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Batieia, Bateia

(118 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βατίεια, Βάτεια; Batíeia, Báteia). Hill in front of the Scaean Gate of Troy between Scamander and Simois where the Trojans lined up for battle. The gods called it the ‘grave mound of far-jumping Myrina’ (Hom. Il. 2,811-815). Because of the epithet, B. was thought to be an Amazon (Str. 12,573). Lycophron designates the place itself as Myrina (Lycoph. 243). B. was supposedly the daughter of the first Trojan King Teucer and of the nymph Idaea, and the wife of Dardanus (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,62; Apollod. 3,139; Hellanicus FGrH g 4 F24; Diod. Sic. 4,75). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibli…

Empusa

(260 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἔμπουσα; Émpousa, etymology unclear [1]). Ghostly female figure ( phásma) who was remarkable for her ability to transform her appearance ( polýmorphos) and belonged to the group of spectral  Demons in Greek popular belief [2; 3] ( Lamia). She adopted various forms and in Aristoph. Ran. 285-295 appeared to Dionysus and his slave Xanthias, on their journey through the underworld [4], as a cow, a mule, a pretty woman and finally as a dog [5]. Her face was lit by fire, one leg was made of ore, the other …

Echephron

(42 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἐχέφρων; Echéphrōn). [German version] [1] Son of Nestor Son of Nestor (Hom. Od. 3,413; 439; Apollod. 1,94). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Son of Hercules and Psophis Son of Hercules and Psophis, twin brother of  Promachos. Bloch, René (Berne)

Budeia

(53 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βούδεια; Boúdeia). ‘female bull harnesser’ (Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 359). Wife of Clymenus and mother of Erginus (schol.Il. 16,572 pea). She is also called Buzyge, daughter of Lycus (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,185). Furthermore, in Thessaly, B. is an epithet of Athena (Lycoph. 359; Steph. Byz. s.v. B.). Bloch, René (Berne)

Cloelia

(143 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Young Roman woman, example of female bravery Young woman who was hostage of the Etruscan king  Porsenna (508 BC). She escaped, swam across the Tiber (or rode across it on horseback) and reached Rome safely with a group of young girls; she had to be returned to the king but, in recognition of her bravery, he released her and a number of the hostages. After the peace treaty the Romans honoured her with a statue on horseback at the Velia on the Sacra Via (Liv. 2,13,6-11; Flor. Epit. 1,4,7). She remained one of the most widespread examples of female bravery (Boccaccio, De claris m…

Dymas

(251 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Δύμας; Dýmas). [German version] [1] Phrygian king on the Sangarius, father of Hecuba Phrygian king on the Sangarius; father of Hecuba the wife of Priam, and of Asius (Hom. Il. 16,718; Apollod. 3,148; Hyg. Fab. 91,1; Ov. Met. 11,761). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Phaeacian A Phaeacian, whose daughter was a friend of Nausicaa (Hom. Od. 6,22). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [3] Trojan in the Aeneid A Trojan who joined Aeneas at the fall of Troy, and was killed (Verg. Aen. 2,340; 428). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography T. Gargiulo, s.v. Dimante, EV 2, 75. [German version] [4] …

Deidamia

(184 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δηιδάμεια; Dēidámeia). [German version] [1] Daughter of king Lycomedes on the island of Scyros Daughter of king Lycomedes on the island of Scyros; wife of  Achilles and mother of Neoptolemus (Pyrrhus). According to an older tradition, Achilles conquered Scyros, married D. and fathered Neoptolemus. A later version has Thetis bringing her son Achilles disguised as a girl to Lycomedes on Scyros in order to prevent Achilles' death before Troy, which has been foretold to her. Achilles falls in love with D. and ma…

Deileon

(59 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δηιλέων; Dēiléōn). Son of Deimachus of Tricca. With his brothers  Autolycus [2] and Phlogius he took part in the Amazon expedition of Heracles. They remained in Sinope and later returned with the Argonauts to Thessaly (Apoll. Rhod. 2,955-960; Val. Fl. 5,113-115). Other sources name him Demoleon (Plut. Lucullus 23,5; Hyg. Fab. 14,30). Bloch, René (Berne)

Brisaeus

(40 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βρισαῖος; Brisaîos). Epiclesis of Dionysus through which he was worshipped on the promontory of Brisa (Bresa) in Lesbos (Steph. Byz. s.v. Βρῖσα). The tragedian  Accius Brisaeus is mentioned in Persius (1,76 with schol.). Bloch, René (Berne)

Bellum

(97 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] From Old Latin dvellum. Beginning with the Augustan poets, B. occasionally figures as the personification of war (Verg. Aen. 1,296; Ov. Met. 1,143). Virgil names B. along with sopor, discordia and the Furies in his description of the underworld (Aen. 6,279). The painter  Apelles depicted B. with hands tied behind his back together with Alexander who is riding on a triumphal wagon in a no longer extant painting displayed by Augustus on the Forum (Plin. HN 35,27,93; Serv. Aen. 1,294). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography Walde/Hofmann, s.v. B., 100-101 P. Zanovello, s.v. P…

Eurylochus

(228 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Εὐρύλοχος; Eurýlochos). [German version] [1] Relative and companion of Odysseus Close relation and ambivalent companion of  Odysseus. He is the only one not to accept the invitation of  Circe, and so escapes being transformed into a pig (Hom. Od. 10,205-274; Apollod. Epit. 7,14-15; Ov. Met. 14,287). When E. later incites the companions against Odysseus, he is threatened with punishment by death (Hom. Od. 10,429-448). Together with  Perimedes he takes part in the sacrifice to the dead before Odysseus ente…

Bonus Eventus

(116 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] A deity originally associated with agriculture; evenire and eventus designate the ripening of the fruits of the field. Varro (Rust. 1,1,6) considers that Bonus Eventus (BE) was one of the 12 rural gods. Later BE is generally understood as the bestower of success (Apul. Met. 4,2). Pliny (HN 34,77; 36,23) mentions two statues of BE in Rome: one by Euphranor and one by  Praxiteles. BE had a temple near the baths of Agrippa (Amm. Marc. 29,6,19). He is frequently portrayed on coins and cameos as a youth who holds in one hand a sacrificial bowl, in the other sheaves of grain. Bloch, Re…

Euclea

(221 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὔκλεια; Eúkleia = ‘good reputation’). Cultic name of  Artemis (Soph. OT 159-161), but also a deity in her own right next to  Eunomia (Paus. 1,14,5; Bacchyl. 13,183-185SM; IG 3.1,277; 623; 733; 738). The relationship of Euclea and Artemis is difficult to define. Plut. Aristides 20,6-8,331e reports that E. was generally equated with Artemis (but according to others E. is the daughter of Hercules and Myrto). The cult of E. Artemis allegedly was particularly popular in Boeotia (sanct…

Inachus

(283 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Ἴναχος; Ínachos; etymology unresolved). [German version] [1] Progenitor of the Argive royal house Son of  Oceanus and of  Tethys, who gave the main river of  Argus [II] and of  Argolis their names (schol. Eur. Or. 932). First king of Argus (Acusilaus, FGrH 2 F 23c) and progenitor of the Argive kings and heroes (‘Inachids’: Eur. IA 1088). In the argument between Poseidon and Hera about Argus, I. decides in favour of the goddess and introduces her cult, which causes Poseidon to dry up his river (Paus. 2,15,4-…

