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Carystius

(163 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] (Καρύστιος; Karýstios) of Pergamum. Greek polygraph with a wide range of interests, who probably lived in the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC. The majority of fragments is found in Athenaeus, who predominantly quotes from Ἱστορικὰ ὑπομνήματα (at least 2 vols, or possibly 3 vols, if the two references ἐν τρίτῳ Ὑπομνημάτων in Ath. 12,542e; 13,577c are to be assigned to the same opus: discussion in [2]), an assorted collection of reports on various historical personalities, customs, and …

Antoninus

(1,285 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] [1] Pius Roman emperor Roman emperor. Original name T. Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus = Imp. Caesar T. Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Pius.  19 September 86 on a country estate near Lanuvium (SHA Pius 1,8); Son of T.  Aurelius [II 15] Fulvus, cos. ord. 89, and  Arria Fadilla; the family's paternal -- and perhaps also maternal -- lineage was from Nemausus; already in the Senate for the 3rd generation. Brought up in Lorium until the early death of his father, thereafter in the home of his paternal grandfather, then …

Comanus

(550 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Κομανός; Komanós). [German version] [1] Greek grammarian, 2nd cent. BC C. from Naucratis. Greek grammarian of the 2nd cent. BC, who composed an exegetical work on Homer (an hypómnēma?; Aristarchus [4] of Samothrace challenged it in ‘Against C.’/Πρòς Κομανóν, schol. Hom. Il. 1,97-99; 2,798a; 24,110b). Identification with the homonymous Alexandrian politician  C. [2] is debatable, even if the grammarian is called ‘the king's chief cup-bearer’ in schol. Hes. Op. 97. The roughly 20 fragments reveal a respectable philological …

Conon

(985 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Κόνων; Kónōn). [German version] [1] Athenian, after 411/10 BC repeatedly stratēgós Athenian, in 413 BC commander in Naupactus, after 411/10 repeatedly stratēgós. C. was bottled up in 406 by the Peloponnesian fleet in the port of Mytilene and lost 30 ships (Xen. Hell. 1,6,14-23; Diod. Sic. 13,77-79). After Athens' victory at the  Arginusae he was freed. Since he did not participate in the battle, he was not deposed and sentenced to death like the other generals (Xen. Hell. 1,6,38-7,1). He escaped the destruction of …

Canon

(2,022 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Vogt-Spira, Gregor (Greifswald) | Rese, Martin (Münster) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[1] [German version] I. General points The Greek word canon (κανών, kanṓn) was probably derived from κάννα ( kánna: ‘bulrush reed or rod’), a Semitic loan word in the Greek language. The original meaning of ‘straight reed, stick, rod (in different uses)’ developed into several more specific and technical meanings. As a result, the Greek word canon designates a carpenter's or bricklayer's measuring stick or square, a chronological or astrological table, a monochord in music terminology (from Euclides [3]) etc. In …

Apollonides

(326 words)

Author(s): Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Ἀπολλωνίδης; Apollōnídēs). [German version] [1] Greek geographer of the time of Mithridates VI Greek geographer of the time of Mithridates VI (early 1st cent. BC); author of a   periplous of Europe; the few surviving fragments cover the region of the eastern Mediterranean. Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) Bibliography FHG 4, 309-310 H. Berger, s. v. A. 28, RE 2, 120. [German version] [2] of Nicaea Grammarian (Ἀπολλωνίδης ὁ Νικαεύς; Apollōnídēs ho Nikaeús). Greek  grammarian of the 1st cent. AD. He dedicated a commentary on the Silloi of  Timon of Phleious to the Emperor Tiberius (Di…

Leogoras

(365 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Λεωγόρας; Leōgóras). [German version] [1] Father of the orator Andocides [1], 5th cent. BC Father of the orator Andocides [1], member of an old Athenian noble family, tracing its roots back to Telemachus and Hermes and linked by marriage to the Alcmaeonids (Hellanicus FGrH 323a F 24a-c; schol. Aristoph. Nub. 109). L. was mocked by Aristophanes [3] because of his debauched and profligate way of life. In 426/5 BC he led a legation to the Macedonian king Perdiccas II (IG I3 61, l. 51; [1. 30; 2. 1f.]). In 415, L. successfully used a paranomon graphe to clear himself fr…

Aristonicus

(1,329 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀριστόνικος; Aristónikos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (2nd half 4th cent. BC) of Marathon, a wealthy man whose political allegiances lay with  Lycurgus and  Demosthenes (Plut. Mor. 846a); in 336/335 BC, he proposed the act about the  Panathenaea (LSCG no. 33), in 335/334 BC, together with Lycurgus, the psephisma for the deployment of the Athenian fleet against pirates (IG II2 1623, B 276-285), and prior to 322 BC, several laws to the   nomothetai (Alexis PCG 2, fr. 131,2). In 324/323 BC, A. faced prosecution in the trials of Harpa…

Artemon

(593 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Ἀρτέμων; Artémōn). [German version] [1] Greek grammarian From Cassandreia. Greek  grammarian. As he makes mention of  Dionysius Scytobrachion, he is dated to the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC. Of his works Athenaeus cites: Περὶ βιβλίων συναγωγῆς, Περὶ βιβλίων χρήσεως, Περὶ τοῦ Διονυσιακοῦ συστήματος as being his. An almost contemporary namesake from Pergamum, the commentator on Pindar (FGrH 569), possibly is the same person; A. from Clazomenae (FGrH 443), on the other hand, is older. A., the editor of the Aristotelian letters (Demetrius, elocutiones 223), is difficult to identify. …

Chorizontes

(188 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] (χωρίζοντες; chōrízontes). Collective name (from χωρίζειν; chōrízein, ‘to separate’) used in the Homer scholia to describe grammarians who, on the grounds of conscientious observation of linguistic and stylistic differences and contradictions in the ‘ Iliad and the ‘ Odyssey, as well as their content, hold to the thesis that the ‘ Odyssey is not by Homer. The Alexandrian  grammarians, who held to the ‘orthodox’ position (established by Aristotle), saw Homer as author of both Iliad and Odyssey; in consequence,  Aristarchus [4] of Samothrace and his school …

Diple

(178 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] (διπλῆ; diplê). Editorial mark of the Alexandrian philologists, used in textual criticism, simple (generally >, but also <) or accompanied by two dots (). Documentary evidence relates it predominantly with Homeric philology: The simple diple (ἀπερίστικτος or καθαρά; aperístiktos or kathará) was used by Aristarchus of Samothrace, to refer to various critical-exegetic observations on the interpretation of a text, on its language, the realia etc., and the diplê periestigménē (διπλῆ περιεστιγμένη) by contrast, to mark those passages in which he polem…

