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Enzyklopädie

(2,153 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
[English version] I. Allgemeines E. ist ein Werk, das die “Gesamtheit des Wissens” als ganzes oder für bestimmte Einzel-Disziplinen enthält. Das Wort leitet sich vom griech. enkýklios paideía (ἐγκύκλιος παιδεία) ab, dessen lat. Übersetzung orbis doctrinarum allerdings der modernen Auffassung von E. näherkommt. Erstmalig belegt ist der Begriff in einem Brief an Poliziano aus dem Jahre 1490 [12; 13]. E. und “Enzyklopädismus” (vgl. frz. encyclopédisme, it. enciclopedismo) sind also moderne Wörter bzw. Begriffe, die sich aber auch mi…

Preiskos

(91 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[English version] (Πρεῖσκος). Der PTurner 39 (PIenensis inv. 267) aus dem 3. Jh. n. Chr. (ein Bücherverzeichnis einer Privatbibliothek) führt bei Zeile 4 einen ‘Komm. zu epischen Versen des P. [2] auf, welcher als einer der zwei Prisci identifiziert wird, die in Ov. Pont. 4,16,10 erwähnt werden ( Priscus uter); vielleicht ist er identisch mit Clutorius Priscus, dem röm. Ritter und Dichter, der in Tac. ann. 3,49 und Cass. Dio 57,20,3-4 erwähnt wird. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography 1 SH 710 A 2 R. Otranto, Antiche liste di libri su papiro, 2000, 73-77 (mit Lit.).

Eirenaios

(933 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Markschies, Christoph (Heidelberg)
[English version] [1] griech. Grammatiker, 1. Jh. (Εἰρηναῖος). Grammatiker, Schüler des Metrikers Heliodoros, 1. Jh.n.Chr. ( terminus ante quem aufgrund des Zitats im Hippokrateslexikon des Erotianos, 116,8 Nachmanson); lehrte wahrscheinlich auch in Rom unter dem lat. Namen Minucius Pacatus (vielleicht der rhetor Pacatus bei Sen. contr. 10, praef. 10). Er war kein Freigelassener [2]. Die Suda erwähnt ihn in der Praefatio und s.v. “E.” (ει 190) sowie s.v. “Pacatus” (π 29) und listet zahlreiche Titel von gramm. und lexikographischen Schri…

Hegesandros

(289 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Köln) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[English version] [1] athen. Rhetor, M. 4. Jh. v. Chr. Athenischer Rhetor, Sohn des Hegesias aus dem Demos Sunion und Bruder des Hegesippos [1], 361/0 v.Chr. Schatzmeister (Aischin. Tim. 55f.; 95) des Strategen Timomachos und trotz dessen Verurteilung wegen Bestechung wenig später Tamias der Athene (Aischin. Tim. 110f. und schol.), gehörte also zu den Reichsten. Im Timokratesprozeß warf ihm wohl verleumderisch Aischines [2] illegale Bereicherung vor. H. galt als Gegner des Aristophon von Azenia, Freund de…

Hermon

(445 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[English version] [1] Bergmassiv Bergmassiv (maximale Höhe 2814 m) im Süden des Antilibanon; hebr. Ḥærmôn (von ḥrm “Bann, Tabu”), griech. Ἀερμών, lat. Hermon, modern Ǧabal aš-Šaiḫ, “Berg des Weißhaarigen” / Ǧabal aṯ-Ṯalǧ, “Schneeberg”. Dt 3,9 setzt H. mit dem phöniz. Śiriōn und amoritisch Śenīr gleich, von daher wäre H. als Šryn im Ugarit., Šarijana im Hethit. und Saniru im Assyr. zu finden. Der biblischen Überlieferung gilt der H. als die nördl. Grenze des von Moses und Josua eroberten Landes östl. des Jordan (Jos 11,17; Dt 3,8). Aus den biblischen…

Menophilos

(33 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[English version] von Damaskos, nur durch 15 von Stobaios zitierte Hexameter aus seinem Gedicht ‘Locken (Πλοκαμῖδες) bekannt, einem Gesang auf die Schönheit der Locke seiner Geliebten. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography SH 558.

Bayern

(7,184 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) RWG
Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) RWG [English version] A. Von den Klöstern zum Humanismus (RWG) Charakteristisch für die karolingische Epoche in B. ist das Bemühen um die Überlieferung und die Verbreitung der lat. Kultur. Zeugnis darüber legen die Überreste der alten Bibliotheken und Skriptorien der Bischofsitze (z.B. St. Emmeran, Freising, Prüfening bei Regensburg, Passau, Salzburg) und der Klöster ab, wo neben christl. auch pagane Autoren bezeugt sind: Vergil, Horaz, Lukan, Sallust, Ovid, Persius, Statius, Terenz…

Demetrios

(6,917 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Et al.
(Δημήτριος). Bekannte Persönlichkeiten: der maked. König D. [2] Poliorketes; der Politiker und Schriftsteller D. [4] von Phaleron; der jüd.-hell. Chronograph D. [29]. I. Politisch aktive Persönlichkeiten [English version] [1] Offizier unter Alexander d.Gr. Offizier unter Alexandros [4], kämpfte bei Gaugamela als Führer einer Ile der Hetairoi und in Indien als Kommandeur einer Hipparchie. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, Nr. 256. [English version] [2] D. Poliorketes Sohn von Antigonos [1], geb. 337/6 v.Chr. (Diod. 19,96,1). Er heiratete 320 Ph…

Kallistos

(72 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[English version] (Κάλλιστος). Verf. eines Epos über die Perserkriege des Kaisers Iulianus, den er als domesticus auf seinen Feldzügen begleitete (Sokr. 3,21,14-17). Er erzählte, wie der Kaiser von einem Daimon geschlagen gestorben sei. Möglicherweise ist K. identisch mit Kallistion, dem ep. Dichter und Assessor des praefectus praetorio Orientis Sallustius Secundus, an den die Briefe 1233 und 1251 des Libanios gerichtet sind. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography O. Seeck, RE Suppl. 4, 864.

Palaiphatos

(585 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[English version] (Παλαίφατος, “der, der alte Gesch. erzählt”). Unter diesem Pseudonym ist die Slg. Περὶ ἀπίστων (‘Über unglaubliche Dinge) überl., die 52 kurze Kapitel über ebensoviele Mythen enthält. Die Suda verzeichnet unter P. vier Personen dieses Namens. Der erste ist ein epischer Dichter aus Athen, Verf. einer Kosmogonie; der zweite stammt laut Suda aus Paros oder Priene (Πριηνεύς verm. falsch statt Παριανεύς, d.h. “aus Parion”: das Lex. schwankt also vielleicht zw. der Insel Paros und der Stadt Parion am Hellespont), der dritte aus Abydos, der vierte (als grammatikós bezei…

Parthenios

(890 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Köln) | Marek, Christian (Zürich)
(Παρθένιος). [English version] [1] Polygraph aus Nikaia oder Myrlea, 1. Jh. v. Chr. 1. Jh.v.Chr.; aus Nikaia oder Myrlea stammend; nach der Suda (π 664 = T 1 Lightfoot), unserer einzigen biographischen Quelle (abhängig von Hermippos von Berytos), evtl. in Myrlea geboren und dann nach Nikaia gezogen (vgl. [5. 9] mit Lit.). Polygraph, Verf. von Gedichten in unterschiedlichen Metren. Durch einen Cinna im Feldzug gegen Mithradates [6] im J. 73 v.Chr. gefangengenommen, aber ‘aufgrund seiner Bildung’ freigelassen,…

Menalkas

(80 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[English version] (Μενάλκας). Bukolischer Dichter, zusammen mit Daphnis Protagonist von Theokr. 8. Von seiner nicht erwiderten Liebe zu Daphnis sprechen schon Hermesianax (fr. 2 und 3 Powell) und Sositheos (fr. 1a-3 Snell). Der Name kehrt in Vergilius' Bucolica häufig wieder, gewiß als alter ego des Dichters und auch als Figur, die auf eine tragische Liebesgeschichte verweist. Die Person des M. ist wohl nicht historisch. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography F. Michelazzo, s.v. Menalca, Enciclopedia Virgiliana, 3, 1987, 477-480 (mit Lit.).

