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Dīwān

(16,419 words)

Author(s): Duri, A.A. | Gottschalk, H.L. | Colin, G.S. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, a collection of poetry or prose [see ʿarabiyya ; persian literature ; turkish literature ; urdū literature and s̲h̲iʿr ], a register, or an office. Sources differ about linguistic roots. Some ascribe to it a Persian origin from dev , ‘mad’ or ‘devil’, to describe secretaries. Others consider it Arabic from dawwana , to collect or to register, thus meaning a collection of records or sheets. (See Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī, Ṣubḥ , i, 90; LA, xvii, 23-4; Ṣūlī, Adab al-kuttāb , 187; Māwardī, al-Aḥkām al-sulṭāniyya , 175; D̲j̲ahs̲h̲iyārī, Wuzarāʾ , ¶ 16-17; cf. Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ ,…

Ṣafī (pl. safāyā), Ṣawāfī

(2,831 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
(a.), two terms of mediaeval Islamic finance and land tenure. The first denotes special items consisting of immoveable property selected from booty by the leader [see fayʾ and g̲h̲anīma ], while the second is the term for land which the Imām selects from the conquered territories for the treasury with the consent of those who had a share in the booty (al-Māwardī, al-Aḥkām al-sulṭāniyya , Cairo 1966, 192). In pre-Islamic Arabia the leader was also entitled to one-fourth ( rubʿ ) or onefifth ( k̲h̲ums ) of the booty in addition to the ṣafī . The custom of k̲h̲ums was upheld by the prophet and …

Ḥād̲j̲ib

(4,559 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D. | Bosworth, C.E. | Lambton, A.K.S.
, term which may be translated approximately as chamberlain, used in Muslim countries for the person responsible for guarding the door of access to the ruler, so that only approved visitors may approach him. The term quickly became a title corresponding to a position in the court and to an office the exact nature of which varied considerably in different regions and in different periods. Basically the Master of Ceremonies, the ḥād̲j̲ib often appears as being in fact a superintendent of the Palace, a chief of the guard or a righter of wrongs, s…

K̲h̲alīfa

(19,029 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Jong, F. de | Holt, P.M.
(i) The history of the institution of the caliphate A study of the caliphate, its institution and subsequent developments, has never been attempted in its entirety until the present. The principal reason is that it has not seemed possible to conduct such a survey independently of historical studies relating to different reigns, which are still in most cases insufficient, or even non-existent, whereas studies of doctrine, while more advanced, have not been developed to the same extent with regard to the v…

K̲h̲āliṣa

(8,539 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
(pl. k̲h̲āliṣad̲j̲āt ) as a term signifying crown lands comes into general use in Persian sources in the middle ages. It is also applied to lesser rivers, ḳanāts [ q.v.] and wells belonging to the crown. In early Islamic times the term ṣawāfī [ q.v.] is used to denote crown lands in general, while the terms ḍiyāʿ al-k̲h̲āṣṣa , ḍiyāʿ al-sulṭān and ḍiyāʿ al-k̲h̲ulafāʾ are applied to the private estates of the caliph. Under the early semi-independent dynasties which arose in Persia on the fragmentation of the caliphate, the terms

Maḥkama

(51,808 words)

Author(s): Schacht, J. | İnalcık, Halil | Findley, C.V. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Layish, A. | Et al.
(a.), court. The subject-matter of this article is the administration of justice, and the organisation of its administration, in the Muslim countries, the office of the judge being dealt with in the art. …

S̲h̲īrāz

(7,628 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
, which has the title dār al-ʿilm , the capital of the province of Fārs, is an Islamic foundation, on a continually inhabited site, which may go back to Sāsānid, or possibly earlier, times. It was probably founded, or restored, by Muḥammad the brother of Had̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ b. Yūsuf, or by his cousin Muḥammad b. al-Ḳāsim, in 74/693 (A.J. Arberry, Shiraz , Persian city of saints and poets, Norman, Okla. 1960, 31). It is situated at 5,000 ft. above sea level in 29° 36′ N. and 52° 32′ E. at the western ¶ end of a large basin some 80 miles long and up to 15 miles wide, though less in the vicinity of S̲h̲īrāz. A river bed, which is dry for most of the year, bounds the northern part of the city and runs southeastwards towards Lake Māhalū (J.I. Clarke, …

Ḥisba

(8,785 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Talbi, M. | Mantran, R. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, non-Ḳurʾānic term which is used to mean on the one hand the duty of every Muslim to “promote good and forbid evil” and, on the other, the function of the person who is effectively entrusted in a town with the application of this rule in the supervision of moral behaviour and more particularly of the markets; this person entrusted with the ḥisba was called the muḥtasib . There seems to exist ¶ no t…

Soyūrg̲h̲āl

(2,819 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
, a term with the primitive meaning in Mongolian of “favour” or “reward granted by the ruler to someone, sometimes of a hereditary nature” (Doerfer, Türkische und mongolische Elemente in Neupersischen , i, 351 no. 228). Soyūrg̲h̲ā…

