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Laeti

(170 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[English version] Etymologisch (etr., kelt., german., lat.?) strittiger t.t. für Nachkommen von in Gallien unter staatl. Aufsicht auf verödeten, grenzfernen Ländereien ( terrae laeticae: Cod. Theod. 13,11,10) angesiedelten Gefangenen bzw. dediticii vorwiegend german. Herkunft (Amm. 20,8,13). L. hatten beschränkte Rechte, waren an die Scholle gebunden, kriegsdienstpflichtig, aber keine “Wehrbauern” [2]. Die Notitia dignitatum verzeichnet unter dem magister peditum in Gallien zwölf praefecti laetorum (Not. dign. occ. 42,33-44) mit Angaben zu Nationalität und…

Legatus

(367 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[English version] (“aufgrund eines Gesetzes abgesandt” [6. 11]). 1) Gesandter im völkerrechtl. Verkehr Roms, der außerhalb Italiens Funktionen der fetiales im Rahmen einer

Pactio

(206 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[English version] Im röm. Völkerrecht bezeichnet p. (bzw. pactum < pacisci; syn. conventio: [1. 136f.]) allg. und ohne Rücksicht auf die jeweilige Rechtsform zwischenstaatliche Abkommen (Gell. 1,25,15; Gai. inst. 3,94; Dig. 49,15,12, vgl. 2,14,5; Liv. 34,57,7), im Pl. auch deren Inhalte. Da in ihnen fides [II.] publica wirkt, deren Beachtung die Einhaltung von ius gentium (s. ius A. 2.) als Völkerrechtsnorm bedeutet ([2. 6; 11f.]; vgl. [1. 36]; [4. 75]), gilt auch für sie die Maxime: pacta servanda sunt (“Verträge sind einzuhalten”, vgl. Cic. off. 3,92; 107 und 1,23; Dig. 2,14,1; 2,14,7,7).…

Malarich

(47 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[English version] Franke, trat 355 n.Chr. als tribunus gentilium der scholae Palatinae für den der Usurpationsplanung bezichtigten magister peditum Silvanus ein (s. auch Mallobaudes). 363 lehnte M. die Ernennung zum magister equitum per Gallias ab (Amm. 15,5,6; 25,8,11; 10,6). PLRE 1, 538.…

Marcomer

(75 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[English version] Fränk. dux, später rex, durchbrach 388 n.Chr. den Limes und vernichtete wohl das von Quintinus geführte Strafexpeditionsheer. Er verhandelte 389 mit Valentinianus II. und stellte Geiseln. 391/2 wich M. dem Angriff des Arbogastes aus und schloß 392 mit Eugenius [1] ein fo…

Legatio

(574 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[English version] Tätigkeit eines legatus . 1) Im völkerrechtl. Bereich die staatl. verfügte, gelegentliche Delegation von meist drei oder mehr legati, die - als Boten oder mit Handlungsvollmacht ausgestattet - als offizielle Vertreter Roms agierten und dem Senat darüber berichteten ( legationem renuntiare: Liv. 39,33,1). Legationes überbrachten u.a. die für ein bellum iustum (Völkerrecht) notwendige Genugtuungsforderung ( rerum repetitio), die Kriegserklärung ( indictio belli), Anweisungen an socii , sondierten, schlichteten und schlossen Ve…

Pactio

(252 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[German version] In the Roman 'law of nations' p. generally meant (to be precise pactum < pacisci; synonymous  conventio: [1. 136f.]) interstatal agreements without reference to the current legal format (Gell. 1,25,15; Gai. Inst. 3,94; Dig. 49,15,12, compare 2,14,5; Liv. 34,57,7), in the plural it also referred to their content. Given that fides [II.] publica operated in them, the observance of which signified the compliance with the ius gentium (s. ius A. 2.) as a norm of the 'law of nations' ([1. 36]; [2. 6; 11f.]; [4. 75]), the maxim: pacta servanda sunt (agreements should be observed, cf. Cic. Off. 3,92; 107 und 1,23; Dig. 2,14,…

Transfuga

(192 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[German version] Unlike a mere desertor , i.e. a citizen evading military service or a soldier not on leave, whose desertion was severely punished by Rome, a transfuga was a Roman citizen (or subject of the Empire), who as a soldier or civilian (Dig. 48,4,2,3) committed treason ( perduellio ), and thus a crime against the polity ( crimen publicum) by defecting to the enemy (Erl. Dig. 49,15,5), which Rome punished according to the law of war (War, law of) through the magistrates by coercitio or in criminal law as a cr…

Malaric

(51 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[German version] Frank, defended in AD 355 as tribunus gentilium of the scholae Palatinae the magister peditum Silvanus who was accused of planning to usurp power (see Mallobaudes). In 363 M. declined appointment as magister equitum per Gallias (Amm. Marc. 15,5,6; 25,8,11; 10,6). PLRE 1, 538. Kehne, Peter (Hannover)

