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Muṣṭafā III

(1,475 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the twenty-sixth sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1171-87/1757-74), was one of the younger sons of Aḥmed III [ q.v.] and was born on 14 Ṣafar 1129/28 January 1717 ( Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī , i, 80). When he succeeded to the throne, after ʿOt̲h̲mān III’s [ q.v.] death, on 16 Ṣafar 1171/30 October 1757, his much more popular brother and heir to the throne, Meḥemmed, had recently died, in Rabīʿ I 1170/December 1756. Turkey enjoyed at that time, since the peace of Belgrade of 1739, a period of peace with her neighbours. Since December 1756 the very able Rāg̲h̲ib Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] was grand vizier and …


(262 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
(a.), the title of governors of the provinces of Egypt, called mudīriyya . The use of the word mudīr in this meaning is no doubt of Turkish origin. The office was created by Muḥammad ʿAlī, when, shortly after 1813, he reorganised the administrative structure of Egypt, instituting seven mudīriyyas; this number has been changed several times. The chief task of the mudīr is the controlling of the industrial and agricultural administration and of the irrigation, as executed by his subordinates, viz. the maʾmūr , who administers a markaz , and the nāẓir who controls the ḳism

Siwri Ḥiṣār

(566 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Bosworth, C.E.
, also written Sifri Ḥiṣār , i.e. strong fortress (see Aḥmed Wefīḳ, Lehd̲j̲e-yi ʿOt̲h̲mānī , 459), the early Turkish and Ottoman name of two small towns in northwestern and western Anatolia respectively. 1. The more important one is the modern Turkish Sivrihisar, in the modern il or province of Eskişehir. It lies on the Eskişehir-Ankara road roughly equidistant from each, south of the course of the Porsuk river and north of the upper course of the Saḳarya [ q.v.] (lat. 39° 29′ N., long. 31° 32′ E., altitude 1,050 m/3,440 feet). …

Muṣṭafā IV

(643 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the twenty-ninth sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1222-3/1807-8), was a son of ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd I and was born on 26 S̲h̲aʿbān 1193/19 September 1778 (Meḥmed T̲h̲üreyyā, Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī , i, 81). When the anti-reform party, headed by the ḳāʾim-maḳām Mūsā Pas̲h̲a and the muftī, and supported by the Janissaries and the auxiliary troops of the Yamaḳs, had dethroned Selīm III [ q.v.] on 21 Rabīʿ I 1222/29 May 1807, Muṣṭafā was proclaimed sultan. Immediately afterwards, the niẓām-i d̲j̲edīd ¶ [ q.v.] corps was dissolved and Ḳabaḳd̲j̲i-og̲h̲lu, the leader of the Yamaḳs, was mad…

Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a, Lala

(671 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, famous Ottoman commander of the 10th/16th century, d. 988/1580. The date of his birth is not given. He was a native of Soḳol, and began his service in the imperial palace. He rose in rank under the grand vizier Aḥmed (960-2/1553-5), but was not in favour with the latter’s successor Rüstem Pas̲h̲a, who made him in 963/1556 lālā to prince Selīm with the object of ruining him. The outcome of this nomination was the contrary of what was expected; Muṣṭafā became the chief originator of the intrigues by which Selīm came into conflict …

al-Mahalla al-Kubrā

(600 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
or maḥalla kabīr is the modern name of an important town in the Delta of the Nile at some distance to the west of the Damietta arm, north-east of Ṭanṭa. It ¶ lies on the Turʿat al-Milāḥ canal, a branch of the Baḥr S̲h̲ībīn. In view of the large number of Egyptian geographical names compounded with Maḥalla (see these listed in Muḥammad Ramzī, al-Ḳāmūs al-d̲j̲ug̲h̲rāfī li ’l-bilād al-Miṣriyya , Cairo 1953-68, i, 404-9), the identification of the town with the names mentioned by earlier Arabic writers is a matter of some difficulty. Maspero an…


(592 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the form of the name in Ottoman Turkish of the small village in Lydia in Asia Minor, the ancient Sardes (αἱ Σάρδεις of the classical authors, which makes Sāmī Bey write Sārd), capital of the Lydian kingdom, situated on the eastern bank of the Sart Çay (Paktōlos) a little southward to the spot where this river joins the Gediz Çay (Hermos). Although in the later Byzantine period Sardes had lost much of its former importance (as a metropolitan see) and been outflanked by Magnesia (Turkish Mag̲h̲nīsa [ q.v.]) and Philadelphia (Ala S̲h̲ehir [ q.v.]), it still was one of the larger towns, wh…