Oppianos

(770 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ὀππιανός). [English version] [1] aus Korykos, Verf. eines Lehrgedichts über Fischfang O. aus Korykos in Kilikien, von O. [2] zu unterscheidender Verf. eines Lehrgedichts Ἁλιευτικά ( Halieutiká, ‘Über den Fischfang, 3506 V. in 5 B.), das Marcus [1] Aurelius und Commodus gewidmet ist (177-180 n.Chr.). Quellen für die Biographie: Den Hss. vorgeschaltete Viten, nach denen O. von Septimius Severus verbannt und von Caracalla wieder in Rom aufgenommen wurde (Suda s.v. Ὀ.; Athen. 1,13c). Inhalt: B. 1 und 2 beschreiben Arten, vo…

Euteknios

(227 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[English version] (Εὐτέκνιος). In dem berühmten Cod. Vindobonensis med. gr. 1 (spätes 5. Jh. n.Chr.), der Pedanius Dioskurides enthält, finden sich auch Prosaparaphrasen zu den Thēriaká und den Alexiphármaka des Nikandros [4; 2; 5]. Der Kolophon weist sie einem ‘Rhetor’ (σοφιστής) E. zu, der in die Zeit zw. dem 3. und 5. Jh. n.Chr. zu datieren ist [3. 34-37]; demselben E. werden deswegen ohne stichhaltigen Beweis auch die in derselben Hs. folgenden anon. Paraphrasen zu den Halieutiká (ab 3,605) des Oppianos [4; 6] und - schon seit C. Gesner 1555 - zu den Ixeutiká des Dionysios [29] […

Herennios Philon

(691 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[English version] A. Person H. war Antiquar und Grammatiker der 2. H. des 1. Jh. n.Chr. (Hauptquelle für die Biographie: Suda s.v. Φίλων Βύβλιος, φ 447, wo der Text jedoch problematisch ist). Sein ursprünglicher Name war Phílōn, das Ethnikon Býblios (nach der Stadt Byblos/Phönizien), das Praenomen H. vielleicht von Herennius Severus Plin. epist. 4,28 übernommen [4]. Er war Lehrer des Hermippos von Berytos. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) [English version] B. Werke (FGrH 790): Histor.-antiquarische Werke: 1) Die ‘phöniz. Gesch. (Φοινικικὴ ἱστορία oder Φοινικικά), nach …

Altsprachlicher Unterricht

(5,830 words)

Author(s): Apel, Hans Jürgen (Bayreuth) RWG | Raeburn, David Antony (Oxford) RWG | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) RWG
Apel, Hans Jürgen (Bayreuth) RWG I. Deutschland (RWG) [English version] A. Begriff (RWG) Die methodische Vermittlung der ant. Sprachen Lat. und Griech. (früher auch Hebräisch) sowie die angeleitete Lektüre und Interpretation lat. sowie griech. Texte bezeichnet man als A.U. Apel, Hans Jürgen (Bayreuth) RWG [English version] B. Geschichte (RWG) Unterricht in den alten Sprachen gibt es seit der Ant., als in Rom Griech. erlernt wurde. In den ma. Gelehrtenschulen bildete der Lateinunterricht das Zentrum der Belehrung. Gramm., Rhet. und Dialektik w…

Glykon

(344 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom)
(Γλύκων). [English version] [1] Dichter Von Heph. 10,2 Consbruch als Erfinder des Glykoneus (Metrik) bezeichnet. Seine Existenz ist unbestritten, die drei ihm zugeschriebenen Verse (= 1029 PMG) gelten gemeinhin jedoch als alexandrinisch: Dieser G. kann kaum vor Sappho (Ende 7. Jh. v.Chr.), die dieses Metrum verwendet, gelebt haben. Choiroboskos nennt G. (in seinem Komm. z.St. In Heph. Consbruch) einen komischen Dichter, verwechselt ihn aber vermutlich mit Leukon (PCG V 612). Anth. Pal. 10,124, ein Zw…

Nikandros

(1,421 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florenz) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Νίκανδρος). [English version] [1] Spartanischer König, ca. 715 v.Chr. Spartanischer König, Eurypontide, Vater des Theopompos (Hdt. 8,131). N. leitete einen Einfall von Spartanern und Asinaiern in die Argolis, woraufhin die Argiver Asine [1] zerstörten (ca. 715 v.Chr.). Der Ort wurde einige Jahre später mit spartanischer Unterstützung am messenischen Golf neu gegründet (Asine [2]; Paus. 2,36,4f.; 3,7,4; 4,14,3f.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography M. Meier, Aristokraten und Damoden, 1998, 74f., 93, 96. [English version] [2] Stratege im Aitolerbund, 190/189, 184…

Herakleitos

(1,563 words)

Author(s): Betegh, Gábor (Budapest) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Et al.
(Ἡράκλειτος). [English version] [1] H. von Ephesos ionischer Philosoph, um 500 v. Chr. Sohn des Bloson, herausragende Persönlichkeit der ion. Philosophie. Betegh, Gábor (Budapest) [English version] A. Zur Person H.' Hauptschaffenszeit ist um 500-503 v.Chr. anzusetzen (Diog. Laert. 9,1). Seine Familie hatte im öffentl. Leben von Ephesos eine führende Position. Die doxographische Überl. verzeichnet zahlreiche Anekdoten über H.' Arroganz und Verachtung seiner Mitbürger wie der Menschheit im allg., die meist auf den Fragmenten des H. selbst beruhen. Betegh, Gábor (Budapest) …

Kolluthos

(347 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[English version] (Κόλλουθος). Ägypt. Grieche aus Lykopolis, lebte in der Regierungszeit von Anastasios I. (491-518 n.Chr.). Biographie: Suda s.v. Κόλουθος, 3,1951, hiernach Cod. Ambrosianus gr. 661; zur Namensform vgl. [1, XI-XII]. Epiker, Verf. eines Gedichts über die Jagd auf den kalydonischen Eber ( Kalydōniaká in 6 B.), von hexametrischen Enkomien (Lobliedern) und eines Epos Persiká, das vielleicht von den Persersiegen des Anastasios des J. 505 handelte (vgl. [4]). Überliefert ist ein Kleinepos in 392 Versen, der ‘Raub der Helena (Ἁρπαγὴ Ἑλένης, von Kardina…

Hipparchos

(1,643 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Et al.
(Ἵππαρχος). [English version] [1] Zweiter Sohn des Peisistratos, um 530 v. Chr. Zweiter Sohn des Peisistratos und einer Athenerin. Zusammen mit seinem älteren Bruder Hippias [1] und dem jüngeren Thessalos trat H. nach dem Tod des Vaters (528/7 v.Chr.) dessen Erbe an (Thuk. 6,55; [Aristot.] Ath. pol. 18,1). Anders als Hippias zeigte H. kein polit. Profil. Er widmete sich der aristokratischen Geselligkeit und Kultur und lud u.a. Anakreon [1] von Teos und Simonides von Keos nach Athen ein (Plat. Hipparch. 228b…

Pamprepios

(397 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[English version] (Παμπρέπιος) aus Panopolis in Ägypten. Die Quellen zur Biographie [1. 7-9] sind detailliert, aber häufig tendenziös: Suda s.v. Π. = Bd. 4, 13,28-15,28 Adler, mit Exzerpten aus Malchos (auch in Phot. cod. 242); Hesychios = Suda Bd. 4,13,25-27 Adler; das bei Rhetorios erh. Horoskop des P.; Damaskios, Vita Isidori (bes. abgeneigt). Im J. 440 n.Chr. geb., studierte P. in Alexandreia, wo er Hermias kennenlernte und in Kontakt mit neuplatonischen Kreisen trat, und kam im Alter von etwa 30 J. nach Athen, wo er bei Proklos studierte und zu einem geschätzten grammatikós wurde…

Kaikalos

(58 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[English version] Ep. Dichter aus Argos, von Athen. 1,13b in einem Katalog erwähnt, der Autoren von Gedichten ‘Über den Fischfang (Ἁλιευτικά) auflistet. Die Namensform, in den Athenaios-Hss. als Καικλον, von der Suda (3,1596) als Κικίλιο überliefert, geht auf eine Konjektur von Meineke zurück. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography 1 SH 237 2 G. Thiele, s.v. K., RE, 11, 1496-1497.