Chrysaor(i)us

(167 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χρυσάωρ; Chrysáōr). ‘He with the golden sword’ (Hes. Theog. 283). [German version] [1] Attribute of Zeus in Caria Attribute of Zeus in Stratoniceia (Caria), whose temple was the federal sanctuary of the Carian towns (Str. 14,660; CIG 2720f.). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Eponymous hero of Caria Eponymous hero of Caria, which was also called Χρυσαορίς (Paus. 5,21,10). He was the son of the Sisyphid Glaucus (Steph. Byz. 461 Meineke). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [3] Epithet of various gods Epithet of various gods: Apollo (Hom. Il. 5,509; 15,256 etc.), Arte…

Catenae

(155 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] A genre of Biblical commentaries first appearing in the 6th cent. AD, of which there were many examples in the Middle Ages. In the exegesis of Biblical texts, excerpts of extant commentaries by Church Fathers were reworked into ‘chain commentaries’ or catenae. The existence of several writings by the Church Fathers is only known through these catenae. If the excerpts are written on the margins of the manuscripts around the Biblical text, they are described as margin catenae, and if the commentary follows on from the text, they are known as broad catenae  Florilegium;  Sch…

Erato

(285 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Ἐρατώ; Eratṓ). [German version] [1] One of the nine Muses One of the nine  Muses; daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne (Hes. Theog. 78; Apollod. 1,13). Attribution of a sphere of activity, as in the case of the other Muses, emerged only gradually. Plato i.a. assigns her to the sphere of the erotic, on account of her name (Phdr. 259d); but she is above all the Muse of love-lyric, and is appealed to in this connection by poets (cf. Verg. Aen. 7,37; Ov. Ars am. 2,16; 425). She is portrayed i.a. on the François Vase (570 BC) and on the Basle lekythos (together with  Thamyris and  Klio). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibl…

B(o)ugenes

(79 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βουγενής; Bougenḗs). Under this name, which refers to the idea of  Dionysus as ‘born of a cow’, the god was proclaimed by the Argives from the Alcyonian Lake near Lerna to the resounding of trumpets (Paus. 2,37,5f.). In addition, a lamb was lowered into the water for the doorkeeper, Pylaochus. Plutarch's report (Is. 35 p. 364f.) is based on Socrates of Argos. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography G. Casadio, Storia del culto di Dioniso in Argolide, 1994, 223-251.

Bia

(153 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βία; Bía). Personification of violence; daughter of Pallas and the Styx, sister of Zelus, Nike and Cratus (Hes. Theog. 385-388). In the titanomachy Styx goes over to Zeus with her children and they then follow him. As Zeus' henchmen, Cratus and B. spur Hephaestus on to chain  Prometheus to a rock (Aesch. PV 1-87, in which B. plays a silent part). An Athenian scyphus shows  Ixion being bound to a wheel by Hephaestus, Cratus and B. [1]. Themistocles tells the people of Andros that h…

Chloe

(107 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Χλόη; Chlóē). ‘Greening’; epiclesis of  Demeter (Ath. 14,618d/e). She had a shrine close to the Acropolis, where a ram was sacrificed to her (Paus. 1,22,3; Aristoph. Lys. 835; FGrH 328 F 6; Eupolis PCG V fr.196). She is also attested in Eleusis (IG II2 949,7), on Myconus (LSCG 96,11) and in the Tetrapolis (LSCG 20 B 49). An exuberant festival, the Chloia, placed by late antique theology at around springtime, was celebrated in her name (Cornutus, Theol. 28). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography A. B. Chandor, The Attic Festivals of Demeter and their Relation to the …

Catillus

(105 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Mythical founder of Tibur (Hor. Carm. 1,18,2; Sil. 4,225; Stat. Silv. 1,3,100). According to Cato (Orig. fr. 56 in Solin. 2,7) he was an Arcadian and fleet commander of Euander. A certain Sextius considered him to be an Argive (Solin. 2,7). He was the son of an Argive seer  Amphiaraus and upon the behest of his grandfather he moved to Italy as   ver sacrum . His three sons Tiburtus (Tibur/Tiburnus), Coras and C. drove the Sicans out of their town and then called it Tibur (Solin. ibid; Verg. Aen. 7,670 with Serv.; Hor. Carm. 2,6,5; Plin. HN 16,237). Bloch, René (Berne)

Damasichthon

(79 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δαμασίχθων; Damasíchthōn). [German version] [1] One of the sons of Niobe One of the sons of  Niobe (Apollod. 3,45) who like his brothers is killed by Apollo (Ov. Met. 6,254-260). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography F. Bömer, Kommentar zu Ov. met. 6-7,1976, 78. [German version] [2] Son of the Athenian Codrus Son of the Athenian Codrus. Together with his brother Promethus, who later murdered him, he was the leader of the Ionian colony in Colophon (Paus. 7,3,3). Bloch, René (Berne)

Dia

(455 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Δῖα, Δία; Dîa, Día). [German version] [1] Female equivalent of Zeus The female equivalent of  Zeus, as Diwiya on the Linear B inscriptions from Pylos and Knossos, with her own sanctuary, just as  Poseidon also has his female counterpart in the Mycenaean pantheon [1]. In the post-Mycenaean period the three heroines who can be linked with the Mycenaean goddess by name, are all linked with Zeus, but the individual derivation is problematical. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Heroine in the local cults of Phlius and Sicyon The heroine is most likely D. in the local cult…

Caelus, Caelum

(121 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Translation of the Greek  Uranus (‘Heaven’). The genealogy of C. (Cic. Nat. D. 2,63.3,44; Hyg. Fab. praef. 2) corresponds with some variations to that in Hesiod. Varro (Ling. 5,57) named C. and Terra as the oldest of the deities. C. had no cult in Rome; inscriptions venerating him as aeternus (CIL VI 181-84; cf. also Vitr. 1,2,5) refer to foreign cults [1]. Graphically, C. is portrayed as a bearded man holding a garment above his head in the shape of an arch, as for example on the breast plate of the statue of Augustus of Prima Porta [2]. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 G. Wiss…

Egerius

(159 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] [1] Son of Arruns Son of Arruns, grandson of Demaratus. E. was only born after the death of his father and grandfather, which is why the entire fortune went to Arruns' brother Lucumo. His nephew supposedly received the name E. because of his poverty ( egere, ‘to suffer want’). When Lucumo later became Roman king with the name L. Tarquinius Priscus, E. was granted rule over the Latin town of Collatia by him and took the epithet Collatinus. His son L. Tarquinius Collatinus was the husband of  Lucretia (Liv. 1,34,2f.; 57,6; Dio…

Bitias

(92 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] [1] Companion of Aeneas B. and Pandarus, companions of Aeneas, are sons of Alcanor who were brought up by Iaera. Against Aeneas' command they open a gate of the Trojan encampment; consequently both are killed by Turnus (Verg. Aen. 9,672ff.; 722ff.). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Man in Dido's retinue Man in Dido's retinue (Verg. Aen. 1,738). According to Serv. (commenting on this point), who drew on Livy, he was the commander of the Carthaginian fleet. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography Ph. Hardie, Virgil Aeneid Book IX, 1994, 213f.