Marcomer

(85 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[German version] Frankish dux, later rex, broke through the Limes in AD 388 and probably destroyed the punitive expedition army led by Quintinus. In 389 he negotiated with Valentinianus II and provided hostages. In 391/2, M. avoided an attack by Arbogastes and in 392 entered into a foedus with Eugenius [1] (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,9). In 395 he presumably fled to Stilicho or was arrested by him and was interned in Etruria (Claud. Carm. 8; 18; 21). PLRE 1, 557. Kehne, Peter (Hannover)

Laeti

(200 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[German version] Etymologically (Etruscan, Celtic, Germanic, Latin?) disputed technical term for descendants of prisoners or dediticii , predominantly of Germanic origin (Amm. Marc. 20,8,1…

Obses

(153 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)

Legatus

(455 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[German version] (‘sent on the basis of a law’ [6. 11]). 1) Envoy in international relations of Rome, outside of Italy with the functions of fetiales within the framework of a legatio [3. 1133-1135; 2. vol. 2, 675-690]. Benefits included, among others, apparitores [1. 110ff.], travel funds ( viaticum) and the right to free transportation ( evectio), for which the golden ring handed over by the Senate was the legitimation (Plin. HN 33,11) [2. vol. 1, 301]. On the basis of ius gentium ( International Law) he was held sanctus inviolatusque (‘sacred and inviolable’; Caes. B Gall. 3,9,3; …

Treaties, upholding of

(219 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[German version] To the Greeks, the upholding of treaties on an international level was one of the agraphoi nomoi , and for the Romans one of the foundations of the ius gentium (here understood in the sense of 'ius comun…

Indutiae

(170 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)

Obsequium

(199 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[German version] In the social and political fabric of Roman society obsequium generally referred to a duty of support for prominent persons [3. 128ff.], in a military sense it referred to a soldier's obedience and in Roman private law to the legal duty of the libertus (Freedmen) towards his patronus [1. 140]. In relation to the imperium Romanum, obsequium also referred to the loyalty of a province (Tac. Hist. 4,71,2; 74,4; Tac. Ann. 4,72,1; 15,21,1) as well as the subordination - the goal of foreign policy - of tribes living on the edges of the Empire (Suet.…

Legatio

(723 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)

Mallobaudes

(120 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[German version] As comes domesticorum et rex Francorum M. defeated the Alemanni at Argentaria (Horburg/Alsace) in AD 378. He probably took part in Gratianus' [2] expedition on the right bank of the Rhine [1. 600] in order to subjugate them (Amm. Marc. 31,10,6-17). In Franken he later killed the invading king of the Alemanni Macrianus [1] (Amm. Marc. 30,3,7). Identification with the Frankish tribunus armaturarum who in 354 AD interrogated Constantius [5] Gallus (Amm. Marc. 14,11,21) and who, together with Malaric, spoke in defence of Silvanus in 355 AD …

Obsequium

(158 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)

Obses

(120 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)

Indutiae

(144 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[English version] Im Unterschied zur bloßen Kampfpause ( quies a proeliis) meint i. im Kriegs- und Völkerrecht den vereinbarten Waffenstillstand ( cessatio pugnae pacticia: Gell. 1,25,8) bzw. das diesem zugrundeliegende Abkommen ( pactio indutiarum). Die Historizität von über das Amtsjahr des Feldherrn hinaus gültigen i., die gemäß annalistischer Tradition wie Friedensverträge den Krieg für 2 bis 100 Jahre beendeten, ist umstritten [2. 43f.]. Das entwickelte röm. Völkerrecht k…

Mallobaudes

(93 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[English version] schlug als comes domesticorum et rex Francorum 378 n.Chr. bei Argentaria (Horburg/Elsaß) die Alamannen und nahm wohl an Gratianus' [2] rechtsrhein. Expedition [1. 600] zu deren Unterwerfung teil (Amm. 31,10,6-17). Im Frankenland tötete er später den eingefallenen Alamannenkönig Macrianus [1] (Amm. 30,3,7). Die Identität mit dem fränk. tribunus armaturarum, der 354 Constantius [5] Gallus verhörte (Amm. 14,11,21) un…

Merobaudes

(594 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover) | Smolak, Kurt (Wien)
[English version] [1] Consul 377 und 383 n.Chr. 363 n.Chr. diente der verm. fränkische Flavius M. dem Iulianus [11]. Von