Acusilaus

(277 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] (Ἀκουσίλαος; Akousílaos) from Argos. Lived at the end of the 6th and first half of 5th cent. BC, was according to Hecataeus of Miletus one of the first Greek prose writers and wrote in the Ionian dialect. He is traditionally regarded as belonging to the group of so-called logographoi (a generic term used in Thuc. 1,21,1) ( Logographer) and, as far as we can determine, was primarily concerned with  mythography. His Γενεαλογίαι or Ἱστορίαι comprised three books that, it seems, corresponded to the break-up into divine, heroic and …

Crates

(2,486 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Broggiato, Maria (London) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Κράτης; Krátēs). [German version] [1] Writer of comedies, 5th cent. BC Athenian, the poet of the Old Comedy who began giving performances c. 450 BC [1. test. 7]. Previously an actor with  Cratinus [1], [1. test. 2 and 3]. Certain sources claim that he wrote seven plays [1. test. 1 and 2], other sources claim eight [1. test. 4]. Altogether nine titles of plays have survived (although the Μέτοικοι ‘The Metoikoi’ and Πεδῆται ‘The Prisoners’ may be wrongly attributed to him). On the list of Dionysian winners, C. is list…

Lesbonax

(349 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
(Λεσβῶναξ; Lesbônax). [German version] [1] Greek grammarian Greek grammarian, dates uncertain (perhaps before the end of the 2nd cent. AD). Author of a work on rhetorical figures (Περὶ σχημάτων; Perì schēmátōn) that is extant in two different excerpts (there is no basis for equating him with the orator L. of Mytilene). In it, L. describes a series of grammatical peculiarities ( schḗmata, ‘figures’), i.e. changes in the normal form of speech, which are demonstrated with examples primarily from Homer. There is no Atticist influence at all: the principal sou…

Hypomnema

(986 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] (ὑπόμνημα; hypómnēma, more rarely ὑπομνηματισμός; hypomnēmatismós; Latin commentarius or more rarely commentarium). The word Hypommnema (from the root of μιμνήσκω; mimnḗskō, ‘to remember’) has the abstract basic meaning ‘memory’, presence in the memory or call/support for the memory (in this sense it already appears in Thuc. 2,44,2 and in Isocrates, Demosthenes, Xenophon etc.), however, in the course of time it takes on a large number of different connotations and nuances, especially the widespread (…

Demo

(342 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Δημώ; Dēmṓ). Shortened form of a compound (see D. [3], [4]). [German version] [1] Daughter of Celeus The daughter of  Celeus, king of Eleusis, and  Metaneira. Together with her sisters Callidice, Cleisidice and Callithoe, she has a friendly encounter with  Demeter who is wandering about in the shape of an old woman (Hom. H. 2,109). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Name of the Cymaean Sibyl Name of the Cymaean  Sibyl, of whom, however, the Cymaeans did not know an oracle. They could only point to a water jug that contained the bones of the Sibyl (Hyper…

Chrysippus

(3,163 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Χρύσιππος; Chrýsippos). [German version] [1] Favourite son of Pelops Favourite son of  Pelops from his first marriage with the nymph Axioche (schol. Pind. Ol. 1,89, schol. Eur. Or. 4) or Danais (Plut. Mor. 313E). Two tales are associated with him: Zeus (Praxilla 3,6 Edmonds = Ath. 13 p. 603a) or  Laeus, C.'s teacher in chariot driving (thus presumably in the ‘C.’ of Euripides, TGF fr. 839-844, possibly already in the Laios of Aeschylus), became infatuated with the extraordinarily beautiful youth and abducted him either from his father's house or the Nemean games …

Longinus

(1,149 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
Roman cognomen (greek Λογγῖνος; Longînos), derived from longus (‘tall’), in the Republican period in the family of the Cassii (Cassius [I 6-17; II 14-16]), in the Imperial period attested in numerous other families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [1] Cassius Longinus Grammarian, Rhetor and platonic philosopher, c. AD 210-272/3 [German version] A. Life A Greek grammarian, rhetor and Platonic philosopher ( c. AD 210-272/3), who was an outstanding representative of the education and culture of his time and was therefore called a ‘living library and walking u…

Daphitas

(234 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] (Δαφίτας; Daphítas, also Δαφίδας; Daphídas). Greek grammarian (‘sophist’ according to Val. Max. 1,8), probably from the 2nd cent. BC, if it is accepted that he lived at the same time as Attalus III (see below). The Suda (δ 99 s.v. Δαφίδας) says that he came from Telmessus in Caria and made claims in a work about Homer that the poet was not telling the truth because the Athenians did not take part in the expedition to Troy. Strabo (14,647) tells that D. was crucified on Mt Thorax near …

Aristocles

(543 words)

Author(s): Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Ἀριστοκλῆς; Aristoklês). [German version] [1] of Messene Peripatetic philosopher of the early imperial era Peripatetic philosopher of the early imperial era. His main work, Περὶ φιλοσοφίας in 10 books, contained a critical summary of the teachings of all philosophical schools; extracts in Euseb. Praep. evang. 14-15. Other teachings attributed to him until recently belong to  Aristotle of Mytilene. Because of the confusion with the latter, A. was also thought to have been a teacher of Alexander of Aphrodisias…

Amarantus

(96 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] (Ἀμαραντός; Amarantós) of Alexandria. Greek grammarian of the 2nd cent. AD (older contemporary of  Galen, who quotes him). His commentary on  Theocritus was extensively used in late antiquity and Byzantine times, and is quoted in the EM. Athenaeus reproduces some fragments of a work Περὶ σκηνής in connection with biographical anecdotes about actors.  Biography;  Theocritus Montanari, Franco (Pisa) Bibliography M. Haupt, De A. grammatici commentario in Theocriti idyllia, Opuscula III 2, 1876, 645 H. Maehler, in: Entretiens XL, 98-99 G. Wentzel, s. v. A. (3)…

Athenocles

(201 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἀθηνοκλῆς; Athēnoklês). [German version] [1] From Cyzicus. Grammarian, 3rd/2nd cent. BC from Cyzicus. Grammarian. On the basis of Didymus in Schol. Hom. Od. 14,503, where in reference to him the word προηθέτει (‘has athetized earlier’) is used (see also Schol. Hom. Od. 6,144), he is believed to be older than Aristarchus [4] of Samothrace or at least one of his contemporaries, so that he can also be placed in the 3rd/2nd cents. BC. Ammonius [3] of Alexandria, the student of Aristarchus, published a text Πρ…