Diomus

(171 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δίομος; Díomos). Son of Colyttus, eponymous hero of the Attic deme  Diomea. D. is understood to be connected to the aetiology of the first ‘ox murder’ ( Bouphonia), although the name of the bull killer (βουτύπος; boutýpos) varies. D., priest of Zeus Polieus, was the first to kill an ox at the Dipolieia after the latter had eaten from the sacrificial grain (Porph. De abstinentia 2,10). The bull killer is also called Thaulon (Androtion FGrH 324 F 16) or Sopater (Porph. ibid. 2,29). D. also plays a central role in th…

Euthyphron

(119 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐθύφρων; Euthýphrōn). Athenian seer, a character in Plato's eponymous dialogue: Socrates, who has been summoned to court, meets E., who wants to see his father prosecuted for manslaughter by criminal negligence, because he has allowed a slave to die who had been guilty of murder. Socrates' reservations about this way of action lead to a debate on the nature of piety. E. is also mentioned in Pl. Crat. 396d; 399e; 428c. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography M. L. McPherran, Socratic Piety in the E., in: H. H. Benson (ed.), Essays on the Philosophy of Socrates, 1992, 220-241 A. …

Damon

(975 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Harmon, Roger (Basle)
(Δάμων; Dámōn) [German version] [1] Prince of the Telchines Prince of the  Telchines. Father-in-law of Minos and ancestor of Miletus. When the Telchines were struck dead by lightning by Jupiter because they poisoned crops, D. and his family were spared in gratitude for hospitality provided. Only his daughter Macelo and her husband were among the victims (Nic. in the schol. Ov. Ib. 475). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Pythagorean from Syracuse A Pythagorean from Syracuse, friend of Phintias, for whom he stood surety with his life. According to Aristoxenus (…

Candidus

(240 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
A popular cognomen in the Imperial Age, attested with certainty from the 1st cent. AD (ThlL, Onom. 2,133ff.). [German version] [1] Christian in AD 200 Christian in c. AD 200, author of various lost treatise about the Hexaemeron (Eus. HE 5,27; Jer. vir. ill. 48). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] A follower of the Gnostic Valentinianus, 3rd cent. AD A follower of the Gnostic Valentinianus; in c. AD 230, he had a public dispute with  Origen, who accused him of retrospectively falsifying the records (Rufin. Apol. Orig. epil. = PG 17,625; Hier. Adv. Ru…

Monotheism

(1,572 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
[German version] I. Concept Monotheism - the belief in the existence of a single god, in contrast to polytheism and henotheism (worship of a single god while still recognizing other gods) - is a concept from the early modern era, probably first evident in the Cambridge Platonist H. More [1] (Christian-apologetic dissociation from pagan forms of religion; argument defending the trinitarian concept of God). Monotheism has been viewed both from an evolutionary perspective as a final stage of development and as an original form of religion that later degenerated…

Elate

(57 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἐλάτη; Elátē, ‘spruce’). Sister of the  Aloads Otus and Ephialtes. She was similar in stature to them. When she mourned the demise of her brothers she was transferred into a spruce tree towering to the sky (Lib. Narrationes 37; Eust. on Hom. Od. 5,239 and on Hom. Il. 5,560; 14,287). Bloch, René (Berne)

Euphorion

(1,434 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence)
(Εὐφορίων; Euphoríōn). [German version] [1] Winged son of Achilles and Helena A figure invented by Ptolemy Chennus (Phot. 149a): E., a winged son of Achilles and Helena, is killed on the island of Melos by a bolt of lightning from Zeus whose love he does not reciprocate. The nymphs who bury the corpse are changed into frogs by Zeus. In Goethe's Faust (2nd Part), E. appears as the son of Faust and Helena. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography K.-H. Tomberg, Die Kaine Historia des Ptolemaios Chennos, 1967, 108. [German version] [2] of Athens Tragedian Tragedian, son of Aeschylus. He won priz…

Echetus

(97 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἔχετος; Échetos, ‘Holder’). Cruel king with whom the suitor Antinous threatened the beggar Irus and Odysseus (Hom. Od. 18,85; 116; 21,308; Suda s.v. E. 493 Adler). He blinded his daughter Amphissa (or Metope) and had her crush ore in a chamber; he dismembered her lover Aechmodicus (Apoll. Rhod. 4,1093 with schol.). Schol. Hom. Od. 18,85 (= Marsyas FGrH 135-136 F 19) explains that he was a Sicilian tyrant who tortured strangers, but who was eventually stoned by his own subjects. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography J. Russo et al., Homer's Odyssey, vol. 3 (comm.), 1992, 52f.

Euryalus

(331 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Εὐρύαλος; Eurýalos, ‘far-voyaging’ [1. 71, 195]); the name of several heroes, usable in hexameters. [German version] [1] Argive hero An Argive hero, son of Mecisteus from Argos. He is mentioned both as one of the  Argonauts (Apollod. 1,113) and one of the Epigoni (sons of the seven heroes who fought in vain against Thebes; Apollod. 3,82; Paus. 2,20,5). E. marches against Troy with Diomedes and Sthenelus (Hom. Il. 2,566; 6,20-28 aristeia; Apollod. 1,103; Paus. 2,30,10). At the funerary games for Patroclus he is defeated in the boxing competition by Epius (Hom. Il…

Elymus

(77 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Trojan, eponymous forefather of the  Elymi. He came to Sicily either with Aegestus (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,47; 52f.; Tzetz. schol. Lycoph. 965) or Aeneas (Str.13,1,53), and settled in the region around the  Eryx. Virgil, who refers to him as Helymus, depicts him as the winner in a competition (Verg. Aen. 5,73; 323). According to Serv. Aen. 5,73, he was the founder of the cities of Asca, Entella, and Egesta. Bloch, René (Berne)

Eunomia

(171 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐνομία, Εὐνομίη; Eunomía, Eunomíē). Personification of good order. Along with  Dike and  Eirene she is one of the three  Horae (Hes. Theog. 901-902), the daughters of Zeus and Themis. Only in Alcman (PMG 64) is E. the daughter of Promatheia (‘foresight, consideration’) and sister of  Tyche and  Peitho. In her role as the guardian of peace (cf. Pind. Pyth. 5,66-67: eunomía apólemos, ‘unwarlike E.’), E. is praised particularly in times of crisis (Tyrtaeus IEG fr. 1-4; Solon IEG fr. 4, 32-39); in the 5th cent. (in the Peloponnesian War) E. b…

Eurymachus

(63 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐρύμαχος; Eurýmachos; for the name cf. [1]). Son of Polybus; one of the most respected of  Penelope's suitors (Hom. Od. 1,399). In the suitors' board games he is often the victor (Ath. 1,17 a b). He is killed by Odysseus, in spite of offering him atonement (Hom. Od. 22,44-88). Cf. also Aesch. 179 TrGF. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 Kamptz, 72.