K̲h̲alīl Pas̲h̲a Ḥād̲jd̲j̲ī Arnawud

(886 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Groot, A.H. de
, Grand Vizier under the Ottoman Sulṭān Aḥmad III. He was an Albanian from Elbaṣān born ca. 1655. At the time his elder brother Sinān Āg̲h̲ā was Bostand̲j̲i̊ Bas̲h̲i̊ [ q.v.], he entered the Bostand̲j̲i̊ corps. After the latter’s death ca. 1105/1649, he became attached to Ḳalayli̊ḳoz Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a and served under him in Bag̲h̲dād, where his protector was beglerbegi . On his return to Istanbul, K̲h̲alīl became K̲h̲āṣṣaki [ q.v.] and in 1123/1711, Bostand̲j̲i̊ Bas̲h̲i̊. On 16 Muḥarram 1128/11 January 1716, having been appointed beglerbegi of Erzurum, he was sent by the Grand Vizi…

K̲h̲usraw Pas̲h̲a

(2,289 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of two Turkish grandviziers. 1. The Bosnian Ḵh̲usraw Pas̲h̲a, grandvizier under Murād IV. Brought up in the imperial palace, he held the offices of Siliḥdār and of Ag̲h̲a of the Janissaries (from 1033/1624) and later in Rad̲j̲ab 1036 (March—April 1627) he received the rank of Wezīr-i Ḳubbe-nis̲h̲in. In November 1627 after the failure of the grand vizier Ḵh̲alīl Pas̲h̲a [q. v.] to subdue the rebel Abāza Pas̲h̲a at Erzerūm, a council called by the Sulṭān decided, on the proposal of the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām Yaḥyā Efendi, to depose Ḵh̲al…

Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, Tiryākī

(293 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, grand vizier under Maḥmūd I, was born about 1680 at Constantinople. His father was a Janissary. He began his career as a scribe and rose to important posts; in 1739 he played a role in the peace negotiations at Belgrad with Austria. He had been k i aya of the grand vizierate, viz. minister of the interior, when the sulṭān, under influence of his new ḳi̊zlar ag̲h̲asi̊, the so-called Bes̲h̲īr the Younger, dismissed his predecessor Ḥasan Pas̲h̲a and called him to the grand vizierate (August 1746). The twelve months of his period of office were not filled with wa…

Luṭf ʿAlī Beg

(259 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
Ād̲h̲ar, a Persian poet and biographer of the xviiith century. He was born in Iṣfahān on the 20th Rabīʿ I, 1123 (June 7, 1711) and spent his youth at Ḳūm and later at S̲h̲īrāz, where his father lived while governor of Lāristān and the coast of Fārs under Nādir S̲h̲āh. After the death of his father, he made the pilgrimage to Mecca and travelled in Persia, finally settling in Iṣfahān in the service of Nādir’s successors. He latterly adopted a life of seclusion and put himself under the spiritual direction of Mīr Saiyid ʿAlī Mus̲h̲tāḳ. He died in 1781. Luṭf ʿAlī Beg is best known for the collect…

Murād II

(1,360 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, sixth ruler of the Ottoman Empire, was born in 806 (1403—1404) and ascended the throne in May 1421, when he arrived in Adrianople some days after his father Muḥammed I’s death; his decease had been kept secret on the advice of the vizier ʿIwaḍ Pas̲h̲a until the new sulṭān’s arrival. As crown prince he had resided at Mag̲h̲nisa, and he had taken part in the suppression of the revolt of Simawna Og̲h̲lu Badr al-Dīn. Immediately after his accession he had to face the pretender known in Turkish his…

Sulṭān Walad

(815 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, eldest son of Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī and his second successor as head of the Mawlawī order, was born in Lāranda [cf. ḳaramān] in 623 (1226) before Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn’s family had settled in Ḳonya. He was called after Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn’s father, Bahāʾ al-Dīn Walad, known as Sulṭān al-ʿUlamāʾ. He was brought up among the Ṣūfīs who surrounded his father and seems to have been particularly intimate with S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Tabrīzī, while his younger brother Čelebi ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn was rather hostile to the latter’s influence. Sulṭān Wala…