Boethus

(1,274 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Et al.
(Βόηθος; Bóēthos). I. Political figures [German version] [1] Ptolemaean civil servant, 136/5 BC Son of Nicostratus from Caria; in the service of the Ptolemies well before 149 BC, he occupied various administrative positions before becoming epistrategos of Thebes. Founded two cities in Lower Nubia. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography K. Vandorpe, Der früheste Beleg eines Strategen der Thebais als Epistrategen, in: ZPE 73, 1988, 47-50. II. Philosophers and writers [German version] [2] Of Sidon Stoic Philosopher, 2nd cent. BC Stoic philosopher of the 2nd cent. BC; he wrote…

Attalus

(2,358 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Dingel, Joachim (Hamburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Ἄτταλος; Áttalos). [German version] [1] Friend of  Philippus, rival of Alexander the Great at the court of his father Friend of  Philippus who did not punish him for an insult inflicted on Pausanias. At the wedding of his niece Cleopatra (II) to Philippus (337 BC) he called  Alexander [4] the Great a nothos (illegitimate son) and was attacked by him, whereupon Alexander and Olympias were banned (Plut. Alex. 9 among others). With his father-in-law (Curt. 6,9,18) Parmenion, he commanded the invading army in Asia. After Philippus' death, Alexander …

Aristarchus

(2,018 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀρίσταρχος; Arístarchos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (end of the 5th cent. BC) Athenian politician, in 411 BC the most embittered opponent of the demos among the 400 Oligarchs in Athens (Thuc. 8,90,1). A. participated in the fortification of  Eetioneia when he was strategos (Xen. Hell. 2,3,46). After the regime was toppled, he betrayed the border fortification Oenoe to the Boeotians (Thuc. 8,98), for which he was executed in 406 (?) (Lycurg. Leocr. 115; PA, 1663; Traill PAA, 164155). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] of Tegea Tragedian, 5th cent. BC Tragedi…

Didymus

(1,946 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Δίδυμος; Dídymos). [1] of Alexandria Important Greek grammarian of the latter half of the 1st cent. BC [German version] A. Philological activity The most important Greek grammarian of the latter half of the 1st cent. BC. The biographical entry in the Suda (δ 872) tells us that he was still alive in the reign of Augustus, and mentions a nickname ‘Chalkenteros’ (Χαλκέντερος, ‘Brazen-guts’, cf. the Suda ι 399, χ 29). To his strong constitution he attributed an untiring assiduity that extended to different branches of p…

Apollodorus

(3,070 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλόδωρος; Apollódōros). Political figures [German version] [1] Athenian politician (4th cent. BC) Son of  Pasion of Acharnae, Athenian rhetor and supporter of Demosthenes (394/93, died after 343 BC). A. was one of the richest Athenian citizens after 370. He undertook costly trierarchy liturgies (cf. IG II2 1609,83 and 89; IG II2 1612, b110; Dem. Or. 50,4-10; 40 and 58) and in 352/51 gained a victory as   choregos (IG II2 3039,2) but had only limited success in obtaining a political post commensurate with his wealth. From 370 to 350 BC he indulged in litigat…

Dorotheus

(861 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
(Δωρόθεος; Dōrótheos). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Argos, 5th cent. BC Sculptor of bronze from Argos. Known by two signatures from the middle of the 5th cent. BC on bases in Delphi and in Hermione (Crete), with traces of an inlet for a horse or rider statue. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures des sculptures grecques, 1, 1953, no. 30-31 P. Orlandini, I donari firmati da Kresilas e Dorotheos a Hermione, in: ArchCl 3, 1951, 94-98. [German version] [2] Painter, from the mid 1st cent. AD Painter from the middle of the 1st cent. AD. Co…

Alexander

(7,586 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ἀλέξαδρος; Aléxandros). Famous personalities:  Alexander the Great [4] (III.); the Philosopher Alexander [26] of Aphrodisias. I. Myth [German version] [1] see Paris see  Paris. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) II. Associated Hellenistic ruling families [German version] [2] A. I. Macedonian king, 1st half of the 5th cent. BC Son of  Amyntas [1] and his negotiator with  Darius. As Macedonian king he supported  Xerxes' invasion of Greece, but pretended to be a friend of the Greeks (later called ‘Philhellen’). Herodotus has subtly shown his ambigu…

Hellanicus

(786 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἑλλάνικος; Hellánikos). [German version] [1] H. of Mytilene Greek historian, end of 5th cent. BC (T 1). Contrary to ancient tradition, which sometimes puts his birth date towards the end of the 6th cent. (T 4), sometimes at the beginning of the 5th cent. (T 3) and sometimes in the year 480/479 BC (T 1 and 6), younger rather than older contemporary of  Herodotus. At any rate the datable works belong to the last third of the 5th cent. H. analyzed the Herodotean collection of topics into individual components by a series of monographs and, reverting to  Hecataeus [3], even…

Critical signs

(858 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] (Greek σημεῖα/ sēmeîa, Lat. notae). One of the most important technical and methodological inventions of Alexandrian  philology were the critical signs (CS) used in philological exegetic work. Their development and use cannot be followed continuously as there are gaps in the evidence. One exception, however, is the edition and exegesis technique of the Alexandrian grammarians with reference to Homer, about which we are adequately informed both through a small number of anonymous gramm…

Asterisk

(128 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] (ἀστερίσκος). Symbol of textual criticism in Alexandrian philology. It is not clear what meaning  Aristophanes [4] of Byzantium attached to it when he introduced it; for  Aristarchus [4] of Samothrace, it marked a repeated verse: he used an asterisk for repetitions that he regarded as appropriate, and an asterisk with an obelus for those that he regarded as interpolations. In ‘editorial’ usage the asterisk marked the end of an ode in lyric poetry: in the edition of Alcaeus, Aristo…

Apollonius

(7,446 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence) | Hunter, Richard (Cambridge) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλώνιος; Apollṓnnios). [German version] [1] Dioiketes of Ptolemy II (259-245 BC) Of Caria, possibly Ptolemaic o ikonomos there in 267 BC. Was dioiketes of Ptolemy II from April /May 259 until the end of 245; in 252 escorted Berenice to her wedding to Antiochus II. At a critical transition period A. found himself responsible for the economy of the kingdom of the Ptolemies, adapting the fiscal system to the monetary economy of the Lagids, for which purpose he was entrusted with the management of finances and the co…

Latinus

(795 words)

Author(s): Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] [1] Mythical ancestor of the Latin people (Greek Λατῖνος; Latînos). Mythical eponymous ancestor of the Latini. According to the Greek version, L. and his brother Agrius are the sons of Odysseus and Circe and kings of the Tyrrheni on the Island of the Blessed (Hes. Theog. 1011ff.). Servius (Aen. 12,164), who refers to a no longer identifiable Greek author, takes up this origin of L., but identifies him as the founder of the city of Rome, which was named for Rhome, the sister of L. Accor…