Persinos

(88 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[English version] (Περσῖνος). Epiker der hell. Zeit, aus Ephesos oder Milet. Verf. der orphischen Sōtḗria (‘Lieder für die Rettung; Orph. T 178, S. 52 Kern). Zwei Aussprüche sind überliefert, einer über den Tyrann Eubulos, der andere als Antwort auf die Frage ‘wer ist der beste Dichter’ (‘nach dem Urteil aller Dichter ist er selbst der beste Dichter, nach dem der übrigen ist es Homer’). P. schrieb Linos die Erfindung des Hexameters zu. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography SH 666A-666D  U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Hell. Dichtung, Bd. 1, 1924, 104.

Nonnos

(1,435 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[English version] (Νόννος) aus Panopolis (dem heutigen Aḫmīm) in Ägypten. Zeugnisse zur Biographie fehlen, abgesehen von Anth. Pal. 9,198 (evtl. eine selbstverfaßte Widmung des Dichters für das eigene Werk [33. 166-168; 23]). Man nimmt an, daß der in Ägypten vom 4. Jh. n.Chr. an verbreitete Name syr. oder ägypt. Herkunft ist (“rein”), doch läßt sich ein Bezug zu den griech. Verniedlichungsformen vom Typ nénnos (“Onkel” oder “Großvater”) nicht ausschließen. Die Datier. ist unsicher: Als terminus post quem gilt das Werk des Claudianus [3] (394-397), das N. bekannt ist; als terminus …

Menelaos

(2,228 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basel) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Folkerts, Menso (München) | Et al.
(Μενέλαος, att. Μενέλεως; lat. Menelaus). [English version] [1] Herrscher von Sparta, Gatte der Helena Bedeutende Figur im Mythenzyklus vom Troianischen Krieg (Troia: Sagenkreis). Als jüngerer Bruder des Agamemnon, der in Mykene den myth. bedeutendsten griech. Herrschersitz innehat, wird M. durch Heirat mit der Zeustochter Helene [1] (einziges Kind ist die Tochter Hermione) König über das Gebiet im Eurotas-Tal mit seinem Hauptort Sparta und dem in vordorischer Zeit bedeutenden Amyklai [1] (Beschreibung seines…

Musaios

(1,210 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Genf) | Hidber, Thomas (Bern) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Μουσαῖος). [English version] [1] myth. Musenbegleiter Mythischer Musenbegleiter (dessen Name eine adj. Ableitung von Μοῦσα (“Muse”) ist), ein Archeget der Dichtung und mit Eleusis [1] verbundener Attaché des Orpheus. Als Sproß der Musen (und der Selene: Plat. rep. 2,364e) wird M. von diesen aufgezogen (Ps.-Eur. Rhes. 945-947) und auf deren Hügel in Athen bestattet (Paus. 1,25,8; in Phaleron: Anth. Pal. 7,615). Eine thrakische Herkunft (Pelike, Beazley, ARV2 1313,7, Ende 5. Jh. v.Chr.; Aristoxenos fr. 91 Wehrli2 = 2 A 1a DK) ist dem in Eleusis bzw. Athen beheimateten …

Mythographie

(2,107 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Genf) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(μυθογραφία). [English version] I. Einleitung M. ist eine gebräuchliche Bezeichnung für ant. und nachant. Lit., die Mythen darstellt, sammelt und auch interpretiert (und wird danach auch auf indigene Verschriftlichung vergleichbarer Erzähltraditionen in anderen Kulturen oder deren ethnographische Transkription angewandt). Die Bestimmung von M. muß jedoch unscharf bleiben, allein schon wegen der impliziten Problematik einer Definition von Mythos, v.a. im Hinblick auf eine Abgrenzung von anderen mündli…

Heliodoros

(2,387 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Et al.
(Ἡλιόδωρος). [English version] [1] Kanzler unter Seleukos IV., 2. Jh. v.Chr. Sohn des Aischylos aus Antiocheia am Orontes, wurde gemeinsam mit Seleukos IV. erzogen und war unter diesem 187-175 v.Chr. Höfling (τῶν περὶ τὴν αὐλήν) und vielgeehrter Kanzler (ὁ ἐπὶ τῶν πραγμάτων τεταγμένος) (IG XI 4,1112-1114, bzw. OGIS 247; App. Syr. 45). Als die Finanznot nach der Niederlage von Seleukos' Vater Antiochos III. gegen die Römer (190/188) in Verbindung mit innerjüdischen Intrigen zu besonderen Abgabenforderungen …

Kallimachos

(3,753 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Köln) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom) | Lehnus, Luigi (Mailand) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Καλλίμαχος). [English version] [1] Athener, 490 v. Chr. archon und Oberbefehlshaber bei Marathon Athener, árchōn polémarchos ( árchontes ) 490 v.Chr., Oberbefehlshaber bei Marathon (490 v.Chr.). Es ist umstritten, ob K. durch Los zum polémarchos bestellt wurde (Hdt. 6,109). Vorzuziehen ist die Nachricht des Aristoteles (Ath. pol. 22,5), wonach die neun Archonten erstmals 487/6 erlost wurden. Vielleicht wurden seit 509/8 aber die Kompetenzbereiche unter ihnen ausgelost. Zwar hatte K. nur nominell den Oberbefehl, war aber stimmbe…

Hermonax

(294 words)

Author(s): Oakley, John H. (Williamsburg, VA) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[English version] [1] att.-rf. Vasenmaler, ca. 475-450 v. Chr. Att.-rf. Vasenmaler, dessen Signatur sich auf 10 der insgesamt ca. 200 ihm von der Forsch. zugewiesenen Vasen findet. Er war zwischen 475 und 450 v.Chr. tätig und ein Schüler des Berliner-Malers. Unter den Gefäßformen bevorzugte er Stamnoi, Peliken, Halsamphoren, Lutrophoren und Schalen, wobei bes. letztere den Einfluß des Makron zeigen. Eine Schale in Brauron (Archäolog. Mus. A. 39) hat eine wgr. Innenseite. H. bevorzugte Verfolgungs-, Kom…

Numenios

(1,668 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Νουμήνιος). [English version] [1] Verf. von Lehrgedichten aus Herakleia, um 300 v. Chr. N. aus Herakleia, tätig um 300 v.Chr., Schüler des Arztes Dieuches [1], Verf. von Lehrgedichten über den Fischfang (Ἁλιευτικόν, SH 568-588), über Tiere (Θηριακόν: SH 589-594), medizinische Rezepte (SH 595) und ‘Über Bankette (Δείπνων ἀναγραφαί: Athen. 1,5a). Vielleicht Quelle für Nikandros [4] (vgl. schol. Theriakon 237; 257; 519; 637) und Archigenes. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography Fr.: 1 SH 568-596 2 Th. Birt, De Halieuticis Ovidio poetae falso adscriptis, 1878, 127ff. 3 A. Came…

Maiistas

(111 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[English version] (Μαϊίστας). Verf. (vielleicht ägypt. Namens) der hexametrischen Sarapis-Aretalogie. Diese bildet den zweiten Teil (Z. 29-84) einer Inschr. (3. Jh.v.Chr.) auf einer Säule im Serapeion von Delos, welche die Gesch. des Kultes des Gottes von den Anfängen bis zum Bau des ersten Tempels enthält [1]. Zu Beginn der Inschr. (Z. 1-28) steht die Prosachronik des Priesters Apollonios II. Bei dem nachfolgenden Text des M. kann es sich um eine griech. und für Griechen bestimmte Aretalogie oder…

Helladios

(431 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Ἑλλάδιος). [English version] [1] aus Antinoupolis/Ägypten, Grammatiker, 4. Jh. H. aus Antinupolis in Ägypten. Grammatiker des 4. Jh. n.Chr., Verf. einer Chrēstomatheía (“Wissenswerte Dinge”) in iambischen Trimetern. Photios, die einzige biographische Quelle, exzerpierte sie (cod. 279, 529b 25-536a 22), kannte aber auch eine Prosaepitome (vgl. [4. 99; 6. 16]). Das enzyklopädische Werk bietet gramm., etym., histor., myth. usw. Informationen; zur lit. Gattung vgl. [6. 24-26]. Weder Anordnungskriterium noch Vorlage de…

