I. General The name
Tanzania is an artificial coinage introduced in 1964 with the formation of the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar. The republic has an area of 942,000 km2, including the islands of Pemba, Zanzibar, and Mafia, with some 2,000 km2. The most important vegetation zones are savannahs, veldt, semidesert, and the fertile coastal plain on the Indian Ocean. The continental area includes 54,000 km2 of inland lakes, primarily along the Great African Rift Valley. With an altitude of 5,895 m, Kilimanjaro reaches the highest elevation in Africa (see also map). The population, which comprises more than 120 ethnic groups, increased from 10 million in 1964 to 44 million in 2009. Since the 19th century, Swahili has developed into a
lingua franca; today it is Tanzania’s national language. Frieder Ludwig Bibliography Bibl.: see IV below.
II. Non-Christian Religions Many African religions are represented in Tanzania; for the 20th century, Iliffe identified four features common to most religions: belief in a Creator who withdrew from the world after creating it; resort to soothsayers (Divination); belief that misfortunes can be caused by spiritual beings (Spirit: I) and witchcraft (Witches: I); and the use of herbal or magical means of protection. Numerous case studies have shown that the traditional ¶ religions…