Cleitarchus

(457 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Κλείταρχος; Kleítarchos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Eretria 343/42-341 BC Tyrant of Eretria. Even as a banned exile C. unsuccessfully attempted in 349/8 BC to seize Eretria, e.g., with the help of Philip II against an Athenian army under Phocion (Aeschin. In Ctes. 86-88 with Schol. [1. 318, n. 2]). Philip's intervention in Euboea in 343 and 342 [1. 502f., 545-549] brought C. to power (Dem. Or. 8,36; 9,57f.; 18,71; 19,87). Phocion expelled him in 341 (Philochorus FGrH 328 F 160; Diod. Sic. 16,74,1).  Tyrannis Cobet, Justus (Essen) Bibliography 1 N. G. L. Hammond, G. T. Griffith,…

Chares

(964 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Χάρης; Chárēs). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos, 4th cent. BC Athenian strategos of the 4th cent. BC. In 367/6 he supported Phleius when it was hard-pressed by Argos and Sicyon. The aid he gave to the oligarchs on Corcyra led to that island's leaving the 2nd Athenian League, and brought Athens discredit among its confederates. Not re-elected as strategos until 357/6. The treaty between Athens and the Thracian kings  Berisades, Amadocus I and Cersobleptes under C. in 357 both confirmed the division of Thracian rule and established Athenian poss…

Demetrius

(7,578 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Et al.
(Δημήτριος; Dēmḗtrios). Well-known personalities: the Macedonian King D. [2] Poliorketes; the politician and writer D. [4] of Phalerum; the Jewish-Hellenistic chronographer D. [29]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Officer under Alexander the Great Officer under Alexander [4], fought at Gaugamela as commander of a troop ( ile) of  Hetairoi and in India he commanded a hipparchy. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 256. [German version] [2] D. Poliorketes Son of  Antigonus [1], born 337/6 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,96,1). In 320 he m…

Dionysodorus

(550 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Διονυσόδωρος; Dionysódōros). [German version] [1] Taxiarch to Theramenes c. 400 BC Taxiarch to Theramenes, betrayed to the Thirty by Agoratus (Lys. or. 13,30; 39-42). The latter was taken to court in 399/98 BC by D.'s brother and brother-in-law, Dionysius, the speaker of the 13th oration written by Lysias. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] Theban and Olympic winner, envoy and participant in the battle of Issus Theban and Olympic winner. Sent as an ambassador to  Darius [3] and taken prisoner together with other Greek ambassadors by Parmenion in …

Ammonius

(1,354 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Et al.
(Ἀμώνιος; Ammónios). [German version] [1] Favourite of  Alexander [II 13] I (Balas), middle of the 2nd cent. BC Favourite of  Alexander [II 13] I (Balas); ruled in his place in Syria, executed relatives and followers of (the deceased) Demetrius I and oppressed the Antiochenes. When he attempted an attack on Ptolemy VI, certainly Alexander's most important supporter, and Ptolemy demanded that A. be handed over, Alexander actually declined to do this, so Ptolemy broke with Alexander: despite dressing as a woman, A…

Arcadius

(544 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] [1] Roman emperor (383-408 AD) Roman emperor (AD 383-1/05/408), born in 377 in Spain, son of Theodosius I. Educated by the pagan  Themistius and the Christian Arsenius; proclaimed Augustus on 19/01/383, since 394 (departure of Theodosius I into war against Eugenius) ruler of the East, in 395 together with Honorius successor of Theodosius I. A. is considered to have been subject to influence: in the beginning the praefectus praetorio  Rufinus who was murdered in 395, conducted his affairs, later the praepositus sacri cubiculi  Eutropius, who…

Callistratus

(1,229 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Καλλίστρατος; Kallístratos). [German version] [I 1] Tragedian Tragedian (TrGF I 38), whose ‘Amphilochus and ‘Ixion (DID A 2b, 80) won him second place at the Lenaea of 418 BC; probably not identical with the didáskalos (‘director’) of  Aristophanes [3]. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) Bibliography P. Geißler, Chronologie der altatt. Komödie, 1969, 6f. PCG IV, p. 56. [German version] [I 2] Important Athenian politician, elected strategos in 378/7 BC Important Athenian politician and outstanding orator, nephew of  Agyrrhius and kēdestḗs (probably fat…

Diodorus

(3,891 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Et al.
(Διόδωρος, Διόδορος; Diódōros, Diódoros). Well-known representatives of the name: the philosopher D. [4] Kronos, the mathematician D. [8] of Alexandria, the universal historian D. [18] Siculus, the early Christian theologian D. [20] of Tarsus. [German version] [1] Athenian fleet commander in the Peloponnesian War Athenian, fleet commander with Mantitheus at the end of 408-407 BC at the Hellespont with a sufficient number of ships, so that Alcibiades [3] was able to sail to Samos and Thrasyllus and Theramenes to Athens (Diod. Sic. 13,68,2). (Traill, PAA 329550; Develin 171). Kinzl, …

Choiroboskos Georgios

(466 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] (Χοιροβοσκός; Choiroboskós). Byzantine grammarian. His dates were for a long time problematic, but he has now been firmly placed in the 9th cent.: terminus post quem is his quotation (in the epimerismi) of authors in the 1st half of the 9th cent.; terminus ante quem use of his work in the Etymologicum genuinum (2nd half of the 9th cent.). He is ascribed the official title of οἰκουμενικὸς διδάσκαλος ( oikoumenikòs didáskalos), which is attested for the 1st half of the 9th cent. Thus he fits well into the cultural milieu of the 9th-cent. renaissance (…

Dionysius

(11,175 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος; Dionýsios). Famous personalities: D. [1], the tyrant of Syracuse; the historian D. [18] of Halicarnassus. Dionysios (month),  Months, names of the. The chronicle of Ps.-D. by Tell Maḥre see D. [23]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] D. I. Notorious tyrant in Syracuse c. 400 BC of Syracuse, son of Hermocritus, born in c. 430 BC, died in 367 BC. Founder of the ‘greatest and longest tyrannical rule in history’ (Diod. Sic. 13,96,4; appearance: Timaeus FGrH 566 F 29). Possessing a sophist education (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), D. had enormous ambitions a…

Aristodemus

(1,166 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀριστόδημος; Aristódēmos). [German version] [1] Great-grandson of Heracles Great-grandson of Hercules, one of the three Heraclids who led the Dorians into the Peloponnese. According to the widely known version of the myth (Pl. Leg. 3,692 bk.; Apollod. 2,173; Paus. 3,1,6), A. died before reaching the Peloponnese, leaving twin sons, Eurysthenes and Procles, who then received Laconia and became the founding fathers of both the royal houses of Sparta. According to Spartan tradition, A. himself led the Spar…