Macrianus

(455 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Rex of the Alamanni in the Main-Neckar region, 4th cent. AD Rex of the Alamanni in the Main-Neckar region, where he surrendered to lulianus [11] in AD 359 (Amm. Marc. 18,2,15-18). In 370, Valentinianus [1] mobilized a Burgundian army (Amm. Marc. 28,5,8-13) against M., who had by then become more powerful. However, M. avoided capture in 372 by fleeing. Rex Fraomarius, appointed by the emperor to replace M., could not sustain his position for long (Amm. Marc. 29,4,2-7; 30,7,11). In 374, the emperor entered into a foedus (Amm. Marc. 30,3,3-7) …

Sponsio

(325 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover) | Forgó, Nikolaus (Vienna)
[German version] I. Constitutional law An institution of Roman international law, sponsio was a form of treaty characterized by stipulatio (Gai. Inst. 3,94), and a normal form even for an oral peace treaty ( pax ) entered into by the emperor [1. 97; 2. 46]. From the High Republic onwards, it also meant 'a treaty entered into by a Roman commander by virtue of his word, without the authorization of the Senate' ([3. 48]: 'battlefield treaty'; cf. [2. 47]). As demonstrated by the rejection of the capitulation ( pactio ) in the war against Numantia (137 BC; Host…

Pax

(957 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover) | Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
('peace'). [1] Peace in general [German version] A. Definition Latin pax (< Indo-European  pac, hence pac-s, pacisci > pango, cf. Greek πήγνυμι/ pḗgnymi; on ancient terminology, see [6. 17-29]) means primarily the state of peace and not the manner in which it is obtained [7. 46]. Although Roman sources do call pax the absence of war ( bellum), pax is only the result of a concrete war ended by means of conquest, deditio or agreement by treaty (see D below) [7. 49f.; 8. 51; 6. 155]. Attributes indicate 'peacemakers' or different domains (cf. Pax deorum (deum) ). Kehne, Peter (Hannover) …

Merobaudes

(700 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover) | Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] [1] Consul in AD 377 and 383 In AD 363 Flavius M., presumably a Frank, served Iulianus [11]. Appointed magister peditum by Valentinianus I (Zos. 4,17), M. fought in the war with the Quadi in 375. Acting on his own authority, he elevated Valentinianus II to the rank of Augustus (Amm. 30,10; Zos. 4,19) and was Consul in 377 and 383 consul. In 377, M. withheld units of the army sent to Valens in Thrace (Amm. Marc. 31,7,4),and this probably contributed to Mallobaudes's victory in Gaul. Presumably he too…

Hunimundus

(175 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Dux, later rex of the Danubian Suebi Dux, later rex of the Danubian Suebi, after a foray into Dalmatia defeated and ‘adopted’ in c. AD 465 by the king of the Goths Thiudimer. Mobilized a multi-tribe war coalition against the Goths also supported by eastern Rome but was defeated by them in c. 469 (Iord. Get. 273-279). Probably identical to the pillager of Batavis (Eugippius, Vita Severini 22,4) of the same name. PLRE 2, 574 (H. 2). Kehne, Peter (Hannover) Bibliography H. Wolfram, Die Goten, 31990, 264ff. [German version] [2] H. the Younger. King of the Ostrogoths,…

Pax

(820 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover) | Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(“Frieden”). [1] Friede allgemein [English version] A. Definition Lat. p. (< idg.  pac, daher pac-s, pacisci > pango, vgl. griech.…

Italicus

(172 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn) | Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
Common Roman cognomen. Most famously the poet  Silius I. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] King of the Cherusci from 47 AD Son of the Cheruscan  Flavus (the brother of  Arminius) and of a daughter of the Chatti leader Actumerus, born and raised in Rome. Because the quarrelling nobility demand I. as king of the  Cherusci, emperor  Claudius [III 1] installs this last offshoot of the stirps regia as king in AD 47 (Tac. Ann. 11,16); this shows the new development of Romano-Germanic relations since the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. Driven out afte…

International treaties

(2,514 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover) | Neumann, Hans (Berlin) | Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] I. General International treaties (IT) are official and binding agreements under international law between two or more subjects of international law, which are legally binding for the entire citizenship in question. They were stipulated orally or in writing; they took the form of unilateral, bi- or multilateral agreements, and always implied the recognition of the other party under international law. IT were often the result of preliminary negotiations; they required ratification by…

Italicus

(157 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn) | Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
Weitverbreitetes röm. Cognomen. Am bekanntesten der Dichter Silius I. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [1] Cheruskerkönig ab 47 n. Chr. Sohn des Cheruskers Flavus (dem Bruder des Arminius) und einer Tochter des Chattenprinceps Actumerus, in Rom geboren und aufgewachsen. Da I. vom zerstrittenen Adel als König der Cherusci verlangt wird, setzt Kaiser Claudius [III 1] den letzten Sproß der stirps regia 47 n.Chr. als König ein (Tac. ann. 11,16); das zeigt die neue Entwicklung der röm.-german. Beziehungen seit der Varusschlacht. Nach Parteikämp…
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