Eugenios/-us

(617 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg) | Smolak, Kurt (Wien)
(Εὐγένιος). [English version] [1] Flavius Eugenius röm. Usurpator, Rhetor und Kaiser, um 400 Röm. Usurpator 392-394 n.Chr. Er war Christ, Lehrer der Grammatik und Rhetorik in Rom und wurde um 392 magister scrinii bei Valentinian II. (Zos. 4,54,1). Am 22.8.392 wurde er durch Arbogast zum Kaiser erhoben (Sokr. 5,25; Soz. 7,22,4). Stets von Arbogast gelenkt, suchte er zunächst Verständigung mit Ambrosius und Theodosius I. (Ambr. epist. 57; Zos. 4,54f.; ILS 790). Von Theodosius nicht anerkannt, verbündete er sich in It. mit den ni…

Habron

(303 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[English version] (Ἅβρων). Griech. Grammatiker, Sklave phrygischen Ursprungs, lehrte (und studierte vielleicht auch) zuerst auf Rhodos, dann in Rom in der 1. H. des 1. Jh. n.Chr (Suda α 97 Adler). Er war Schüler des Aristarcheers Tryphon und behandelte die gleichen Themen wie dieser, bezog dabei jedoch eine andere Position und kritisierte die Lehre des Aristarchos [4] von Samothrake auch im Hinblick auf die Pronomina (vgl. [1. 1520; 7. 91]). Neun Zitate aus seinem Werk Περὶ ἀντωνυμίας (‘Über das P…

Iulius

(17,472 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Et al.
Name einer alten patrizischen Familie, wohl verbunden mit dem Götternamen Iuppiter [1. 281; 2. 729]. Die gens gehörte zu den sog. “trojanischen Familien”, die angeblich unter König Tullus Hostilius [I 4] aus Alba Longa nach Rom übergesiedelt waren (s.u.). Im 5. und 4. Jh.v.Chr. waren die Iulli bedeutend. Unklar bleibt die Verbindung zum Zweig der Caesares, die ab dem 3. Jh. hervortraten und deren herausragender Angehöriger der Dictator Caesar war [Stammbaum: 3. 183f.]. Sein Adoptivsohn, der spätere Kaiser Aug…

Idaios

(225 words)

Author(s): Willi, Andreas (Basel) | Nünlist, René (Basel) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ἰδαῖος). [English version] [1] Beiname des Zeus Beiname des Zeus vom Ida auf Kreta (Eur. fr. 472 TGF; Inscr. Creticae 1,12,1) oder bei Troia (Hom. Il. 24,291; Verg. Aen. 7,139; in Kelainai: Plut. mor. 306e f.) und von Herakles als Daktylos I. und Gründer der Olymp. Spiele (Paus. 5,7,6ff.; 8,31,3; auch in Elis und Erythrai: Paus. 6,23,3; 9,27,8). Willi, Andreas (Basel) [English version] [2] Sohn der Chryse und des Dardanos Sohn der Chryse und des Dardanos [1], mit dem er aus Arkadien über Samothrake ins Ida-Gebirge [2] auswandert, das nach I. benannt sein soll. Do…

Dionysios

(10,308 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος). Bekannte Persönlichkeiten: der Tyrann von Syrakus D. [1] I.; der Historiker D. [18] von Halikarnassos. Dionysios (Monat) Monatsnamen. Die Chronik des Ps.-D. von Tell Maḥre s. D. [23]. I. Politisch aktive Persönlichkeiten [English version] [1] D.I. berüchtigter Tyrann in Syrakus um 400 v. Chr. von Syrakus, Sohn des Hermokritos, geb. um 430, gest. 367 v.Chr. Begründer der ‘größten und längsten Tyrannenherrschaft in der Geschichte’ (Diod. 13,96,4; Aussehen: Timaios FGrH 566 F 29). Im Besitz sophistischer Bildung (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), war D. von größtem Ehrgeiz…

Eutecnius

(225 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Εὐτέκνιος; Eutéknios). The famous Cod. Vindobonensis med. gr. 1 (late 5th cent. AD) with the herbal of Pedanius Dioscorides also contains prose paraphrases on  Nicander's Thēriaká and Alexiphármaka [4; 2; 5]. A remark in a manuscript attributes them to a ‘rhetor’ (σοφιστής; sophistḗs) by the name of E., who is to be dated sometime between the 3rd and 5th cents. AD [3. 34-37]; without any solid proof, the following anonymous paraphrases are also attributed to the same E.: on  Oppianus' [4; 6] Halieutiká (from 3,605) and, from as early as C. Gesner in 1555, on…

Encyclopaedia

(2,215 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
[German version] I. General An encyclopaedia is a work containing the ‘totality of knowledge’ for a whole field or for individual disciplines. The word is derived from Greek   enkýklios paideía (ἐγκύκλιος παιδεία), whose Latin translation orbis doctrinarum is closer to the modern understanding of encyclopaedia. The term is first documented in a letter of AD 1490 to Poliziano [12; 13]. Encyclopaedia and ‘Encyclopaedism’ (cf. French encyclopédisme, Italian enciclopedismo) are modern words and concepts that may be used within certain limits for antiquity (on their …

Palaephatus

(655 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Παλαίφατος/ Palaíphatos, 'the one who tells old stories'). Passed down to us under this pseudonym was the collection Περὶ ἀπίστων/ Perì apístōn ( On Incredible Things) containing 52 short chapters about the same number of myths. The Suda records under P. four people with this name. The first is an epic poet from Athens, author of a cosmogony; the second comes, according to Suda, from Paros or Priene (Πριηνεύς/ Priēneús probably incorrect instead of Παριανεύς/ Parianeús, i.e. 'from Parion': the encyclopaedia therefore fluctuates perhaps between the island…

Priscus

(884 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
Common Roman cognomen ('venerable') . Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Greek grammarian (Πρεῖσκος/ Preîskos). The 3rd cent. AD PTurner 39 (PIenensis inv. 267), a book catalogue from a private library, presents at line 4 'a commentary on epic verses by P.' [2], who is identified as one of the two Prisci mentioned in Ov. Pont. 4,16,10 ( Priscus uter); he may be identical to Clutorius Priscus, the Roman equestrian and poet mentioned in Tac. Ann. 3,49 and Cass. Dio 57,20,3-4. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography 1 SH 710 A 2 R. Otranto, Antiche liste di libri su papi…

Philostephanus

(477 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Φιλοστέφανος/ Philostéphanos). [German version] [1] P. of Cyrene Pupil of Callimachus, 3rd cent. BC Pupil (γνώριμος/ gnṓrimos) of Callimachus [3] (Ath. 331d; cf. [4. vol. 2, 752]), lived in the reign of Ptolemaeus Philopator (222-206 BC, cf. [1. 30]). Author of ostensibly geographical works whose true compass is in the aetiological and paradoxographic (Gell. NA 9,4,3 puts P. alongside other authors of res inauditae, Aristeas, Ctesias, Onesicritus), of which we have only scanty fragments and titles, which may also denote parts of a single comprehensive wor…

Quintus

(1,526 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] [1] Common Roman praenomen Common Roman praenomen ; abbreviation: Q.; Greek Κόιντος/ Kóintos. It is identical to the ordinal quīntus (‘fifth’); in Oscan-Umbrian, this name is represented by Pompo and the like, with the nomina gentilicia Pomponius, Pompeius, Pontius. Like other so-called ‘numeral praenomina’, the former individual name could be given to children according to their birth order in the early period. In no case is Q. derived from quīntīlis (‘July’) because the name of this month is in turn already a derivative of quīntus (Months, names of the). The nomen ge…

Bavaria

(8,499 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) [German version] A. From Monasteries to Humanism (CT) The Carolingian Period in Bavaria is distinguished by an effort to transmit and spread Latin culture. This is born out by the remains of the old libraries and scriptoria of the episcopal seats (e.g., St. Emmeram, Freising, Prüfening near Regensburg, Passau, Salzburg) and monasteries where pagan as well as Christian authors are documented: Vergil, Horace, Lucan, Sallust, Ovid, Persius, Statius, Terence, Cicero, and Cato [26. 116…

Peisinus

(25 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Πεισῖνος; Peisînos). author of an Heracleia, allegedly ‘stolen’ by  Peisander [6] (Clem. Al. Strom. 6,2,25,2). Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography PEG I, 164.