Herodianus

(1,324 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Ἡρωδιανός; Hērōdianós). [German version] [1] Aelius H. Greek grammarian, 2nd cent. AD (Αἴλιος Ἡρωδιανός; Aílios Hērōdianós), of Alexandria, one of the most important Greek grammarians, lived in the 2nd cent. AD; son of  Apollonius [11] Dyscolus and his worthy student and successor. For a time he lived in Rome and dedicated his main work, the Καθολικὴ προσῳδία ( Katholikḕ prosōidía) to the emperor Marcus Aurelius (161-180). He is justifiably not seen as a brilliant but as a careful and precise grammarian, the great heir and systematician of the Alexandr…

Hermippus

(1,024 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἕρμιππος; Hérmippos). [German version] [1] Poet of the Old Comedy, 5th cent. BC Writer of Attic Old Comedy, brother of the comedian  Myrtilus. Active probably around 440 BC: a Dionysian victory is attested for 435 BC [1. test. 3], on the epigraphical list of Dionysian victors H. ranks after  Pherecrates and before  Aristophanes [1] and  Eupolis [1. test. 4], and on the list of Lenaean victors after  Cratinus and Pherecrates and before  Phrynichus, Myrtilus and Eupolis [1. test. 5]. Apart from the Dionysian …

Alexion

(162 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] [1] Physician and friend of Cicero's Physician and friend of Cicero's (Cic. Att. 15,1-3) who died suddenly in 44 BC from an undefinable illness. Cicero's grief about the loss of the summus medicus did not deter him from inquiring about whom A. had remembered in his testament. Nutton, Vivian (London) [German version] [2] Greek grammarian, 1st cent. AD (Ἀλεξίων; Alexíōn). Greek grammarian of the 2nd half of the 1st cent. AD, called χωλός ( chōlós; the limping one): he authored an epitome of the Symmikta by  Didymus, which was cited by Herennius Philo and used by He…

Antidorus

(140 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] From Cyme (Ἀντίδωρος ὁ Κυμαῖος; Antídōros ho Kymaîos). Grammarian and perhaps also lexicographer, lived probably in the 3rd cent. BC. He is said to have initially called himself γραμματικός ( grammatikós; schol. Dion. Thrax 3,24; 7,24; 448,6); in the sources he often appears erroneously as Autodorus. We know two titles of his works, Περὶ Ὁμήρου καὶ Ἡσιόδου and Λέξις; the first is doubtless a syngramma, regarding the second one, it is not entirely certain that it was a lexicographical collection, as it may have been a treatise concerning style.…

Callias

(1,877 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Καλλίας; Kallías, Ion. Καλλίης; Kallíēs). Common Attic name from the 6th -- 4th cent. BC, especially in the rich priestly family (several dadouchoi) of the Ceryces, which was associated with the cult of Eleusis. C. appears there in alternation with  Hipponicus. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [1] Mythical son of the Heraclid Temenos Mythical son of the Heraclid  Temenus, king of Argos, and the brother of Agelaus, Eurypylus and  Hyrnetho. Since the king preferred Hyrnetho and her husband  Deiphontes to his sons, they had Temenus murder…

Chaeris

(187 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] (Χαῖρις; Chaîris). Greek grammarian of the school of Aristarchus of Samothrace; father of a grammarian called Apollonius [7] (ὁ τοῦ Χαίριδος; ho toû Chaíridos). It is not clear whether he lived directly after Aristarchus. His work was used by Tryphon, Didymus and Herodianus. We are better informed about his exegesis on Homer: about 10 fragments are known from the scholiae, and Schol. Hom. Od. 7,80 mentions the title Διορθωτικά ( Diorthōtiká; ‘Improvements). C. is also quoted about 10 times in the Pindar scholiae, almost exclusively at P. 4. There are also a few…

Archias

(769 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Ἀρχίας; Archías). [German version] [1] Corinthian, founder of Syracuse 733 BC Son of Euagetes of Corinth, probably belonging to the family of the  Bacchiadae. He left Corinth following a serious dispute, and, on the instruction of the Delphian oracle, led colonists to lower Italy. In about 733 BC, he founded  Syracusae in Sicily (Thuc. 6,3,2; Str. 6,2,4; Plut. Mor. 772e-773b).  Colonization Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography W. Leschhorn, Gründer der Stadt, 1984, 13-16 H.-P. Drögemüller, s. v. Syrakus, RE Suppl. 13, 817-819. [German version] [2] Politician from C…

Apion

(663 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] (Ἀπίων; Apíōn). Grammarian and lexicographer, lived at end of the 1st cent. BC to first half of 1st cent. AD. He was born in an Egyptian oasis, was the son of a certain Poseidonius, was brought up in the house of Didymus in Alexandria and was the successor to Theon as leader of the Alexandrian school of grammarians. During the reign of Tiberius and of Claudius he taught in Rome, where Plinius the Elder heard him. He also undertook travels in Greece and held lectures in various plac…

Draco

(834 words)

Author(s): Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Δράκων; Drákōn) [German version] [1] see Dragon slayers see  Dragon slayers Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian lawmaker c. 620 BC Athenian lawmaker said to have enacted in 621/20 BC the first ‘statutes’ (θεσμοί; thesmoí) set down in writing. We know as little about D. personally as we do about his activity as a lawmaker: he was perhaps one of the  Thesmothetai and/or given special authority [1. 31]. His laws were written down and publicly displayed on numbered blocks of wood (ἄξονες; áxones) that were hung up vertically and could be swivelled on…

Diocles

(2,746 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Διοκλῆς; Dioklês). [German version] [1] Hero in Megara Hero in Megara. He supposedly died in battle, bravely covering a youth with his shield. At his grave boys competed for who could give the sweetest kiss. This agon, which took place every spring, was called Dioclea (Schol. Pind. Ol. 7,157; 13,156a; Theoc. 12,27-33 with Schol.: Aition). Perhaps the kisses represented farewell kisses repeated in the cult of the hero ([1]; to the contrary [2]). According to Schol. Aristoph. Ach.774 the agon was founded…

Antigonus

(1,768 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀντίγονος; Antígonos). [German version] [1] Monophthalmus Diadoch (‘The One-eyed’), 382-301 BC.  Hetairos of  Philippus and  Alexander [4], married to  Stratonice, was the father of  Demetrius. During Alexander's invasion of Asia, commander of the Greek hoplites, satrap of Greater Phrygia from 333 until Alexander's death [323]. He defeated rebels and remnants of Persian troops, he gained Lycaonia and in 331 he received in addition the administration of Lycia-Pamphylia. In Priene he was honoured for an achievement, the nature of which is unknown. (IPriene 2). After Alexander's…