Eurydamas

(114 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Εὐρυδάμας; Eurydámas, ‘the far-conquering’); the name of several heroes, usable in hexameters. [German version] [1] Prophesying elderly man Father of Abas and Polyidus. Aged Trojan who had the gift of prophesying from dreams, but could not foretell the death of his sons by the hand of Diomedes (Hom. Il. 5,148-151 with schol.; Tzetz. Homerica 66). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Suitor to Penelope Suitor to Penelope (Hom. Od. 18,297); he was killed by Odysseus (Hom. Od. 22,283). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [3] Inventor of a Thessalian custom Supposed inventor of th…

Dryas

(224 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δρύας; Drýas, ‘man of oak’; ThlL, Onom. s.v.D.). [German version] [1] Thessalian Lapith Thessalian Lapith. He was a friend of Peirithous, at whose wedding he fought with the Centaurs (Hom. Il. 1,263; Hes. Sc. 179; Ov. Met. 12,290-315). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Son of Ares, Thracian Thracian, a son of Ares. He took part in the Calydonian Hunt (Ov. Met. 8,307). Unlikely to be identical to the D. who was murdered by his brother  Tereus, after an oracle's pronouncement that Tereus' son would be murdered by a relative (Apollod. 1,67; Hyg. Fab. 45,3; 159) [1]. Bloch, René (Berne) Bi…

Dictinius

(187 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Bishop of Astorga (Asturica); son of Symphosius, who was likewise bishop there. The most eminent Priscillianist writer after  Priscillianus himself; he declared his disaffection with the doctrine at the first Council of Toletanum (Toledo) in AD 400 and repudiated his own writings, whereupon he was again acknowledged. Later Innocent I defended him (Epist. 3,1ff. = PL 20,485ff.) against rigourist bishops in Baetica and Africa, protesting against the indulgence shown him by the Synod…

Echepolus

(78 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἐχέπωλος; Echépōlos, ‘Horse owner’). [German version] [1] Pelopid Pelopid, son of an Anchises from Sicyon. He gave Agamemnon the mare Aithe and thus bought his release from the journey to Troy (Hom. Il. 23,296 with schol.) Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography W. Kullmann, Die Quellen der Ilias, Hermes ES 14, 1960, 261. [German version] [2] Trojan A Trojan who was killed by Antilochus (Hom. Il. 4,458). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, vol. 1, 1988, 558-560.

Damnameneus

(32 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δαμναμενεύς; Damnameneús). One of the  Daktyloi Idaioi who invented the technique of forging iron (Phoronis fr. 2,3 EpGF = fr. 2,3 PEG I; Str. 10,3,22). Bloch, René (Berne)

Demophon

(535 words)

Author(s): Clinton, Kevin (Ithaca N. Y.) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Δημοφῶν; Dēmophôn). [German version] [1] Youngest son of the Eleusinian prince Celeus Youngest son of the Eleusinian prince Celeus and Metaneira. According to myth D. was nurtured by the goddess  Demeter, who had been hired as a wet-nurse; she anointed him with ambrosia and hardened him at night in the fire so as to burn away his mortality (cf. Thetis: Achilles), until his mother noticed and cried out. Demeter then placed D. on the ground and threatened the Eleusinians with civil wars (Hom. Il. 2,233-255);…

Deipylus

(111 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δηίπυλος; Dēípylos). Son of the Thracian king  Polymestor and of  Ilione, the eldest daughter of Priam. She exchanged him with her youngest brother  Polydorus, whose upbringing had been entrusted her by their father Priam. Her intention was to prevent the death of her brother should the outcome of the war be unfavourable. After the fall of Troy Polymestor allowed himself to be persuaded by Agamemnon to kill the last of the sons of Priam. Thus he unwittingly became the murderer of …

Baucis

(234 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βαῦκις; Baûkis). ‘The tender one’ [1. 193]; B. is the old Phrygian woman who together with her husband Philemon gives shelter to the gods Jupiter and Mercury when they enter her simple hut in the disguise of tired wanderers. As punishment for refusing the two gods hospitality in the rest of the region, the entire area is destroyed by a flood. Only the hut of Philemon and B. is spared and transformed into a magnificent temple, where the two are granted their wish to become priests.…

Chariclo

(109 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χαρικλώ; Chariklṓ). [German version] [1] Wife of Chiron Naiad; wife of  Chiron; daughter of Apollo, Perseus or Oceanus; mother of Carystus (Hes. Cat. fr. 42; Schol. Pind. Pyth. 4,182 Drachmann). Always depicted near to Chiron, also i.a. as a member of Peleus' and Thetis' marriage procession. Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Nymph Nymph; wife of Eueres. According to Pherecydes, being a favourite of Athena she obtains for her son  Teiresias, blinded by Athena, a staff and the gift of understanding the songs of birds (Apollod. 3,70; Callim. H. 5,59). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliograp…

Demo

(342 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Δημώ; Dēmṓ). Shortened form of a compound (see D. [3], [4]). [German version] [1] Daughter of Celeus The daughter of  Celeus, king of Eleusis, and  Metaneira. Together with her sisters Callidice, Cleisidice and Callithoe, she has a friendly encounter with  Demeter who is wandering about in the shape of an old woman (Hom. H. 2,109). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Name of the Cymaean Sibyl Name of the Cymaean  Sibyl, of whom, however, the Cymaeans did not know an oracle. They could only point to a water jug that contained the bones of the Sibyl (Hyper…

Echion

(146 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἐχίων/ Echíōn, ‘Snake man’, from ἡ ἔχις/ échis, ‘the Snake’). [German version] [1] One of the five 'Spartoi', men who grew from dragon teeth One of the five ‘Spartoi’, the men who grew from the dragon teeth sown by  Cadmus into the Theban earth. He married Cadmus' daughter Agave and was the father of Pentheus (Paus. 9,5,3f.; Apollod. 3,26; 36; Hyg. Fab. 178,6; 184,1; Ov. Met. 3,126; cf. Hor. Carm. 4,4,64: Thebae Echioniae). Aeneas killed the Rutulian Onites, a son of E. and Peridia (Verg. Aen. 12,514f.). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography R. Rocca, s.v. E., EV 2, 164f. [German version] [2] Son…

Damas

(245 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Δάμας; Dámas). [German version] [1] Hero from Aulis Hero from Aulis who travelled to Troy with Arcesilaus and was killed there by Aeneas (Q. Smyrn. 8,303-305: Dymas? [1]). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 P. Vian, Q. Smyrn., 1966. [German version] [2] Eponymous founder of Damascus in Syria (Δαμᾶς; Damâs). Eponymous founder of  Damascus in Syria. He accompanied Dionysus to Asia where he established a shrine to him in Syria in the form of a hut (σκηνή), called Δαμᾶ σκηνή ( Damâ skēnḗ, ‘hut of Damas’), hence Damascus (Etym. m. s.v. Δαμσκός 247 Gaisford). Bloch, René (Berne) …

Dascylus

(133 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δάσκυλος; Dáskylos). [German version] [1] Son of Tantalus and Anthemoisia Son of Tantalus and Anthemoisia, father of Lycus, king of the Mariandyni in Bithynia (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,724; 752). D. or his son Lycus amiably received  Heracles as a guest during his travels when he was searching for Hippolyte's belt. In return, Hercules helped them to subjugate the neighbouring peoples (Apoll. Rhod. 2,775-791; Apollod. 2,100). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Son of Lycus Son of Lycus, grandson of D. [1]. His father offered him to the  Argonauts as a travel guide.…