Nicaenetus

(301 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Νικαίνετος; Nikaínetos) of Samos or Abdera in Thrace (Ath. 13,590b; Steph. Byz. 6,7 s.v. Ἄβδηρα calls him an ‘Abderite’), 2nd half of 3rd cent. BC; he may indeed have come from Abdera, but lived on Samos, Menodotus of Samos describing him as an ‘epichoric poet, who often demonstrated his love for the history of this region’ (Ath. 15,673b = FGrH 541 F 1 preserves a sympotic epigram of N. on the Carian custom of wearing garlands of plaited lýgos, a kind of wicker, at banquets, cf. [2; 3]). We know of the following works of N.: 1) Lýrkos (in hexameters); the preserved fragment …

Simonides

(1,357 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Σιμωνίδης/ Simōnídēs). [German version] [1] Iambographic poet (the iambographic poet) see Semonides Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) [German version] [2] Lyric poet, 6th/5th cents. BC Greek lyric poet, 6th/5th cents. BC Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) [German version] I. Life S. was born in Ioulis on Ceos [1], the son of Leoprepes, uncle of Bacchylides. Of the two birth dates given in the Suda - the 56th Olympiad (556/553 BC) and the 62nd Olympiad (532/529 BC), the earlier is generally accepted. According to the Suda, S. died in the 78th Olympi…

Caecalus

(60 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] Epic poet from Argos, mentioned by Ath. 1,13b in a catalogue listing the authors of poems ‘On fishing (Ἁλιευτικά). The form of his name, given in the Athenaeus MSS as Καικλον and by the Suda (3,1596) as Κικίλιο, derives from a conjecture by Meineke. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography 1 SH 237 2 G. Thiele, s.v. C., RE, 11, 1496-1497.

Hegesinus

(161 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ἡγησίνους; Hēgēsínous). [German version] [1] Teacher of Carneades, 2nd cent. BC H. of Pergamum, 1st half of the 2nd cent. BC, likely identical with Hegesilaus in Clem. Al. strom. 1,64,1. He took over the direction of the Academy from Evander (Diog. Laert. 4,60). H., the last representative of the Middle Academy (Galen hist. phil. 3 = Diels, DG 599f.; Clem. Al. ibid.), was the teacher of Carneades (Cic. Acad. 2,16), his later (before 155 BC) successor in the scholarchate. The name H. turns up only in succession lists; information going beyond mention of the name is lacking.  Academy Stanzel,…

Idaeus

(243 words)

Author(s): Willi, Andreas (Basle) | Nünlist, René (Basle) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ἰδαῖος; Idaîos). [German version] [1] Epithet of Zeus Epithet of  Zeus from the Ida on Crete (Eur. fr. 472 TGF; Inscr. Creticae 1,12,1) or near Troy (Hom. Il. 24,291; Verg. Aen. 7,139; in Celaenae: Plut. Mor. 306e f.) and of  Heracles as Daktylos I. and founder of the Olympic Games (Paus. 5,7,6ff.; 8,31,3; also in Elis and Erythrae: Paus. 6,23,3; 9,27,8). Willi, Andreas (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of Chryse and Dardanus Son of Chryse and  Dardanus [1] with whom he emigrates from Arcadia across Samothrace to the  Ida mountains [2], which are said to be named af…

Peisander

(929 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Πείσανδρος/ Peísandros). [German version] [1] Son of Maimalus Son of Maimalus, general under Achilles [1], best spear-fighter of the Myrmidones after Patroclus [1] (Hom. Il. 16,193ff.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Antimachus Son of Antimachus [1], brother of Hippolochus, killed by Agamemnon because his father had advised killing  Menelaus [1] in Troy when he had been sent into the city on embassy (Hom. Il. 11,122ff.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [3] Trojan killed by Menelaus in single combat Trojan, killed by Menelaus [1] in single…

Heraclitus I (Gk)

(1,845 words)

Author(s): Betegh, Gábor (Budapest) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Et al.
(Ἡράκλειτος; Hērákleitos). [German version] [1] H. of Ephesus Ionian philosopher, c. 500 BC Son of Bloson, outstanding personality within Ionian philosophy. Betegh, Gábor (Budapest) [German version] A. The person H.'s main period of activity is estimated to have been about 503-500 BC (Diog. Laert. 9,1). He belonged to a leading family in the public life of Ephesus. The doxographic tradition records several anecdotes of H.'s arrogance and contempt for his fellow citizens and humanity in general, which are mostly based on fragments of H. Betegh, Gábor (Budapest) [German version] B. La…

Pancrates

(537 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Παγκράτης/ Pankrátēs). [German version] [1] Musician, archaic style Musician; according to Aristoxenus [1] an enthusiast of the archaic style ( trópos) of Pindar and Simonides (Plut. De Musica 1137f). Harmon, Roger (Basle) [German version] [2] Poet, 3rd-2nd cent. BC Hellenistic poet (3rd-2nd cent. BC), author of the didactic poem Θαλάσσια ἔργα ( Maritime works), of which three fragments, dealing with the pilotfish, the wrasse and the salp and their 'common' names, are preserved by Athenaeus (who always refers to him as Arkás). Identification with the homonymous author of a Bokchorē…

Iulius

(18,763 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family, probably connected with the name of the god  Jupiter [1. 281; 2. 729]. The gens was one of the so-called ‘Trojan families’, who were said to have moved from Alba Longa to Rome under king Tullus Hostilius [I 4] (see below). The Iulii were prominent in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. Their connection to the family branch of the Caesares, which rose to prominence from the 3rd cent. and whose outstanding member was the dictator  Caesar (with family tree), is unclear. Caesar's adoptive son,…

Lyceas

(104 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Λυκέας; Lykéas). Undatable author of épē on the historical and mythical history of his home town of Argus, only known from four quotations in Pausanias (1,13,8; 2,19,5; 2,22,2; 2,23,7) who describes him as ὁ τῶν ἐπιχωρίων ἐξηγητής; ho tôn epichōríōn exēgētḗs (‘The one who explains local traditions’) and uses him as a written source which he compares with oral sources. The poem also told of the death of Pyrrhus (in 272 BC, terminus post quem for the dating.). Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography 1SH 527-530 2FGrH 312 3 C. Bearzot, Storia e storiografia ellenistica …

Pherenicus

(207 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
(Φερένικος; Pherénikos). [German version] [1] Theban politician Theban, son of Cephisodotus, who had taken in Athenians who had fled from the Thirty Tyrants ( Triákonta ) into Thebes (Lys. fr. 78). After the occupation of the Cadmeia in 382 BC P., a follower of Ismenias' [1] faction, had to escape to Athens (Plut. Pelopidas 5,3). During the emigrant's attack on Thebes in December 379 P. waited with his people in the Thriasian Plain until a group led by Pelopidas had eliminated the polemarchs in Thebes (Plut. Pelopidas 8,1; see also Plut. Mor. 576c; 577a). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography R.…

Hegesianax

(269 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] of Alexandria (Troad). Lived under Antiochus III of Antioch (222-187 BC) and became the king's ‘friend’ ( phílos, SH 464) when he gave him his poetry. In 197 and 193 he was the Seleucid ambassador at the Roman Senate and in 196 with T. Quinctius Flamininus in Corinth. Grammarian, author of the work ‘On the Style of Democritus’ and ‘On the Poetic Style’ as well as astronomical-mythological poetry ( Phainómena, SH fr. 465-467; in total five hexameters have been passed down, but the allocation is uncertain; cf. [7. 73470], with bibliography). H. is the oldest known aut…

Hermonax

(328 words)

Author(s): Oakley, John H. (Williamsburg, VA) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] [1] Att. red-figure vase painter, approx. 475-450 BC Attic red-figure vase painter whose signature is to be found on 10 of the c. 200 vases attributed to him by scholarship. He worked between 475 and 450 BC and was a pupil of the  Berlin Painter. Of the vessel shapes, he preferred stamnoi, pelikai, neck amphorae, lutrophoroi and cups, with the latter particularly showing the influence of  Macron. The inside of a cup in Brauron (Archaeolog. Mus. A. 39) is decorated in white-ground technique. H. preferre…