Iulianus

(4,648 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
Epithet of many gentilicia [1]. Famous persons: the jurist Salvius I. [1]; the doctor I. [2]; the emperor I. [11], called ‘Apostata’; the bishops I. [16] of Aeclanum and I. [21] of Toledo. [German version] [1] L. Octavius Cornelius P. Salvius I. Aemilianus Roman jurist, 2nd cent. AD Jurist, born about AD 100 in North Africa, died about AD 170; he was a student of  Iavolenus [2] Priscus (Dig. 40,2,5) and the last head of the Sabinian law school (Dig. 1,2,2,53). I., whose succession of offices is preserved in the inscription from Pupput, provi…

Amerias

(109 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] (Ἀμερίας; Amerías) from Macedonia. Greek grammarian and lexicographer from the Alexandrian period, probably earlier than Aristarchus. It is uncertain whether all quotes -- above all with Athenaeus and Hesychius and in various collections of scholia -- derive from the main work, the Γλῶσσαι, which is a lexigraphical collection of dialectical expressions, arranged according to themes. Perhaps one can identify it with one of the glossographoi, which were often quoted with this collective term.  Aristarchus;  Grammarians;  Lexicography;  Glossography Montanari…

Artemidorus

(1,271 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Et al.
(Ἀρτεμίδωρος; Artemídōros). [German version] [1] Indo-Greek King in 1st cent. BC. Coins are the only evidence of his existence, middle Indian Artemitora. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography Bopearachchi, 110, 316-318. [German version] [2] Elegiac poet Writer of elegies Περὶ Ἔρωτος in which, among others, the katasterismós of the dolphin was narrated. He had helped Poseidon win Amphitrite as his wife (Ps.-Eratosth. Catasterismus 31 S. 158 Robert, cf. schol. ad Germanicus, Aratea, S. 92,2ff. Breysig = SH 214). Even if this is only a hy…

Asclepiades

(2,568 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀσκληπιάδης; Asklēpiádēs) [German version] [1] of Samos Epigrammatic poet Epigrammatic poet of the ‘Garland’ of Meleager, who addresses him in the preface by the dark pseudonym Σικελίδης (Anth. Pal. 4,1,46; cf. Hedylus, GA I 1, 101 6, 4; Theoc. 7,40); an outstanding representative of the Ionian-Alexandrianschool, he lived around the turn of the 4th/3rd cent. BC. A. was highly praised by Theocritus (7,39-41), but attacked by Callimachus (schol. Flor. Callim. Fr.1,1). From the latter he differed, among other things, through a diametrically opposed appraisal of the Lyde of Antimach…

Aristophanes

(5,353 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Redies, Michael (Berlin) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀριστοφάνης; Aristophánēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (beginning of the 4th cent. BC) Son of  Nicophemus, a confidant of  Conon. Repeatedly chorēgós and trierarch. In 393 BC he was supposed to win  Dionysius I of Syracuse on Conon's order as an ally for Athens using a marriage alliance with  Evagoras of Salamis. When Athens sent Evagoras 10 triremes against the Persians in 390/89, A. helped in financing them and participated as a delegate. Returning from this unsuccessful campaign, A. and his father were executed by means of the apagoge and their fortune was confisc…

Arsenius

(207 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ἀρσένιος; Arsénios). [German version] [1] Saint Saint, from a noble family, born AD 354 in Rome, died 445 in Troy near Memphis in Egypt. Emperor  Theodosius I invited him to Constantinople to bring up his children  Arcadius and  Honorius. After many years in the imperial palace A. returned to Egypt and lived as a hermit. A biographic legend is to be found in Simeon Metaphrastes. The teachings for monks and apophthegmata ascribed to him are of very doubtful authenticity. Montanari, Franco (Pisa) Bibliography A. Jülicher, RE 2, 1273 ODB I 187-188. [German version] [2] Fictitious author …

Longinos

(948 words)

Author(s): Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Λογγῖνος). [English version] [1] Kassios Longinos Grammatiker, Rhetor und platon. Philosoph, ca. 210-272/3 (Cassius Longinus). Baltes, Matthias (Münster) Montanari, Franco (Pisa) [English version] A. Leben Der griech. Grammatiker, Rhetor und platonische Philosoph (ca. 210-272/3 n.Chr.) war ein herausragender Repräsentant der Bildung und Kultur seiner Zeit und wurde daher als ‘lebende Bibliothek und wandelnde Universität’ bezeichnet (fr. 3a [1]). Über L.' Vater ist nichts bekannt, seine Mutter war die Schwester des Phro…

Dionysodoros

(520 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Folkerts, Menso (München) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Διονυσόδωρος). [English version] [1] Taxiarch des Theramenes um 400 v. Chr. Taxiarch des Theramenes, wurde von Agoratos an die Dreißig verraten (Lys. or. 13,30; 39-42). Diesen verklagte 399/98 v.Chr. der Bruder und Schwager des D., Dionysios, der Sprecher der 13. Rede des Lysias. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [English version] [2] Thebaner und olympischer Sieger, Gesandter und Teilnehmer an Schlacht von Issos Thebaner und olympischer Sieger. Als Gesandter zu Dareios [3] geschickt und mit anderen griech. Gesandten nach der Schlacht von Issos von Parmenion i…

Hellanikos

(742 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἑλλάνικος). [English version] [1] H. aus Mytilene griech. Historiker, E. 5. Jh. v. Chr. (T 1). War entgegen der ant. Trad., die sein Geburtsdatum teils ins ausgehende 6. Jh. (T 4), teils an den Anfang des 5. Jh. (T 3), teils ins Jahr 480/479 v.Chr. setzt (T 1 und 6), eher jüngerer als älterer Zeitgenosse des Herodotos: Die datierbaren Werke gehören jedenfalls ins letzte Drittel des 5. Jh. H. zerlegte das herodoteische Themenbündel durch eine Reihe von Monographien in einzelne Bestandteile und fügte im Rückgriff auf Hekataios [3] sogar neue Themen hinzu: Auf …

Amerias

(101 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[English version] (Ἀμερίας) aus Makedonien. Griech. Grammatiker und Lexikograph aus alexandrinischer Zeit, wahrscheinlich früher als Aristarchos. Unsicher ist, ob alle Zitate - vor allem bei Athenaios und Hesychios und in verschiedenen Scholiensammlungen - aus dem Hauptwerk, den Γλῶσσαι, stammen, eine nach Themen angeordnete lexikalische Sammlung von dialektalen Ausdrücken. Vielleicht kann man ihn mit einem der glōssográphoi identifizieren, die oft mit diesem Kollektivbegriff zit. werden. Aristarchos; Grammatiker; Lexikographie; Glossographie Montanari, Franco (…