Diotima

(171 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Διοτίμα; Diotíma). In the introduction of his discourse on Eros in Plato's Symposium (201d), Socrates claims that he would only pass on what he had learned from D., a wise priestess from Mantinea, who allegedly obtained for Athens a ten-year moratorium of the plague from the gods. The dialogue of the Symposium is thus interrupted. The D.-interlude consists of two parts: the first explains the nature of Eros, the second his power. In his epilogue, Socrates indicates his conviction that these teachings are correct. It is impossible…

Electryone

(79 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἠλεκτρυώνη; Ēlektryṓnē). [German version] [1] Patronymic of Alcmene Patronymic of Alcmene, the daughter of  Electryon (Hes. Sc. 16; 35; 86). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Heroine on Rhodes (also Ἀλεκτρώνα; Alektrṓna). Heroine on Rhodes, daughter of Helios and Rhodus (Diod. Sic. 5,56; Schol. Pind. Ol. 7,24; Syll.3 338-340). She is depicted on coins from Rhodes. Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [3] see Electra [3]  Electra [3] Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography S. Grunauer-Von Hoerschelmann, s.v. E., LIMC 3.1, 719f.

Elatus

(231 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἔλατος; Élatos, ‘spruce man’). Name of several mythical figures. [German version] [1] Centaur Centaur, pierced by Hercules' poisoned arrow, which simultaneously wounded  Chiron (Apollod. 2,85). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Prince of the Lapiths in Larisa Prince of the Lapiths in Larisa. He was the father of the Argonaut Polyphemus (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,40-41; Apollod. 1,113) and of  Caeneus/Caenis (Hyg. Fab. 14,2.4; 173,3; 242,3; Ov. Met. 12,189; 497). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography F. Bömer, P. Ovidius Naso, Met. B. 12-13, 1982, 63. [German version] [3] Eponymu…

Clementia

(124 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Personification of clemency (ThlL, Onom. II, 487). Pliny (HN 2,14) names C. in a series of deified abstractions. The C. of Caesar [1; 2] was famous: the senate had a joint temple built for the Divus Iulius and the deified C. in which Caesar and the goddess were depicted extending their hands to each other (Plut. Caes. 57,4; App. B Civ. 2,106; Cass. Dio 44,6,4). On the golden shield of Augustus C. is one of the four virtues attributed to him (R. Gest. div. Aug. 34). C. is the central theme in Seneca's speculum regum ( De clementia). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 M. Treu, Zur C…

Erigone

(248 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἠριγόνη; Ērigónē). Name of two similar figures of Attic mythology: [German version] [1] Suicide, daughter of Icarius, welcomer of Dionysus Daughter of  Icarius, who had given Dionysus a hospitable reception and, for this, had received as a present the knowledge of making wine. When Icarius, on behalf of Dionysus, tried to introduce viticulture, he was killed by the farmers who thought they had been poisoned after they had drunk unblended wine. E. was led to her father's body by the dog Maera and thereupon hanged h…

Daunus

(175 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δαῦνος; Daûnos). [German version] [1] Eponymous hero of the Daunians Hero who gave his name to the Daunians ( Daunia); son of  Lycaon. Of Illyrian origin (Fest. p. 69), he immigrated to Italy together with his brothers Iapyx and Peuketios. There they expelled the native Ausonians and founded three kingdoms: Messapia, Peuketia and Daunia, which together are called  Iapygia (Nik. fr. 47 = Anton. lib. 31). When  Diomedes comes to Italy, D. receives him kindly and is supported by him against the Messapians. …

Dares

(240 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Dingel, Joachim (Hamburg)
(Δάρης; Dárēs). [German version] [1] Trojan priest of Hephaistus Trojan priest of Hephaistus, whose sons Phegeus and Idaeus start the battle against  Diomedes. Whilst the former is killed by Diomedes, Idaeus is rescued by Hephaistus (Hom. Il. 5,9-26). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography G. S. Kirk, The Iliad: A Commentary, vol. 2, 1990, 54 P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, vol. 1, 1988, 408f. [German version] [2] One of Aeneas' companions One of Aeneas' companions, excellent pugilist. However, at the funeral games in honour of  Anchises, he is unexp…

Eeriboea

(70 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἠερίβοια; Ēeríboia). [German version] [1] Stepmother of the Aloads Stepmother of the  Aloads, who kept Ares prisoner. However, E. told Hermes the location of the prison (Hom. Il. 5,389f.). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Spouse of Telamon, mother of Ajax (also Eriboea/Periboea). The daughter of Alcathous, spouse of Telamon and mother of  Ajax [1] (Pind. Isthm. 6,45; Soph. Aj. 569; Paus. 1,42,2; Apollod. 3,162). Bloch, René (Berne)

Bias

(447 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne)
(Βίας; Bías). [German version] [1] Mythical son of Amythaon Mythical son of  Amythaon and Idomene or Aglaea; brother of the seer  Melampus. The latter assisted B. in his courtship of Pero, daughter of Neleus and Chloris. As bride-price, Neleus demanded restoration of the cattle that Phylacus had stolen from his wife Chloris. Melampus did that for his brother (Apollod. 1,96-103; Hom. Od. 11,287-297; 15,225-238). Originally from Pylos, B. gained mastery -- again with the help of his brother, who cured the…

Baton

(224 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Βάτων; Bátōn). [German version] [1] Charioteer to Amphiaraus  Amphiaraus' charioteer. Both B. and Amphiaraus were descendants of Melampus. In the battle of Thebes, he was swallowed by the earth together with Amphiaraus and his chariot. In Argus, he was given a sanctuary near the Amphiaraus sanctuary (Apollod. 3,77; Paus. 2,23,2). The Argives consecrated Amphiaraus' chariot with B.'s statue to Delphi (Paus. 10,10,3). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography I. Krauskopf, s.v. B.I, LIMC 3.1, 83-87. [German version] [2] Attic comic poet, 3rd cent. BC Attic author of comedies in the 3r…

Discordia

(148 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] The Latin equivalent of the Greek  Eris. In contrast with  Concordia, D. was never more than a literary personification, and not a cult goddess. Ennius (Ann. 225f.) has D. break down the gates of war (cf. Hor. Sat. 1,460f.). According to Hyg. Fab. praef. 1, D. is a daughter of the ‘night’ ( Nox) and of  Erebos. In Virgil (Aen. 6,280), she stands guard at the entrance to the Orcus; in Aen. 8,702 she appears ─ in a torn cloak ─ on Aeneas' shield amidst the tumult of the battle of Ac…

Euryganea

(52 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐρυγάνη, -εια; Eurygánē, -eia). In the  Oidipódeia of the Cyclic Epics the second wife of  Oedipus, after  Iocaste (Epicaste) commits suicide upon discovery of her incest. From her come the children that are elsewhere ascribed to Jocasta (Oedipodea, argumentum; fr. 2 PEG I; Apollod. 3,55). Bloch, René (Berne)