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …

Mythography

(3,249 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(μυθογραφία; mythographía). [German version] I. Introduction Mythography is a commonly used term for ancient and post-antique literature that presents, collects and also interprets myths (and is therefore applied also to indigenous recording of comparable narrative traditions in other cultures or to ethnographic transcriptions of them). The term mythography, however, has to remain imprecise, if only because of the implicit problem in finding a definition for myth, especially in relation to its differe…

Phaestus

(984 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg)
(Φαῖστος; Phaȋstos). [German version] [1] Mythical king of Sicyon Mythical king of Sicyon, son Rhopalus the son of Heracles [1]; establishes divine worship of Heracles; because of an oracle emigrates to Crete, where the city of P. [4] is named after him (Paus. 2,6,6f.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Ally of the Trojans in the Trojan War Ally of the Trojans in the Trojan War, son of Borus from Tarne in Lydia, killed by  Idomeneus [1] (Hom. Il. 5,43). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Epicist, Hellenistic period Hellenistic epic poet, mentioned twice in the scholia o…

Nicander

(1,519 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Νίκανδρος; Níkandros). [German version] [1] Spartan king, c. 715 BC Spartan king, Eurypontid, the father of Theopompus (Hdt. 8,131). N. led the raid of Spartans and Asinaeans into Argolis, in retaliation for which the Argives destroyed Asine [1] ( c. 715 BC). The settlement was refounded a few years later on the Messenian Gulf (Asine [2]; Paus. 2,36,4f.; 3,7,4; 4,14,3f.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography M. Meier, Aristokraten und Damoden, 1998, 74f., 93, 96. [German version] [2] Strategos in the Aetolian League, 190/189, 184/3 and 177/6 BC Son of Bittus of Trichonium (Syll.3 5…

Theopompus

(1,730 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Et al.
(Θεόπομπος/ Theópompos). [German version] [1] Spartan king, around 700 BC Among the early Spartan kings, the Eurypontid T. (Eurypontids), son of Nicander [1] (Hdt. 8,131), is the only one securely identified in a contemporary source: Tyrtaeus (fr. 2 Gentili/Prato) names him as a victorious king in the 1st Messenian War ( c. 700/690-680/70 BC). He was probably the colleague of the Agiad Polydorus [6] (Paus. 4,7,7), appears to have played a role in Spartan-Argive conflicts around Cynuria [1] (Paus. 3,7,5) and in disputes between Spartans and Arcad…

Hipparchus

(1,790 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Et al.
(Ἵππαρχος; Hípparchos). [German version] [1] Second son of Peisistratus, around 530 BC Second son of  Peisistratus and an Athenian woman. Together with his older brother  Hippias [1] and the younger Thessalus, H. assumed his inheritance (528/527 BC) after his father's death (Thuc. 6,55; [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 18,1). In contrast to Hippias, H. exhibited no political profile. He dedicated himself to aristocratic social life and culture and invited, among others,  Anacreon [1] of Teos and  Simonides of Ceos to A…

Epaphroditus

(558 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ἐπαφρόδιτος; Epaphróditos). [German version] [1] Freedman of Octavian Freedman of Octavian, who in the year 30 BC was supposed to keep Cleopatra from committing suicide, but was allegedly outwitted by the queen (Plut. Antonius 79,6; Cass. Dio 51,13,4f.). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography K. Kraft, KS 1, 1973, 38f. [German version] [2] Freedman of Nero Freedman of Nero, therefore Ti. Claudius Aug(usti) lib(ertus) E. by his full name. First accepted as an imperial freedman into the city of Rome's decuriae, i.a. apparitor Caesarum and viator tribunicius; later a libellis o…

Philinne

(84 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Φιλίννη; Philínn ē). A papyrus fragment (PAmherst 11) contains three hexameters of a magical incantation (ἐπῳδή; epōidḗ) against headaches, attributed to a certain “P. of Thessaly”. This fragment is physically connected to another (PBerolinensis inv. 7504) from the same roll containing a magic spell by a Syrian woman from Gadara against burns of all sorts. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography 1 SH 900 2 PGM II2, p. 145 3 Pack, No. 1871 (with bibliography) 4 A. Henrichs, Zum Text einiger Zauberpapyri, in: ZPE 6, 1970, 204-209.

Semus

(217 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Σῆμος/ Sêmos) of Delos. Greek antiquarian c. 200 AD. The Suda s. v. Σ. (where ὁ Ἠλεῖος is a corruption [1; 4]) mentions him as a 'scholar' (γραμματικός/ grammatikós) and the author of Δηλιακά/Dēliaká ( Delian history, 8 books; in other sources invariably called Δηλιάς sc. συγγραφή/ Dēliás sc. syngraphḗ) and a work On Delos (FGrH 396 F 1-22, for the most part from Athenaeus). It dealt with cultural and religious antiquities and curiosities on and near Delos, presumably in a periegetic structure. Of his work On Paeans a further fragment (FGrH 396 F 24 =  Ath. 14, 62…

Pamprepius

(395 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Παμπρέπιος/ Pamprépios) of Panopolis in Egypt. The sources on his biography [1. 7-9] are detailed but often tendentious: Suda s.v. Π. = vol. 4, 13,28-15,28 Adler, with excerpts from Malchus (also in Phot. cod. 242); Hesychius = Suda vol. 4,13,25-27 Adler; the horoscope of P. preserved in Rhetorius; Damascius, Vita Isidori (esp. antipathetic). Born in AD 440, P. studied at Alexandria, where he became acquainted with Hermias and came into contact with Neoplatonic circles. Around the…

Hegesander

(324 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] [1] Athen. rhetor, middle of 4th cent. BC Athenian rhetor, son of Hegesias from the deme Sunium and brother of  Hegesippus [1], in 361/60 BC treasurer (Aeschin. In Tim. 55f.; 95) of the strategos Timomachus and despite the latter's sentence for bribery shortly afterwards   tamias of Athena (Aeschin. In Tim. 110f. and schol.), implying that he was a rich man. In the trial against Timocrates  Aeschines [2] most likely slanderously accused him of illegal enrichment. H. was considered an opponent of Aristop…

Sostratus

(572 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)
(Σώστρατος/ Sṓstratos). [German version] [1] Of Cnidus, Greek architect, 1st half of 3rd cent. BC Son of Dexiphanes of Cnidus; architect of the early Hellenistic period (1st half of 3rd cent. BC), mentioned several times in ancient literature (Plin. HN 36,83; Lucian, Amores 11; Lucian, Hippias 2). He was also diplomatically active, as one of the philoi of Ptolemaeus [3] II (Str. 17,1,6). As well as with various canal constructions linked to the conquest of the Egyptian city of Memphis and buildings at Cnidus and Delphi (FdD III/1 nos. 198 and 299), h…

Parthenius

(1,172 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Marek, Christian (Zürich) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] I Greek (Παρθένιος; Parthénios). [German version] [I 1] Prolific writer from Nicaea or Myrlea, 1st cent. BC 1st cent. BC; from Nicaea or Myrlea; according to the Suda (π 664 = T 1 Lightfoot), our only source of biographical information (based on Hermippus of Berytus), P. may have been born in Myrlea and then moved to Nicaea (cf. [5. 9] with literature). Prolific writer, author of poems in a variety of metres. Captured by Cinna during a campaign against Mithridates [6] in 73 BC, but freed ' because of his education', P. is believed to have lived until the time of Empe…

Oppianus

(811 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ὀππιανός/ Oppianós). [German version] [1] From Corycus, Author of a didactic poem on fishing O. from Corycus in Cilicia, author, to be distinguished from O. [2], of a didactic poem entitled Ἁλιευτικά/ Halieutiká, 'On Fishing', 3506 verses in 5 books, which is dedicated to Marcus [1] Aurelius and Commodus (177-180 AD). Sources for his biography: vitae in a series of manuscripts; according to which O. was banished by Septimius Severus and received back into Rome by Caracalla (Suda s.v. Ὀ.; Athen. 1,13c). Content: books 1 and 2 …

Ancient languages, teaching of

(6,842 words)