K̲h̲arād̲j̲

(31,524 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Orhonlu, Cengiz | Subhan, Abdus
, a word derived, via Syriac, from Greek χορηϒία, but attached by the Arabs to the native root k̲h̲ . r. d̲j̲ . Contrary to its original meaning, the word seems, in the current usage of the Near East, to have denoted “tax” in general, and is in fact found with reference to various specific taxes, thus causing considerable confusion [see d̲j̲izya ]. Arabic technical and legal literature uses it more specifically, at least in the period before the formation of Turkish states, in the sense of land tax, and it is this sense which is exclusively discussed in the present article. For other taxes, see bayt…

Kirmān

(22,159 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
, the name of a Persian province and of its present capital. The name goes back to the form Carmania, which is found in Strabo (xv, 2, 14), and which is said t…

Bayhaḳ

(143 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
, formerly the name of a district to the west of Nīs̲h̲āpūr in Ḵh̲urāsān. In Ṭāhirid times it contained 390 villages with a revenue assessment of some 236,000 dirhams . The chief towns were Sabzawār and Ḵh̲usrawd̲j̲ird. It capitulated to a Muslim army under ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿĀmir in 30/650-1. In 548-6/1153-4 it was devastated by Yanāltegīn. …

Ḳanāt

(5,080 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S. | Ed.
(a.), pl. ḳanawāt , ḳanā , ḳunī , aḳniya , “canal, irrigation system, water-pipe”. Used also for a baton, a lance, etc., the term originally meant “reed” [see ḳaṣab ] and it is with this meaning and that of “rush” that the word ḳanū is known in Akkadian (cf. Zimmern, Akkad. Fremdwörter , Leipzig 1915, 56); becoming ḳanä in Hebrew and ḳanyā in Aramaic, it passed into Arabic and was also borrowed in Greek and Latin in the forms χάννα χάννη (χάνη), canna ; by an evolution parallel to that of ḳanāt , the Latin word canalis “in the shape of a reed”, acquired the meaning of “pipe, canal”. In Persian ḳanāt is u…

Dārūg̲h̲a

(1,028 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
The word is derived from the Mongol daru-, ‘to press, to seal’ and was used to denote a chief in the Mongol feudal hierarchy (K. H. Menges,

D̲j̲amʿiyya

(9,663 words)

Author(s): Hourani, A.H. | Rustow, D.A. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Demeerseman, A. | Ahmad, Aziz
This term, commonly used in modern Arabic to mean a “society” or “association”, is derived from the root D̲J̲ - M - ʿ, meaning “to collect, join together, etc.”. In its modern sense it appears to have come into use quite recently, and was perhaps first used to refer to the organized monastic communities or congregations which appeared in the eastern Uniate Churches in Syria and Lebanon at the end of the seventeenth and beginning of the eighteenth centuries ( e.g., D̲j̲amʿiyyat al-Muk̲h̲alliṣ , the Salvatorians, a Greek …

K̲h̲udāwand

(344 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
(p), God, lord, master. There is no established etymology for this word and no Middle or Old Persian antecedent. It is used in G̲h̲aznawid times in the sense of lord or master (cf. Abu ’l-Faḍl Muḥammad b. Ḥusayn Bayhaḳī,

Iṣfahān

(11,844 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S. | Sourdel-Thomine, J. | J. Sourdel-Thomine
(in Arabic Iṣbahān), a town and province in Persia, whose name, according to Hamza al-Iṣfahānī, means “the armies” (Māfarruk̲h̲ī, Kitāb Maḥāsin Iṣfahān , ed. Sayyid D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn Tihrāni, Tehran n.d., 5-6). 1. history The province, whose precise bound…

Dihḳan

(700 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
, arabicized form of dehkān , the head of a village and a member of the lesser feudal nobility of Sāsānian Persia. The power of the dihḳāns derived from their hereditary title to the local administration. They were an immensely important class, although the actual area of land they cultivated as the hereditary possession of their family was often small. They were the representatives of the government vis-à-vis the peasants and their principal function was to collect taxes; and, in the opinio…

al-Dawānī

(1,090 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
, Muḥammad b. Asʿad D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn , was born in 830/1427 at Dawān in the district of Kāzarūn, where his father was Ḳāḍī; he claimed descent from the Caliph Abū Bakr whence his nisba al-Ṣiddīḳī. He studied with his father and then went to S̲h̲īrāz where he was a pupil of Mawlānā Muḥyī ’l-Dīn Gūs̲h̲a Kinārī and Mawlānā Humām al-Dīn Gulbārī and Ṣafī al-Dīn Īd̲j̲ī. He held the office of Ṣadr under Yūsuf b. D̲j̲ahāns̲h̲āh, the Ḳarā Ḳoyūnlū, and after resigning this office became Mudarris of the Begum Madrasa, also known as the Dār al-Aytām . Under the Āḳ Ḳoyūnlū he beca…
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