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Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ibrāhīm K̲h̲ān Kalāntar

(543 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A. K. S.
, Persian statesman, was the third son of Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Hās̲h̲im, the headman, or kadk̲h̲udā-bās̲h̲ī , of the Ḥaydarīk̲h̲āna quarters of S̲h̲īrāz in the reign of Nādir S̲h̲āh. His ancestors were said to have been converts to Islam from Judaism. One of them emigrated from Ḳazwīn to Iṣfahān and is said to have married into the family of Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Qawām al-Dīn S̲h̲īrāzī. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Maḥmūd ʿAlī, Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ibrāhīm’s grandfather, was a wealthy merchant of S̲h̲īrāz. After the death of Mīrzā Muḥammad, the kalāntar of S̲h̲īrāz in 1200/1786, D̲j̲aʿfar K̲h̲ān Zand made Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ibrāhīm kal…

Ṣafī (pl. safāyā), Ṣawāfī

(2,831 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
(a.), two terms of mediaeval Islamic finance and land tenure. The first denotes special items consisting of immoveable property selected from booty by the leader [see fayʾ and g̲h̲anīma ], while the second is the term for land which the Imām selects from the conquered territories for the treasury with the consent of those who had a share in the booty (al-Māwardī, al-Aḥkām al-sulṭāniyya , Cairo 1966, 192). In pre-Islamic Arabia the leader was also entitled to one-fourth ( rubʿ ) or onefifth ( k̲h̲ums ) of the booty in addition to the ṣafī . The custom of k̲h̲ums was upheld by the prophet and …

K̲h̲āliṣa

(8,539 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
(pl. k̲h̲āliṣad̲j̲āt ) as a term signifying crown lands comes into general use in Persian sources in the middle ages. It is also applied to lesser rivers, ḳanāts [ q.v.] and wells belonging to the crown. In early Islamic times the term ṣawāfī [ q.v.] is used to denote crown lands in general, while the terms ḍiyāʿ al-k̲h̲āṣṣa , ḍiyāʿ al-sulṭān and ḍiyāʿ al-k̲h̲ulafāʾ are applied to the private estates of the caliph. Under the early semi-independent dynasties which arose in Persia on the fragmentation of the caliphate, the terms k̲h̲āṣṣ and k̲h̲āṣṣa are used of the …

S̲h̲īrāz

(7,628 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
, which has the title dār al-ʿilm , the capital of the province of Fārs, is an Islamic foundation, on a continually inhabited site, which may go back to Sāsānid, or possibly earlier, times. It was probably founded, or restored, by Muḥammad the brother of Had̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ b. Yūsuf, or by his cousin Muḥammad b. al-Ḳāsim, in 74/693 (A.J. Arberry, Shiraz , Persian city of saints and poets, Norman, Okla. 1960, 31). It is situated at 5,000 ft. above sea level in 29° 36′ N. and 52° 32′ E. at the western ¶ end of a large basin some 80 miles long and up to 15 miles wide, though less in the vici…

Soyūrg̲h̲āl

(2,819 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
, a term with the primitive meaning in Mongolian of “favour” or “reward granted by the ruler to someone, sometimes of a hereditary nature” (Doerfer, Türkische und mongolische Elemente in Neupersischen , i, 351 no. 228). Soyūrg̲h̲āl kardan is used synonymously with soyurg̲h̲amis̲h̲ kardan “to grant a favour”. The plural ( soyūrg̲h̲ālāt ) is often associated with such words as ʿawāṭif tas̲h̲rīfāt and inʿāmāt , “favours”, “presents” (see e.g. Muḥammad b. Hindūs̲h̲āh Nak̲h̲d̲j̲iwānī, Dastūr al-kātib , ed. A.A. Alizade, Moscow, i, 1964, i/2, 1971, ii, …

Kirmān

(22,159 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
, the name of a Persian province and of its present capital. The name goes back to the form …

Bayhaḳ

(143 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
, formerly the name of a district to the west of Nīs̲h̲āpūr in Ḵh̲urāsān. In Ṭāhirid times it contained 390 villages with a revenue assessment of some 236,000 dirhams . The chief towns were Sabzawār and Ḵh̲usrawd̲j̲ird. It capitulated to a Muslim army under ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿĀmir in 30/650-1. In 548-6/1153-4 it was devastated by Yanāltegīn. According to Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī its people were It̲h̲nā ʿAs̲h̲arī S̲h̲īʿīs. Among its famous men were Niẓām al-Mulk, the wazīr of Alp Arslān and Maliks̲h̲āh, Abū ’l-Faḍl Muḥammad b. Ḥusayn Bayhaḳī, the author of the Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Bayhaḳī