Chaeron

(334 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Χαίρων; Chaírōn). [German version] [1] Mythical son of Apollo and Thero Mythical son of Apollo and Thero (in Plut. Sulla 17: Thuro); founder of the city named after him,  Chaeronea (Hes. Cat. fr. 252 M-W = Paus. 9,40,5f.; Hellanicus FGrH 379 F3). Plutarch names a son dead in childhood after him (Consolatio ad uxorem 5 p. 609d). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Spartan polemarch, late 5th cent. BC Spartan polemarch who died in 403 BC in  Pausanias' assault on Piraeus. He was buried on the Cerameicus (Xen. Hell. 2,4,33; Lys. epit. 63). His grave has been p…

Echemus

(153 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἔχεμος; Échemos). [German version] [1] King of Tegea in Arcadia King of Tegea in Arcadia, son of Aeropos, married to Leda's daughter Timandra who left him (Hes. Cat. fr. 23a, 31-35; 176,3-4; Paus. 8,5,1; Apollod. 3,126). E. won in an Olympic wrestling match (Pind. Ol. 10,66). Due to his victory in single combat against Heracles' son Hyllus, E. is said to have checked the advance of the Heraclids into the Peloponnese by 50 (Diod. Sic. 4,58,3-5) or 100 years (Hdt. 9,26). A relief fragment shows E. as an heroic fighter [1]. Paus. 8,53,10 describes the grave of E. in Tegea. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibli…

Damasistratus

(26 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δαμασίστρατος; Damasístratos). King of Plataeae who buried  Laius after he had been killed by Oedipus (Paus. 10,5,4; Apollod. 3,52). Bloch, René (Berne)

Demaenetus

(285 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Δημαίνετος; Dēmaínetos). [German version] [1] Epithet of Asclepius in Elis Epithet of  Asclepius in Elis, from the name of the cult founder (Paus. 6,21,4). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] From Parrhasia, allegedly transformed into a wolf D. from Parrhasia, a town in Arcadia. He is said to have been transformed into a wolf after he ate the flesh of a boy whom the Arcadians had sacrificed to Jupiter Lycaeus. After 10 years he became human again and was victorious in boxing at Olympia (Scopas FGrH 413 F 1; Varro in Aug. Civ. 18,17). In Paus. 6,8,2 he is called Damarchos. Bloch, René (Ber…

Eurus

(336 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὖρος/ Eûros, Lat. Eurus). One of the four cardinal winds (Hom. Od. 5,295f.; Verg. Aen. 1,85f.) also used to refer to the different points of the compass. In Hesiod, however (Theog. 379f.), E. is missing. [1]. At first in the Greek world all easterly winds (cf. the Hom. four-winds model [2. 2353, fig. 15]) were called Eúroi (Ps.-Aristot. De mundo 4,394b 20); but especially the E. as neighbour to the  Notus, the south wind (Aristot. Mete. 2,6,363b 21-23), blows from the point of winter sunrise, and is accordingly often called the south-east wind ( Eurónotos, otherwise ES…

Elpis

(205 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἐλπίς; Elpís, from ἔλπομαι/ἐλπίζω; élpomai/elpízō, ‘expect, hope’). As a term and a character a vox media, which in its fundamentally neutral quality (‘expectation’) alternates between ‘hope’ (positive or false) and ─ less often ─ ‘apprehension’ (Pl. Leg. 644c; Hom. Od. 16,101; 19,84; Semonides fr. 1,6-7 IEG 2; Pind. Fr. 214). In Hes. Op. 90-105, the personified E. remains in  Pandora's box, while the other evil spirits (κακά; kaká) escape (cf. Babr. 58; [1; 2; 3]). According to Thgn. 1135-1146, E. was the only benevolent power to remain on eart…

Echetlus, Echetlaeus

(88 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἔχετλος, Ἐχετλαῖος; Échetlos, Echetlaîos). A man of peasant demeanour who in the battle of Marathon killed many Persians with his plough ( echétlē, ‘plough handle’) and subsequently disappeared. Because of an oracle, the Athenians worshipped him as the Hero Echetlaeus. On the painting of the battle of Marathon in the Stoa Poikile, he was depicted with a plough in his hand (Paus. 1,15,3; 32,5) Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography M. H. Jameson, The Hero Echetlaeus, in: TAPhA 82, 1951, 49-61 J. G. Szilágyi, s.v. Echetlos, LIMC 3.1, 677-678.

Charops

(182 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χάροψ; Chárops). [German version] [1] Epithet of Heracles Epithet by which Heracles was worshipped in Boeotia near the sanctuary of Zeus on Mount Laphystion. It was there that, in Boeotian tradition, he fetched Cerberus from the underworld (Paus. 9,34,5). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Grandfather of Orpheus Thracian; father of Oeagrus, grandfather of Orpheus. After the death of the Thracian King  Lycurgus, Dionysus appointed C. as one of his followers and initiated him into the Bacchic rites; C. then told the god of the assault pl…

Basilicus

(169 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(Βασιλικός; Basilikós). [German version] [1] Rhetor in the 2nd cent. AD Rhetor in the 2nd cent. AD who lived past the year 200. He taught in Nicomedia in Bithynia (Suda s.v. Apsines). His student  Apsines refers to him and Aristides as the only sources for his study of rhetoric. In addition to a commentary on Demosthenes, B. is attributed with the authorship of several rhetorical works (περὶ τῶν διὰ λέξεως σχημάτων, περὶ ῥητορικῆς παρασκευῆς ἤτοι περὶ ἀσκήσεως, περὶ μεταποιήσεως). Only few remnants of these works are preserved in the Hermogenes scholia. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswa…

Caligo

(40 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Personification of darkness, analogous to the Greek  Erebus and Skotos. She is the mother of  Chaos, and by him she is also mother of Nox, Dies, Erebos and Aether (Hyg. Fab. praef. 1). Bloch, René (Berne)

Dorus

(89 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δῶρος; Dôros). Mythological first ancestor of the Dorians, son of Hellen and of Orseis, grandson of Deucalion, brother of Xuthus and of Aeolus. His sons are Tectamus and  Aegimius (Hes. Cat. fr. 9,2; Apollod. 1,49-50; Diod. Sic. 4,58,6; 60,2). Starting from Phthia, D. led the people into the Thessalian Hestiaiotis (Diod. Sic. 5,80,2), into the central Greek landscape of Doris (Str.8,7,1) or to southern Aetolia (Apollod. 1,57). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography F. Graf, Greek Mythology, 1993, 132-133 I. Malkin, Myth and Territory in the Spartan Mediterrane…

Copia

(148 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Personification of fullness, depicted with the horn of plenty (Plaut. Pseud. 671; 736;  Amalthea), later also called cornucopia (Amm. Marc. 22,9,1). C. with the horn of plenty appears on the coins of two cities with the name Colonia C., which not necessarily indicates the existence of a cult [1; 2]. C. is also mentioned in an inscription from Avennio (today's Avignon, CIL XII 1023). According to Ovid (Met. 9,85-88), C. received the horn filled with fruit and flowers, which Hercules had broken off the  Achelous, from the Naiades. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 G. Wiss…

Euryclea

(66 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐρύκλεια; Eurýkleia, the ‘widely-famed’ [1], Euryclia). Daughter of Ops, from childhood the trusted servant in the house of  Odysseus. She recognizes him by a scar when she is washing the beggar's feet (Hom. Od. 1,429; 2,345-347; 19,350-507; Hyg. Fab. 125,20; 126,7) [2]. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 Kamptz, 37 2 O. Touchefeu, s.v. Eurykleia, LIMC 4.1, 101-103. G. Ramming, Die Dienerschaft in der Odyssee, PhD thesis 1973.

