopold Plitt, and, in the spirit of historicism, from L. v. Ranke. Having passed the qualifying exam for theology in Bavaria (1868), Hauck entered into church service. On the basis of a monogra…

Voetius, Gisbert

(386 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] (Mar 3, 1589, Heusden, Holland –Nov 1, 1676, Utrecht). Born to a noble family impoverished by war, Voetius began to study theology at Leiden in 1604; as a student of F. Gomarus, he was deeply involved in the debates between the Remonstrants (Arminians) and Contraremonstrants. In 1611 he was appointed pastor in Vlijmen, in 1617 in Heusden, his home town, and in 1629 in ’s-Hertogenbosch. In 1618/1619 he took part in the Synod of Dort, agreeing with the Contraremonstrants’ doctrine o…

Krakevitz, Albrecht Joachim von

(255 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] (May 28, 1674, Gevezin near New Brandenburg – May 2, 1732, Greifswald). After studying in Rostock, Copenhagen, and Leipzig, Krakevitz was appointed professor of Near Eastern languages and professor of catechetics in Rostock in 1699. From 1713 onward, as professor of theology, councilor of the consistory, and superintendent of ¶ the Mecklenburg district, Krakevitz became one of the most important representatives of late Rostock orthodoxy (II, 2) together with J. Fecht, J. Quistorp, and Zacharias Grapius (1671–1713). Appointed gene…

Thorn, Conference of

(429 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] The so-called Colloquium Charitativum, which convened at the invitation of the Polish king Wladyslav IV (1632–1648) and was opened on Aug 28, 1645 by the Polish chancellor Georg of Teschen in the town hall of the Royal Prussian city of Thorn, was officially meant to promote the interconfessional dialogue between the (also) politically opposed confessional parties in the Kingdom of Poland; in actual fact, however, the conference was part of a Counter-Reformation policy of recatholi…

Thirty Years War

(4,245 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] I. Introduction Already referred to as the “Thirty Years War” by contemporary witnesses, the military conflicts subsumed under this name were waged between 1618 and 1648 in Central Europe and especially on the territory of the Holy Roman Empire. They represent a historically new phenomenon on the threshold to European modern times, notably in terms of the length and geographical scope of the military engagements, of the magnitude of material expenditures, of technological and strate…

Brakel

(184 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] 1. Theodorus à (Dirk Gerrits; 1608, Enkhuizen– Feb 14, 1669, Makkum), the mystic Reformed theologian involved in the “Nadere Reformatie,” who was more interested in contemplation than in pressing for church reform and was active as a parish pastor in the north of the Netherlands. In his writings Brakel developed a path for the ascension of the soul to complete communion with Christ based on his own mystical experience. Bibliography A. Ritschl, Geschichte des Pietismus, I, 1880 (repr. 1966), 268–276 W. Goeters, Die Vorbereitung des Pietismus …

Heussi, Karl

(200 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] (Jun 16, 1877, Leipzig – Jan 25, 1961, Jena). Heussi studied theology, history and philosophy in Leipzig, Berlin and Marburg and received the Dr.phil. (Leipzig) in 1903, the Lic.theol. (Heidelberg) in 1911, and the Dr.theol. h.c. (Gießen) in 1919. Between 1904 and 1924 Heussi worked as headmaster and then professor at the Gymnasium in Leipzig; after 1924, he taught in Jena as professor of church history. Published in many revised editions since 1907, his Kompendium der Kirchengeschichte [Compendium of church history] (181991) which was originally conceived for…
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