K̲h̲udāwand

(344 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
(p), God, lord, master. There is no established etymology for this word and no Middle or Old Persian antecedent. It is used in G̲h̲aznawid times in the sense of lord or master (cf. Abu ’l-Faḍl Muḥammad b. Ḥusayn Bayhaḳī, Tārīk̲h̲-i Bayhaḳī , ed. ʿAlī Akbar Fayyāḍ, Mas̲h̲had 1971, 23, 435, and passim ). In documents and letters belonging to the Sald̲j̲ūḳs and K̲h̲wārazms̲h̲āhs it is used as a term of address to the sultan, usually with some qualifying word or phrase such as k̲h̲udāwand-i ʿālam “lord of the world” (cf. Muntad̲j̲ab al-Dīn al-Ḏj̲uwaynī, ʿAtabat al-kataba, ed. Muḥammad Ḳazwīn…

Dihḳan

(700 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
, arabicized form of dehkān , the head of a village and a member of the lesser feudal nobility of Sāsānian Persia. The power of the dihḳāns derived from their hereditary title to the local administration. They were an immensely important class, although the actual area of land they cultivated as the hereditary possession of their family was often small. They were the representatives of the government vis-à-vis the peasants and their principal function was to collect taxes; and, in the opinion of Chr…

al-Dawānī

(1,090 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
, Muḥammad b. Asʿad D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn , was born in 830/1427 at Dawān in the district of Kāzarūn, where his father was Ḳāḍī; he claimed descent from the Caliph Abū Bakr whence his nisba al-Ṣiddīḳī. He studied with his father and then went to S̲h̲īrāz where he was a pupil of Mawlānā Muḥyī ’l-Dīn Gūs̲h̲a Kinārī and Mawlānā Humām al-Dīn Gulbārī and Ṣafī al-Dīn Īd̲j̲ī. He held the office of

Īlāt

(17,009 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
The term īlāt (pl. of īl ), first used in Persian in Ilk̲h̲ānid times, denotes nomadic or semi-nomadic tribes. ʿAs̲h̲āʾir , ḳabāʾil and tawāʾif ¶ are also used in this sense, and for tribes generally, whether strictly speaking nomadic or not. The combination īlāt wa ʿas̲h̲āʾir is a phrase frequently encountered in both medieval and modern times, and suggests that the two terms are broadly synonymous. In…

S̲h̲iḥna

(1,801 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
(a.), an administrative-military term in the mediaeval eastern Islamic world. From the end of the 3rd/9th century, the term, which in a general sense meant a body of armed men, sufficing for the guarding and control of a town or district on the part of the sultan, is occasionally found in the specific sense of the

Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh

(931 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
, the second ruler of the Ḳād̲j̲ār [ q.v.] dynasty, was born in 1185/1771 and bore the name Bābā K̲h̲ān. He was made governor of Fārs, Kirmān, and Yazd by his uncle, Āḳā Muḥammad K̲h̲ān, and heir apparent in 1211/1796-7. He succeeded to the throne in 1212/1797. He died in 1250/18 34 and was buried at Ḳumm. Much of his reign of 38 years and 5 months was spent in military expeditions against internal rebels and external foes. On the assassination of Aḳā Muḥammad K̲h̲ān in 1212/1797 Bābā K̲h̲ān hastened from S̲h̲īrāz to Tehran, where Mīrzā Muḥammad K̲h̲ān Ḳād̲j̲ār had closed the gates pending his arrival. On reaching Tehran he ascended the throne as Fatḥ ʿAlī on 4 Ṣafar 1212/30 July 1797, but was not crowned until 1 S̲h̲awwāl 1212/21 March 1798. Ṣādiḳ K̲h̲ān S̲h̲akākī, who opposed his succession, was defeated near Ḳazwīn. Various attempts at rebellion by Fatḥ ʿAlī’s brother, Ḥusayn Ḳulī Mīrzā, Ṣādiḳ K̲h̲ān S̲h̲akākī, and Muḥammad K̲h̲ān b. Zakī K̲h̲ān were defeated; and in a series of expeditions to K̲h̲urāsān Fatḥ ʿAlī succeeded in establishing his nominal authority over most of that province. Relations with Europe were actively joined. In 1798 Lord Wellesley, the Governor General of India, sent Mihdī ʿAlī K̲h̲ān, the East India Company’s resident at Bushire, to the Persian Court to induce it to take measures to keep the Afg̲h̲ān ruler, Zamān K̲h̲ān Durrani, in check. A subsequent mission sent under Captain (later Sir) John Malcolm resulted in a political and commercial treaty concluded in 1801. In 1802 Franc…