Author(s): Apel, Hans Jürgen (Bayreuth RWG) | Raeburn, David Antony (Oxford RWG) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
Apel, Hans Jürgen (Bayreuth RWG) I. Germany (CT) [German version] A. Definition (CT) Methodical instruction in the classical languages Latin and Greek (in earlier times also Hebrew) as well as guided reading and interpretation of Latin and Greek texts is designated as instruction in the classics. Apel, Hans Jürgen (Bayreuth RWG) [German version] B. History (CT) Classical languages have been taught since ancient times, when Greek was studied in Rome. In medieval preparatory schools/Latin schools, Latin was the focus of instruction. Grammar, rhetoric a…

Colluthus

(381 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Κόλλουθος; Kóllouthos). A Greek native of Lycopolis in Egypt, who lived during the reign of Anastasius I (AD 491-518). Biography: Suda s.v. Κόλουθος, 3,1951, according to this Cod. Ambrosianus gr. 661; for the form of the name cf. [1, XI-XII]. Epic poet, author of a poem about the Calydonian Boar Hunt ( Kalydōniaká in six bks.), of encomia (hymns of praise) in hexameters and of an epic poem Persiká, which may have dealt with Anastasius's triumphs over the Persians in the year 505 (cf. [4]). His surviving work is a small epic poem in 392 verses, the ‘Rape of Helen…

Phoronis

(129 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Φορωνίς/Phorōnís). Epic by an anonymous author, 7th/6th cent. BC. It received its name from a hero from Tiryns, Phoroneus, the 'father of all men' (fr. 1 PEG). The frequency of the word πρῶτος/ prȏtos, 'the first', in the fragments indicates the poet's interest in the first beginnings of human life. Fr. 2: the Daktyloi Idaioi discover the art of Hephaestus. Fr. 4: Callithoe [2] is the first to adorn the great statue of the 'Argive' Hera: the epithet is problematic (bibliography in [1. 120]). Paus. 2,15,5 and 2,1…

Soterichus

(104 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Σωτήριχος/ Sōtḗrichos). Epic writer of the 3rd/4th cents. AD from Hyasis (in Libya), lived under Diocletianus (AD 284-305), and, according to Suda s. v. Σ., wrote an encomium to him. Further works: Bassariká or Dionysiaká (4 books), Pantheia of Babylon, Ariadne, Life of Apollonius of Tyana, Python or Alexandriacus (on the storming of Thebes by Alexander [4] the Great) and an epic on his own homeland; Schol. Lycoph. 486 [2. 64111] also mentions Kaledōniaká (on the myth of the Caledonian boar) [2]. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography 1 FGrH 641 2 M. Ch. G. Müller,…

Eudaemon

(181 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Εὐδαίμων; Eudaímōn). Correspondent of  Libanius (Ep. 167; 255; 633) and his ‘fraternal’ friend for over thirty years (cf. Ep. 108; 132; 164; 315; 632; 826; 1057), from Pelusium in Egypt, born before AD 337 (probably c. 314/24: [2. 279]), died before AD 392. According to the Suda (ε 3407) a ‘grammarian’ (but he may also have taught rhetoric), author of a Τέχνη γραμματική/ Téchnē grammatikḗ (‘Grammar’) and an Ὀνοματικὴ ὀρθογραφία/ Onomatikḕ orthographía (‘Orthography of Names’) (cf. Lib. Ep. 255,7, regarding E.'s opinion on the vocative of Ἡρακλῆς/ Heraklês), which …

Epimerismi

(588 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] ἐπιμερισμοί ( epimerismoí) are ‘subdivisions’ (Apollonius Dyscolus, Syntaxis 491,13 Schneider-Uhlig; Lat. partitiones,  Priscianus) ‘of verses or sentences into words’ (this is the sense, in which Sext. Emp. Adv. Math. 1,159-168 in the 2nd cent. AD used μερισμός; merismós): each word was analyzed grammatically and prosodically, and sometimes also semantically. It is a teaching aid of the Byzantine School (Tzetzes on Hes. Op. 285); in the 11th-12th cents., it was referred to as schedographia (‘writing of didactic pieces’, σχέδη ( schédē), of uncertain etymolo…

Epitherses

(110 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] Author of a treatise ‘On comic and tragic Attic idioms’ (Περὶ λέξεων Ἀττικῶν καὶ κωμικῶν καὶ τραγικών (Steph. Byz. s.v. Νίκαια), probably mentioned in Erotian, Vocum Hippocraticarum coll. 24,3 Nachmanson (the MS Text Θέρσις was corrected by Meineke as Ἐπιθέρσης; Nachmanson suggests the abbreviation Θέρσης). If he was indeed identical with the grammarian from Nicaea, he would be the father of the orator Aemilianus (cf. Sen. Controv. 10,5,25); because he is mentioned in Plut. De def…

Eugenius

(682 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg) | Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
(Εὐγένιος; Eugénios). [German version] [1] Flavius Eugenius Roman usurper, rhetor and emperor, about AD 400 Roman usurper in AD 392-394. He was a Christian, a teacher of grammar and rhetoric in Rome and he became magister scrinii for Valentinian II around 392 (Zos. 4,54,1). On 22 August 392 he was elevated to the position of emperor by Arbogast (Socr. 5,25; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 7,22,4). Constantly controlled by Arbogast, he first sought an agreement with Ambrosius and Theodosius I (Ambr. Epist. 57; Zos. 4,54f.; ILS 790). He was not …

Demetrius

(7,578 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Et al.
(Δημήτριος; Dēmḗtrios). Well-known personalities: the Macedonian King D. [2] Poliorketes; the politician and writer D. [4] of Phalerum; the Jewish-Hellenistic chronographer D. [29]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Officer under Alexander the Great Officer under Alexander [4], fought at Gaugamela as commander of a troop ( ile) of  Hetairoi and in India he commanded a hipparchy. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 256. [German version] [2] D. Poliorketes Son of  Antigonus [1], born 337/6 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,96,1). In 320 he m…

Germany

(31,487 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Johne, Renate (Berlin RWG) | Aurnhammer, Achim (Freiburg i. Br. RWG) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Holtermann, Martin (Mannheim RWG) | Et al.
Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) I. To 1600 (CT) [German version] A. History and Social Development under Carolingian Rule to 918 (CT) The coronation of Charlemagne as emperor (800) laid the foundation for the medieval German empire. In a lengthy process, the German people evolved from those Germanic tribes that had remained settled during the great migration of the peoples, together with some foederati, Rome's former allies. Larger communities developed around many villae, still evident in some place names, particularly in the Rhineland, but settlements also develope…

Theolytus

(76 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Θεόλυτος; Theólytos) from Methymna (on Lesbos). Undatable author of Bakchikà épē ('Bacchic Songs') on the love of the sea god Glaucus [1] for Ariadne (three hexameters in Ath. 7,296a-b). Perhaps identical with the author of the Hôroi ('Annals'; cf. schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,623-626) mentioned in Ath. 11,470b. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography 1 CollAlex fr. 1 2 FHG 4, 515 3 E. Diehl, s. v. T., RE 5 A, 2033 4 M. Fantuzzi, Epici ellenistici, in: K. Ziegler, L'epos ellenistico, 1988, LXXXVIf.

Leschides

(63 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Λεσχίδης; Leschídēs). Hellenistic epic poet who participated in the campaigns of king Eumenes [3] II Soter (197-159 BC) and may have praised his Galatian war. L. was a ‘very well-known’ poet and a contemporary of the painter Pythias and the physician Menander (Suda III, 254, 4-5 = SH 503). Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography K. Ziegler, Das hell. Epos, 21966, 17-18.