Muḥammad ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a

(3,495 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(in European sources often Mehemed Ali or Mehemet Ali) was the well-known powerful viceroy of Egypt during the years 1805-1849 (which period comprises the entire reign of Sulṭān Maḥmūd II q. v.); and the founder of the khedivial, later royal dynasty of Egypt. Seen in the light of history his life-work fully entitles him to the epithet of “the Founder of Modern Egypt”. Muḥammad ʿAlī was born in 1769, possibly of Albanian extraction, in the town of Ḳawāla [q. v.] in Macedonia; he was engaged in the tobacco trade until he joined, as biñ bas̲h̲i in a corps of Albanian troops, the Turkish arm…


(12,725 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
The present article is intended to deal with the Muḥammadan geographical literature and, as such, is an attempt to fill a gap that was described as a serious omission in the Encyclopaedia by W. Barthold in his introduction to the facsimile edition of Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam (Leningrad 1930, p. 7). The word d̲j̲ug̲h̲rāfiyā (sometimes vocalised d̲j̲ag̲h̲rāfiyā) itself only came rather late to denote ¶ the science of geography. With the older geographical authors it is mostly used for the well-known geographical work of Ptolemy (cf. Fihrist, p. 268) and for that of Marinus of Tyre (cf. al-Masʿūdī, Tan…


(214 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, in the terminology of Turkish mystics, has two meanings: 1. a member of a ṭarīḳa, who accompanies a neophyte of the order during his initiation, as a spiritual interpreter. When a murīd is initiated in the Bektās̲h̲ī ṭarīḳa, he is led by two terd̲j̲umāns into the presence of the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ and eleven other persons representing the eleven imāms. During the ceremony the terd̲j̲umāns guide him and say for him the formulas he has to recite (cf. J. P. Brown, The Darvishes or OrientalSpiritualism, ed. H. A. Rose, London 1927, p. 206 sqq.). The function of these terd̲j̲umāns is analogous to…

Muḥammad IV

(968 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, nineteenth Sulṭān of the Ottoman Empire, was born on December 30, 1641 and was placed on the throne on August 8, 1648, after the deposition, soon followed by the execution, of his father Sulṭān Ibrāhīm. The power in the slate was at that time divided between the court, where the old wālide Kösem [q. v.] and Sulṭān Muḥammad’s mother, the wālide Tark̲h̲ān, held the reins, and the rebellious soldiery of the Janissaries and the Sipāhīs. The lack of stability in the government at this time is shown by the fact, that, until the nomination of the grand vizier …


(735 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn, Sāmī Bey Frās̲h̲erī, a Turkish author and lexicographer,born at Frās̲h̲er in Albania on June 1, 1850, of an old Muslim Albanian family whose ancestors are said to have been granted this place as a fief by Sulṭān Meḥmed II. He was educated in the Greek lycée at Janina, at the same time receiving instruction from private tutors in Turkish, Persian and Arabic He then came to Constantinople, where he devoted himself to journalism and founded the daily paper Ṣabāḥ about 1875. He began his literary career about the same time and attached himself to the new school…

Luṭf ʿAlī K̲h̲ān

(604 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
was the last member of the Zand dynasty in Persia. He was born in 1769, the son of Ḏj̲aʿfar, son of Karīm Ḵh̲an Zand [q. v.]. Ḏj̲aʿfar, who had seized the throne in 1785, had continued the struggle against the Ḳād̲j̲ār Ag̲h̲a Muḥammad, who had forced him to retire to S̲h̲īrāz, where he died on Jan. 23, 1789 from poisoning. During the short period of the reign of his father, Luṭf ʿAlī Ḵh̲ān had been entrusted with the conquest of Lāristān and Kirmān, which he had successfully carried through. ¶ But after the death of Ḏj̲aʿfar he was forced to flee from his own army to Kirmān to seek …


(499 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a little town, capital of a ḳaḍā of the same name in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Ertogrul, belonging to the wilāyet of Ḵh̲udāwendigiār in Asia Minor. It lies to the south of Saḳariya between Lefke and Eski S̲h̲ehir and is a day’s journey from each of these places ( Ḏj̲ihān-numā). Sögüd lies at the mouth of a mountain gorge, very deep and very narrow, and is built in an amphitheatre. The country round the town forms part of the fertile region which forms the transition between the Central Plain of Anatolia on the ¶ south and the lands on either side of the lower course of the Saḳariya to the nort…
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