Herodianos

(1,128 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(Ἡρωδιανός). [English version] [1] Ailios H. griech. Grammatiker, 2. Jh. (Αἴλιος Ἡρωδιανός), aus Alexandreia, einer der bedeutendsten griech. Grammatiker, lebte im 2. Jh. n.Chr.; Sohn des Apollonios [11] Dyskolos und dessen würdiger Schüler und Nachfolger. Eine Zeit lang hielt er sich in Rom auf und widmete Kaiser Marc Aurel (161-180) sein Hauptwerk, die Καθολική προσῳδία ( Katholikḗ prosōdía). Zu Recht sieht man in ihm zwar keinen brillanten, jedoch einen sorgfältigen und genauen Grammatiker, den großen Erben und Systematiker der alexandrinischen Tr…

Attalos/-us

(2,146 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Folkerts, Menso (München) | Dingel, Joachim (Hamburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom) | Et al.
(Ἄτταλος). [English version] [1] Freund des Philippos, Gegenspieler Alexanders d.Gr. am Hof seines Vaters Freund Philippos', der ihn für eine Pausanias zugefügte Beleidigung nicht bestrafte. Bei der Hochzeit seiner Nichte Kleopatra (II.) mit Philippos (337 v.Chr.) spielte er auf Alexandros [4] d.Gr. als einen nothos (illegitimen Sohn) an und wurde von ihm angegriffen, worauf Alexandros und Olympias verbannt wurden (Plut. Alex. 9 u.a.). Mit seinem Schwiegervater (Curt. 6,9,18) Parmenion befehligte er die Invasionsarmee in Asien. Nach Phili…

Artemidoros

(1,221 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi (Latina)) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Et al.
(Ἀρτεμίδωρος). [English version] [1] indogriech. König im 1. Jh. v. Chr. Indogriech. König im 1.Jh. v.Chr., nur durch seine Münzen belegt, mittelindisch Artemitora. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography Bopearachchi, 110, 316-318. [English version] [2] Elegiker Verfasser von Elegien Περὶ Ἔρωτος, in denen unter anderem von dem katasterismós des Delphins erzählt wurde, der Poseidon geholfen hatte, Amphitrite zu seiner Frau zu machen (Ps.-Eratosth. catasterismus 31 S. 158 Robert, vgl. schol. ad Germanicus, Aratea, S. 92,2ff. Breysig = SH 2…

Diokles

(2,629 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Princeton) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hidber, Thomas (Bern) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Folkerts, Menso (München) | Et al.
(Διοκλῆς). [English version] [1] Heros in Megara Heros in Megara. Er soll in einer Schlacht, einen Jüngling tapfer mit seinem Schild deckend, gefallen sein. An seinem Grab wetteiferten die Knaben, wer den süßesten Kuß geben konnte. Dieser jeweils im Frühling stattfindende Agon hieß Diokleia (schol. Pind. O. 7,157; 13,156a; Theokr. 12,27-33 mit schol.: Aition). Die Küsse stellten vielleicht im Heroenkult wiederholte Abschiedsküsse dar ([1]; dagegen [2]). Nach schol. Aristoph. Ach.774 war der Agon von Al…

Apollodoros

(2,959 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Köln) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλόδωρος). Politisch tätige Personen [English version] [1] Athen. Politiker (4. Jh. v. Chr.) Sohn des Pasion aus Acharnai, athenischer Rhetor und Anhänger des Demosthenes (394/93, † nach 343 v. Chr.). A. gehörte nach 370 zu den reichsten Bürgern Athens, leistete aufwendige Trierarchie-Leiturgien (vgl. IG II2 1609,83 und 89; IG II2 1612, b110; Demosth. or. 50,4-10; 40 und 58) und errang 352/51 einen Sieg als Choregos (IG II2 3039,2). Dennoch gelang es ihm nur begrenzt, eine seinem Vermögen entsprechende polit. Stellung zu erringen. Zw. 370 und 350 v. Chr.…

Kanon

(1,816 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Vogt-Spira, Gregor (Greifswald) | Rese, Martin (Münster) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[1] literarisch-künstlerischer Begriff [English version] I. Allgemein Das griech. Wort K. (κανών, kanṓn) leitet sich wahrscheinlich von κάννα ab ( kánna: “Binsenrohr, -rute”), einem semit. Lehnwort im Griech. Von der urspr. Bed. “gerades Rohr, Stange, Stab (in verschiedener Anwendung)” ausgehend entwickelten sich mehrere spezifisch technische Bedeutungen. So bezeichnet griech. k. die Richtlatte bzw. das Winkelmaß des Zimmermanns oder Maurers, eine chronologische oder astrologische Tafel, in der musikalischen Terminologie ein Monochord (ab Eukl…

Demo

(320 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Princeton) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Δημώ). Kurzform eines Kompositums (s.D. [3], [4]). [English version] [1] Tochter des Keleos (König in Eleusis) und der Metaneira Tochter des Keleos, König in Eleusis, und der Metaneira. Zusammen mit ihren Schwestern Kallidike, Kleisidike und Kallithoe begegnet sie freundlich der in der Gestalt einer alten Frau herumirrenden Demeter (Hom. h. 2,109). Bloch, René (Princeton) [English version] [2] Name der kymäischen Sibylle Name der kymäischen Sibylle, von der die Kymäer allerdings keine Orakel kannten. Sie konnten nur auf einen Wasserkrug hinweisen, in dem…

Dorotheos

(799 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rom) | Hoesch, Nicola (München) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
(Δωρόθεος). [English version] [1] Bronzebildner aus Argos, M. 5. Jh. v. Chr. Bronzebildner aus Argos. Bekannt durch zwei Signaturen aus der Mitte des 5. Jh.v.Chr. auf Basen in Delphi und in Hermione (Kreta), mit Einlaßspuren für Pferd oder Reiterstatue. Neudecker, Richard (Rom) Bibliography J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures des sculptures grecques, 1, 1953, Nr. 30-31  P. Orlandini, I donari firmati da Kresilas e Dorotheos a Hermione, in: ArchCl 3, 1951, 94-98. [English version] [2] Maler, M. 1. Jh. n. Chr. Maler des mittleren 1. Jh.n.Chr. Von Nero beauftragt, das schadha…