Bonifatius

(349 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] [1] Defended Marseille against Athaulf 413 AD B. distinguished himself in AD 413 in the defence of Marseilles against Athaulf ( Ataulfus), attested as tribune in Africa from AD 416/17, perhaps praepositus limitis; from AD 423 comes Africae. As he acted independently, he was suspected time and again of disloyalty to  Valentinianus III, and this led to military conflicts in 427-429; publicly confirmed by the emperor as comes in 429. At the same time B. was accused of having invited the Vandals into the country so as to defend his own position; he …

Eurymedusa

(15 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐρυμέδουσα; Eurymédousa). Maidservant to  Nausicaa (Hom. Od. 7,8). Bloch, René (Berne)

Brizo

(88 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βριζώ; Brizṓ). A deity who predicted the future as a person lay sleeping. She was worshipped by Delian women as the protective goddess of boats. They brought her votive offerings in small barks which were not allowed to contain any fish. The name B. was derived from βρίζειν ( brízein, ‘to slumber’) (Semus of Delos in Ath. 8,335a-b = FGrH 396F4). B. is explained by [1] as a goddess who sends the wind and the waves to sleep. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 H. Usener, Götternamen, 1896, 147.

Epii

(103 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἐπειοί; Epeipoí). The oldest population in Elis (Pind. Ol. 9,58).  Augeias was regarded as one of their kings (Pind. Ol. 10,35; Hom. Il. 11,698). According to the Homeric catalogue of ships, the E. fall into four different groups (Hom. Il. 2,618-625). Nestor reports of conflicts between the E. and Pylians in Hom. Il. 11,670-762. According to Paus. 5,1,4; 8, they were named after Epius, but later their name was changed into Elii (cf. also Hecat. FGrH 1 F 25). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography E. Visser, Homers Katalog der Schiffe, 1997, 195; 556-557; 562-563 B. Hainsworth…

Eleos

(121 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἔλεος; Éleos). ‘Compassion’. Appears personified in Timocles fr. 33 PCG. An altar dedicated to E. stood on a market square in Athens (Paus. 1,17,1; Diod. Sic. 13,22,7) [1], a well-known  asylon/asylum (Lucian Demonax 57 and schol.; Schol. Aeschin. 2,15). According to Apollod. 2,167, it was there that the Heraclides sought refuge, according to Philostr. Epistula 39, they even appear as the founders of the altar. According to Aristotle's poetic theory, through éleos and phóbos (‘pity and fear’), tragedy should lead to  katharsis (Aristot. Poet. 5, 1449 …

Buzygae

(87 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βουζύγαι; Bouzýgai). One of the most distinguished Athenian dynasties of priests, that traced its origins back to  Buzyges. Amongst others, Xanthippus, the victor of Mycale, also belonged to this family as well as his son Pericles (schol. Aristid. 473). The B. carried out the sacred ploughing below the Acropolis (Plut. praecepta coniugalia 42 p. 144). Furthermore, they were the hereditary priests for Zeus Teleios (CIA 294) and for Zeus on the Palladium (CIA 71; 273). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography Burkert, 159 Nilsson GGR, 1,709.

Diomede

(111 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Διομήδη; Diomḗdē). [German version] [1]  Deïon  Deïon. Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Mistress of Achilles Mistress of Achilles, daughter of Phorbas, one of the seven women of Lesbos whom Achilles took prisoner (Hom. Il. 9,128f.; 664f.). In the Iliad, she plays a secondary role to  Briseis and is rarely represented [1]. Together with Briseis and Iphis, she was depicted on a painting by Polygnotus in Delphi (Paus. 10,25,4). According to Zenod. in schol. Il 9,664a, D. was from Caria. Anth. Pal. 14,18 and 16,29 play with the double meaning of Διομήδης ἀνήρ; Diomḗdēs anḗr (‘Diomed…

Epicaste

(49 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἐπικάστη; Epikástē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Augeias Daughter of  Augeias; mother of Thestalos (Thessalus) by Hercules (Apollod. 2,166). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] see Iocaste, mother and wife of Oedipus see  Iocaste, mother and wife of  Oedipus (Hom. Od. 11,271; Apollod. 3,48). Bloch, René (Berne)

Caecilianus

(269 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Bishop of Carthage, from AD 311/12 In 311/312 (according to [1] around 309/310), C. was ordained bishop of Carthage by Felix of Apthugni. A council of 70 bishops under the leadership of the Numidian primate Secundus of Tigisi declared C.'s election invalid and accused Felix of traditio. In his place, Maiorinus was elected at first, with (313)  Donatus following shortly afterwards. Emperor Constantine declared his support for C. (cf. especially Constantine's letter in Euseb. Hist. eccl. 10,5,15-17; 10,6f.). The dispute with…

Elephenor

(118 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἐλεφήνωρ; Elephḗnōr). Son of Chalcodon, grandson of Abas and king of the  Abantes on Euboea. He was one of Helena's suitors (Apollod. 3,130) and the leader of the Abantes against Troy (Hom. Il. 2,540-541). He was expelled from Euboea following the accidental killing of his grandfather; for that reason, he was only able to call the Abantes to battle by shouting from a cliff top near Euboea (Lycoph. 1034 with Tzetz.). The sons of Theseus were among those who followed him to Troy (Paus. 1,17,6). E. was killed by  Agenor [5] (Hom. Il. 4,463-469). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography…

Cerialis

(149 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Bloch, René (Berne)
Roman cognomen (also Caerialis, Caerealis) of Latin origin, derived from the adjectival Cerealis (‘belonging to Ceres’); current from the Julian-Claudian era onwards (Schulze, 486f.; ThlL, Onom. 2,344f.).   Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [1] Brother-in-law of Valentinianus I, 4th cent. AD Brother of  Iustina, the wife of  Valentinianus I (Amm. Marc. 28,2,10). Tribunus stabuli (Amm. Marc. 30,5,19). In AD 375 he helped his nephew  Valentinianus II to the throne (Amm. Marc. 30,10,5). PLRE 1,197. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Dux Libyarum 405 AD In AD 4…

Eryx

(583 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(ὁ Ἔρυξ/ ho Éryx, Lat. Eryx, Erucus, Erycus). [German version] [1] Mountain in western Sicily High, isolated mountain in western Sicily (751 m), now Monte San Giuliano. Settled even in prehistoric times, with a famous sanctuary to the probably Phoenician goddess of E., identified as Aphrodite by the Greeks, later (Thuc. 6,2,3) became a polis of the  Elymaeans. The attempt by Dorieus to establish a Greek colony (around 510 BC) ended in his destruction by the Phoenicians and the Elymaeans of Segesta (Hdt. 5,43-4…