Menelaus

(2,514 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Μενέλαος/Menélaos, Attic Μενέλεως/Menéleos; Latin Menelaus). [German version] [1] Ruler of Sparta, married to Helena A significant character in the cycle of myths about the Trojan War ( Troy: Cycle of myths). A younger brother of Agamemnon, who ruled the most significant power centre in Greek myth, Mycene, by marriage to Zeus's daughter Helen ( Helene [1]; their only child was a daughter, Hermione) M. became king of a region in the Eurotas valley with its capital Sparta and Amyclae [1], which was significant…

Callimachus

(3,899 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Lehnus, Luigi (Milan) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Καλλίμαχος; Kallímachos). [German version] [1] Athenian, 490 BC archon and supreme commander at Marathon Athenian, árchōn polémarchos ( Archontes) in 490 BC, supreme commander at  Marathon (490 BC). It is disputed if C. was appointed polémarchos by lot (Hdt. 6,109). Aristotle's claim (Ath. Pol. 22,5) that the archontes were first selected by lot in 487/86 appears preferable. But perhaps areas of responsibility were already distributed among them by lot after 509/8. C. only nominally held supreme command, but he was a voting mem…

Dionysius

(11,175 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος; Dionýsios). Famous personalities: D. [1], the tyrant of Syracuse; the historian D. [18] of Halicarnassus. Dionysios (month),  Months, names of the. The chronicle of Ps.-D. by Tell Maḥre see D. [23]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] D. I. Notorious tyrant in Syracuse c. 400 BC of Syracuse, son of Hermocritus, born in c. 430 BC, died in 367 BC. Founder of the ‘greatest and longest tyrannical rule in history’ (Diod. Sic. 13,96,4; appearance: Timaeus FGrH 566 F 29). Possessing a sophist education (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), D. had enormous ambitions a…

Numenius

(1,828 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Νουμήνιος/Noumḗnios). [German version] [1] Author of didactic poems from Heraclea, c. 300 BC N. from Heraclea, physician and poet, end of the 4th cent. BC. He was a pupil of the physician Dieuches [1] (Ath. 1,5), wrote on cookery and composed didactic poems on fishing (Ἁλιευτικόν/ Halieutikón, SH 568-588), on the theriac (Θηριακόν/ Thēriakón: SH 589-594), on medicinal prescriptions (SH 595) and ‘On Banquets (Δείπνων ἀναγραφαί/ Deípnōn anagraphaí: Ath. 1,5a). He may be the source on Nicander [4] (cf. schol. Theriakon 237; 257; 519; 637) and Archigenes. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibl…

Cleon

(1,003 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Κλέων; Kléōn). [German version] [1] The most influential politician in Athens after 430 BC The most influential politician in Athens after 430 BC, as the operator of a tannery was the first important demagogue from the circle of tradesmen who were rising to political leadership. Sources paint a picture of a man who put his loyalty to the people ( dḗmos) before that to his friends, who cleverly exploited the moods prevalent among the people and procured a following for himself by promising material gains. C. opposed  Pericles at the beginning of the Pelo…

Marcellus

(1,746 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρκέλλος; Markéllos). [German version] [I 1] From Pergamum, orator, 2nd cent. AD, [1] Rhetor from Pergamum known solely from a brief reference in the Suda; he is said to have written a book (or several books) entitled Ἀδριανὸς ἢ περὶ βασιλείας/ Adrianòs ḕ perì basileías (‘Hadrian, or On Monarchy’). He would thus have lived in the first half of the 2nd cent.; whether Dio's [I 3] speeches perì basileías, addressed to Trajan, served as a model is uncertain. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) [German version] [I 2] From Side, physician and poet, 2nd cent. AD M. from …

Heliodorus

(2,533 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Et al.
(Ἡλιόδωρος; Heliódōros). [German version] [1] Chancellor under Seleucus IV, 2nd cent. BC Son of Aeschylus of Antioch on the Orontes, was educated with Seleucus IV and was a courtier (τῶν περὶ τὴν αὐλήν) and well-respected chancellor (ὁ ἐπὶ τῶν πραγμάτων τεταγμένος) under him in 187-175 BC (IG XI 4,1112-1114, or OGIS 247; App. Syr. 45). When financial difficulties after the defeat of Seleucus' father Antiochus III against the Romans (190/188), in conjunction with internal Jewish intrigues, had led to special…

Menecrates

(1,116 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Μενεκράτης; Menekrátes). [German version] [1] Attic comic poet, 5th cent. BC Attic comic poet of the 5th cent. BC. Two titles of his plays have survived, Ἑρμιονεύς/ Hermioneús (or Ἑρμιόνη/ Hermiónē?) and Μανέκτωρ/ Manéktōr (probably ‘Manes as Hector) [1. test. 1], as well as an anapaestic tetrameter (fr. 1) from the latter. It is uncertain whether Menecrates was once victorious at the Dionysia [1. test. *2]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 1-2. [German version] [2] Tragic poet, 5th cent. BC Greek tragic poet, victor at the Great Dionysia in…

Stasinus

(106 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Στασῖνος; Stasînos). Epic poet of unknown date, from Cyprus. According to a widespread tradition lasting until Proclus and Tzetzes, he wrote the Cypria supposedly named after his homeland. According to an anecdote which Pindar may already have known (Pind. fr. 265 Snell-Maehler; but cf. [3.33]), Homer (Homerus [1]) gave the epic to his daughter as a dowry for her marriage to S. (the legend shows that there were problems as to its authorship already in Antiquity). Epic cycle Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography 1 PEG I, 36-64 2 EpGF 28-29 3 M. Davies, The Epic Cyc…

Glaucus

(2,298 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Γλαῦκος; Glaûkos). The name means ‘glossy blue’, also ‘luminous’ [1];  Glauce: Hom. Il 16,34). [German version] [1] Sea demon A sea demon, into which a Boeotian fisherman from Anthedon was transformed after consuming a magical herb. The place of his jump into the sea after the transformation, Γλαύκου πήδημα ( Glaúkou pḗdēma, ‘Glaucus' jump’), was indicated (Paus. 9,22,6-7). Representations are known by Evanthes, Hedyle and Nicander (Ath. 7,295b-297c), by Callimachus (Suda s.v.), Q. Cornificius (Macrob. Sat. 6,5,13) and Cicero (Plut. Cic. 2,3,86…

Persinus

(100 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Περσῖνος; Persînos). Epic writer of the Hellenistic period, from Ephesus or Miletus. Author of the Orphic Sōtḗria ('Songs for the Rescue'; Orph. T 178, p. 52 Kern). Two sayings have been passed down to us, one about the tyrant Eubulus, the other as a response to the question who is the best poet ( according to the judgment of all poets, he himself is the best poet, according to the others, it is Homer). P. attributed the invention of the hexameter to Linus. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography SH 666A-666D  U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Hellenische Dichtung, vol. 1…

Musaeus

(1,336 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Μουσαῖος; Mousaîos). [German version] [1] Mythical companion of the Muses Mythical companion of the Muses (whose name is an adjectival derivative of Μοῦσα ( Moûsa; ‘Muse’)), an archegete of poetry and a close associate of Orpheus connected with Eleusis [1] . As a scion of the Muses (and Selene: Pl. Resp. 2,364e), M. was brought up by them (Ps.-Eur. Rhes. 945-947) and buried on their hill in Athens (Paus. 1,25,8; in Phaleron: Anth. Pal. 7,615). The origin of M. who lived in Eleusis and Athens (Suda s.v. Μ.) (pelike, Beazley, ARV2 1313,7, end of the 5th cent. BC; Aristoxenos fr. 91 Wehrli2 = 2 A…

Panegyrics

(2,072 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Dingel, Joachim (Hamburg) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] I. Greek The modern term 'panegyric' derives from πανηγυρικός ( panēgyrikós sc. λόγος/ lógos), a Greek term denoting a speech delivered during a πανήγυρις ( panḗgyris), a real or fictive 'festival', e.g. the Olympic Games. In the fictive sense →Isocrates was the first to call his fourth speech (389 BC) a Panēgyrikós (Isoc. Or. 59 and 84, 12,172; Letter 3,6; cf. Aristot. Rh. 1408b 15-17). In the broadest sense of the word, the forms of the epideictic genre ('display speech', epídeixis; → genera causarum) belong to panegyric oratory; in the rhetorical treatises of…

Hephaestion

(1,281 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
(Ἡφαιστίων; Hēphaistíōn). [German version] [1] Commander under Alexander the Great, 4th cent. BC H. of Pella, friend and probably lover of  Alexander [4]. Their relationship was soon likened to that of  Patroclus and  Achilles [1] and correspondingly embellished. It is doubtful whether he was a childhood friend of Alexander (Curt. 3,12,16), as he was not banished by  Philippus II in 337 BC. The wreath offered to Patroclus at Troy and the scene described in the vulgate version ( Alexander historians) of the c…
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