Kirmāns̲h̲āh

(4,294 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
, a town and province in western Persia. The province is situated between lat. 34° N. and 35° N. long. 44° 5′ to 48° 0′ E. It lies to the east and north of ʿIrāḳ and Lurīstān-i Kūčik (or Pus̲h̲t-i Kūh) and to the south and west of Kurdistān and Asadābād. In the early 20th century the province was divided into nineteen bulūks . These were Bālādih, Wastām, Miyān Darband or Bīlawar, Pus̲h̲t-i Darband or Bālā Darband, Dīnawar, Kuliyāʾī Saḥna, Kanguwār, Asadābād, Harsīn, Čamčamāl, Durū Faramān, Māhīdas̲h̲t, Hārūnābād, Gūrān, ¶ Kirind, Zuhāb, Aywān and Hulaylān (Government of India, General Staff, Army Headquarters, Intelligence Branch, Gazetteer of Persia , ii, Simla, 1914, 358). At the present day it is bordered by Sanandad̲j̲ on the north, Asadābād on the north-east, S̲h̲āhābād on the south, Nihāwand and Tūysirkān on the east, K̲h̲urramābād on the south-east, and Ḳaṣr-i S̲h̲īrīn and Rawānsār-i Ḏj̲awānrūd on the west, and contains the following districts: Sunḳur and Kuliyāʾī, Kanguwār, Saḥna, Harsīn, Sand̲j̲ābai, Gūrān and T̲h̲alāt̲h̲ (Razmarā, Farhang -i d̲j̲ug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi Īrān , A.H.S. 1329-32, v). The town of Kirmāns̲h̲āh (also known as Kirmāns̲h̲āhān, a name which appears to be used first in the 4th/10th century) is situated approximately at lat. 34° 19 N. and long. 47° 5′ E. at a height of 1322 m. on the Ḳarā Sū River, which runs to the north-east of the town in a south-easterly direction until it joins the River Gāmāsiyāb (Gawmāsa) (also known as the River Ṣaymara) which flows into the Rive…

Kalāntar

(2,966 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
(Pers. kalān , “big, great”) is used in the 8th/14th and 9th/15th centuries to mean “leader” (cf. Ḥāfiẓ Abrū,

Pīs̲h̲kas̲h̲

(834 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
(p.) as a general term designates a present, usually from an inferior to a superior. As a technical term it denotes a “regular” tax ( pīs̲h̲kas̲h̲-i mustamarrī ) and an ad hoc tax levied by rulers on provincial governors and others, and an ad hoc impost laid by governors and officials in positions of power on the population under their control. The offering of presents to rulers and others was known from early times (cf. Abu ’l-Faḍl Bayhaḳī, Tārīk̲h̲-i Bayhaḳī , ed. A.A. Fayyāḍ, Mas̲h̲had 1350 s̲h̲ /1971, 655, 6…

Naḳḳāra-K̲h̲āna

(2,822 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
, Naḳāra-K̲h̲āna (p.), kind of military band. The origins of the naḳḳāra-k̲h̲āna , so-called after the naḳḳāra or kettle-drum, which was one of the instruments of the military band belonging to rulers and military leaders, are obscure. There are references to it from an early period when it appears to have been synonymous with the ṭabl-k̲h̲āna [ q.v.]. Originally, its purpose was probably military and it retained this function in the Persian army until modern times. It also had ceremonial functions and these tended in the course of time to overshadow …

Anūs̲h̲irwān b. K̲h̲ālid

(238 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
b. muḥammad al-kās̲h̲ānī , s̲h̲araf al-dīn abū naṣr , was treasurer and ʿāriḍ al-d̲j̲ays̲h̲ to the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultan, Muḥammad b. Maliks̲h̲āh. After being succeeded by S̲h̲ams al-Mulk b. Niẓām al-Mulk as ʿāriḍ al-d̲j̲ays̲h̲ he went to Bag̲h̲dād. He was imprisoned during the reign of Maḥmūd b. Maliks̲h̲āh for a short period but subsequently appointed wazīr by Maḥmūd (521/1127-522/1128). From 526/1132-528/1134 he was wazīr to the caliph, al-Mustars̲h̲id. In 529/1134 he became wazīr to Masʿūd b. Muḥammad and held office until 530/1135-6. He died in Bag̲h̲dād in 533/113…
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