Balius

(134 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βάλιος, Βαλίας; Bálios, Balías) and Xanthus. Immortal horses of the Peleid  Achilles, who were born by the harpy Podarge to Zephyrus, god of the winds. Poseidon gave them to Peleus on his marriage to Thetis (Hom. Il. 16,148-154; Apollod. 3,170). Xanthus prophesied Achilles his approaching death (Hom. Il. 19,400-424). When he dies, B. and Xanthus want to leave the human sphere, but the gods order them to serve Achilles' son Neoptolemus and to carry him later to Elysium (Quint. Smyrn.…

Eunomus

(171 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Εὔνομος; Eúnomos). [German version] [1] Cup-bearer and relative of king Oeneus Young cup-bearer and relative of King Oeneus. Hercules punches E. for his clumsiness, killing him, and then goes into voluntary exile in Trachis at the court of King Ceyx (Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 2; Apollod. 2,150). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] King of Sparta Spartan king of the clan of the Eurypontids. Perhaps the name was however only inserted on the royal list as a personification of  Eunomia [1]. Hdt. 8,131 places E. between  Polydectes and  Charillus, Paus. 3…

Battus

(646 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(Βάττος; Báttos). [German version] [1] B.I. King of Cyrene, around 630 BC Son of Polymnestus, from the lineage of the Minyan Euphemus of Thera (Hdt. 4,150). Leader of the colonists and King of Cyrene (Hdt. 4,153,3; SEG 9,3: ἡγεμόνα ἀρχαγέταν καὶ βασιλέα). Around 630 BC, he first settled on the island of Platea, then on the Libyan coast, and finally in the town of  Cyrene after reaching an agreement with the local residents (Hdt. 4,153; 156; 158). There he reigned for 40 years according to Herodotus (4,159).…

Eirene

(570 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Εἰρήνη; Eirḗnē). The word is perhaps pre-Greek [1; 2]. [German version] [1] Personification and deification of peace Personification and deification of peace (Orph. H. 15,11). E. is one of the  Horae, daughter of Zeus and Themis, sister of Dike and Eunomia (Hes. Theog. 901-902; Pind. Ol. 13,6-8). She is often mentioned in Greek literature as a central figure for the prospering of the political community. Thus, E.'s gifts are praised, for instance, in Bacchyl. fr. 4,61 Snell-Maehler and in Euripides (Bacch. 419-420; TGF 453) while usually being connected, as ‘a giver of wealth’, to ploút…

Bormus

(99 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βῶρμος; Bôrmos). A handsome young Mariandynian (south coast of the Black Sea) who disappeared suddenly while he was out fetching water for reapers. According to Hsch (s.v. Β. 356) he was taken by nymphs. Another tradition reports that as the son of Titias, brother of Priolas and Mariandynus, he lost his life on a hunt (Nymphis of Heraclea FGrH 432 F5; Domitius Callistratus FGrH 433 F3; Poll. 4,54f.). The Mariandynians called out after him in laments during high summer. The oldest allusions to this are in Aesch. Pers. 937. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography Nilsson, Feste 4…

Briseis

(167 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βρισηίς; Brisēís). Prisoner of war and beloved of  Achilles who carried her off as booty in Lyrnessus (Mysia) after he had slain her husband and three brothers (Hom. Il. 2,688-693; 19,291-297). According to Il. 9,128-134; 270-276 (with schol. Il. 1,366), B. was one of seven girls whom Achilles had captured on Lesbos. In schol. Il. 1,392, B. is called Hippodamia. According to the Cypria, B. came from Pedasus in the Troad, another town that had been conquered by Achilles (schol. Il.…

Ichthyophagi

(131 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἰχθυοφάγοι/ Ichthyophágoi, ‘fish-eaters’). Collective ethnographic term for coastal peoples who primarily live on fish. As a Utopian people residing at the ends of the then-known world, the I. are described as models of justice, but sometimes also as animal-like, living on a low civilizational level (Agatharchides of Cnidus, De Mari Erythro, fr. 31-49 = GGM 1, 129-141). Most frequently mentioned are the Ethiopian I. on the Red Sea, whom Herodotus reports as having been sent (in va…

Eridanus

(207 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἠριδανός/ Ēridanós, Latin Eridanus). [German version] [1] Personification of a river in the west of France or Spain Mythical river in the (north) west (northern Italy, south of France or Spain), son of  Oceanus and  Tethys (Hes. Theog. 338).  Phaeon plunged into the E. from his sun wagon and his sisters ( Heliades) were turned into black poplars on the banks of the E., and their tears into amber (Eur. Hipp. 736-741; Ov. Met. 2,324; 365; Hyg. Fab. 152; 154). Since Hesiod, the E. is associated with the creation of…

Chloris

(193 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χλωρίς, Χλῶρις; Chlōrís, Chlôris). [German version] [1] Goddess According to Ovid (Fast. 5,195ff.) the goddess  Flora was originally called C.; Zephyrus took her as his wife and made her goddess of flowers. This juxtaposition is an invention of Ovid. It was taken up by Lactantius (1,20,8) and by the Anthologia Latina (747R.). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Daughter of Niobe, the only one spared by Artemis Daughter of  Amphion [1] and  Niobe. She was the only one of the daughters of Niobe to be spared by Artemis, because she prayed to Leto. Her image …

Byblis

(140 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βυβλίς, Βιβλίς; Byblís, Biblís). Daughter of Miletus and Eidothea, the daughter of Eurytus, or of Cyane, the daughter of Maeander. Her passionate love for her twin brother  Caunus drives him into exile and herself into death. In respect of her end, the stories vary: she hangs herself (Parthenius 11; Conon 2), she jumps off a cliff and is transformed into a hamadryad by nymphs (Ant. Lib. 30 according to Nicander), or she dissolves into tears and becomes a spring (Ov. Met. 9,450-665). According to Steph. Byz. (s.v. B.), B. is the eponym of the Phoenician town of Byblus. Bloch, …

Educa

(107 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Edula, Edusa, Edulia). Roman ‘special deity’ ( Indigitamenta), which, according to Varro (antiquitates rerum divinarum 114 Cardauns) was named in Christian Polemic (Tert. Ad nat. 2,11,8: Edula; Aug. Civ. 4,34; 6,9) together with  Potina. According to Varro in Non. 151, E. ( Edusa) supposedly watched over the food for the children. Sacrifices were made to her when children had their first meal. In Donat. Ter. Phorm. 1,1,15, her name is Edulia. According to [1], E. was originally a gens deity. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 F. Altheim, Röm. Religionsgesch. 1,…

Euterpe

(151 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐτέρπη; Eutérpē; cf. τέρπειν; térpein, ‘giver of joy’). One of the nine  Muses, the daughter of Zeus and  Mnemosyne (Hes. Theog. 77; Apollod. 1,13; Orph. H. 76,8; schol. Apoll. Rhod. 3,1 b). Later texts describe flute playing as her particular responsibility (Hor. Carm. 1,1,33; schol. Eur. Rhes. 346; schol. Hes. Theog. 76). According to Apollodorus of Athens (FGrH 244 F 146) and Heraclid. fr. 159 Wehrli, E. was impregnated by Strymon and gave birth to  Rhesus (cf. Apollod. 1,18; sch…
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