Alexion

(160 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[English version] [1] Arzt und Freund Ciceros, gest. 44 v. Chr. Arzt und Freund Ciceros (Cic. Att. 15,1-3), der im Jahre 44 v. Chr. plötzlich an einer undefinierbaren Krankheit starb. Sein Kummer über den Verlust dieses summus medicus hielt Cicero nicht davon ab, sich zu erkundigen, wen A. in seinem Testament bedacht hatte. Nutton, Vivian (London) [English version] [2] griech. Grammatiker 1. Jh. n.Chr. (Ἀλεζίων). Griech. Grammatiker der 2. H. des 1. Jh. n. Chr., genannt χωλός (der Hinkende): er verfaßte eine Epitome der Symmikta des Didymos, die von Herennius Philon zitiert und…

Karystios

(143 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[English version] (Καρύστιος) aus Pergamon. Griech. Polygraph mit vielfältigen Interessen, lebte wahrscheinlich in der 2. H. des 2. Jh.v.Chr. Der größte Teil der Fr. ist bei Athenaios erh., der v.a. die Ἱστορικὰ ὑπομνήματα (mindestens 2 B., oder 3 B., wenn die beiden Verweise ἐν τρίτῳ Ὑπομνημάτων bei Athen. 12,542e; 13,577c demselben Werk zuzuweisen sind: Erörterung in [2]) zitiert, eine vermischte Sammlung von Nachr. über verschiedene histor. Persönlichkeiten, Gebräuche und Sitten. Darüber hinaus…

Diodoros

(3,444 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Διόδωρος, Διόδορος). Bekannte Namensvertreter: der Philosoph D. [4] Kronos, der Mathematiker D. [8] aus Alexandreia, der Universalhistoriker D. [18] Siculus, der altchristl. Theologe D. [20] von Tarsos. [English version] [1] athen. Flottenbefehlshaber im peloponn. Krieg Athener, Flottenbefehlshaber mit Mantitheos Ende 408/7 v.Chr. am Hellespont mit hinreichend vielen Schiffen, so daß Alkibiades [3] nach Samos und Thrasyllos und Theramenes nach Athen segeln konnten (Diod. 13,68,2). (Traill, PAA 329550; Develin 171). Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) [English version] [2] A…

Chares

(906 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom) | Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Χάρης). [English version] [1] Athenischer Stratege, 4.Jh. v.Chr. Athenischer Stratege des 4.Jh. v.Chr. Unterstützte 367/6 das von Argos und Sikyon bedrängte Phleius. Seine Hilfe für die Oligarchen auf Korkyra führte zum Austritt der Insel aus dem 2. Att. Seebund und brachte Athen bei den Bundesgenossen in Mißkredit. Erst 357/6 wieder zum Strategen gewählt. Im Vertrag zwischen Athen und den thrak. Königen Berisades, Amadokos I. und Kersobleptes wurde unter Ch. 357 die Teilung der thrak. Herrschaft und d…

Lesbonax

(263 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Λεσβῶναξ). [English version] [1] griech. Grammatiker Griech. Grammatiker unsicherer Datier. (vielleicht vor dem E. des 2. Jh.n.Chr.). Verf. eines Werkes über rhet. Figuren (Περὶ σχημάτων), das in zwei verschiedenen Auszügen erh. ist (für eine Gleichsetzung mit dem Redner L. von Mytilene gibt es keine Anhaltspunkte). L. beschreibt darin eine Reihe gramm. Besonderheiten ( schḗmata, “Figuren”), d.h. Änderungen der normalen Form der Rede, die mit Beispielen v.a. aus Homer belegt werden. Jeglicher attizistische Einfluß fehlt: Bei den Hauptquellen han…

Apion

(636 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[English version] (Ἀπίων). Grammatiker und Lexikograph, lebte Ende des 1. Jh. v. Chr. bis 1. H. des 1. Jh. n. Chr. Er wurde in einer ägypt. Oase geboren, war Sohn eines gewissen Poseidonios, wurde im Hause des Didymos in Alexandreia aufgezogen und war Theons Nachfolger als Oberhaupt der alexandrinischen Grammatikerschule. Während der Regierungszeit des Tiberius und des Claudius lehrte er in Rom, wo Plinius der Ältere ihn hörte. Dann unternahm er auch Reisen in Griechenland und hielt an verschieden…

Hypomnema

(912 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[English version] (ὑπόμνημα, seltener ὑπομνηματισμός; lat. commentarius oder seltener commentarium). Das Wort h. (von der Wurzel von μιμνήσκω, “sich erinnern”) hat die abstrakte Grundbedeutung “Erinnerung”, Anwesenheit im Gedächtnis oder Aufruf/Stütze für das Gedächtnis (in diesem Sinne schon bei Thuk. 2,44,2 sowie Isokrates, Demosthenes, Xenophon usw.), nimmt jedoch im Laufe der Zeit eine große Zahl verschiedener Konnotationen und Nuancen an, bes. die verbreitete (konkrete) Bedeutung “Erwähnung, Hinweis…

Dionysios

(10,308 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος). Bekannte Persönlichkeiten: der Tyrann von Syrakus D. [1] I.; der Historiker D. [18] von Halikarnassos. Dionysios (Monat) Monatsnamen. Die Chronik des Ps.-D. von Tell Maḥre s. D. [23]. I. Politisch aktive Persönlichkeiten [English version] [1] D.I. berüchtigter Tyrann in Syrakus um 400 v. Chr. von Syrakus, Sohn des Hermokritos, geb. um 430, gest. 367 v.Chr. Begründer der ‘größten und längsten Tyrannenherrschaft in der Geschichte’ (Diod. 13,96,4; Aussehen: Timaios FGrH 566 F 29). Im Besitz sophistischer Bildung (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), war D. von größtem Ehrgeiz…

Arsenios

(201 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ἀρσένιος). [English version] [1] Heiliger Heiliger, aus Adelsfamilie, geb. 354 n.Chr. in Rom, 445 gest. in Troia bei Memphis in Ägypten. Kaiser Theodosius I. lud ihn nach Konstantinopel ein, um seine Kinder Arcadius und Honorius zu erziehen. Nach vielen Jahren im Kaiserpalast zog sich A. nach Ägypten zurück und lebte als Eremit. Eine biographische Legende findet sich bei Simeon Metaphrastes. Die Authentizität der Belehrungen für Mönche und der Apophthegmata, die ihm zugeschrieben wurden, ist recht zweifelhaft. Montanari, Franco (Pisa) Bibliography A. Jülicher, RE 2, 1273 ODB I …

Artemon

(559 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Ἀρτέμων). [English version] [1] griech. Grammatiker, 2. H. 2. Jh. v. Chr. Aus Kassandreia. Griech. Grammatiker. Da er Dionysios Skytobrachion erwähnt, wird er in die 2. H. des 2.Jh. v.Chr. datiert. Athenaios zit. von ihm: Περὶ βιβλίων συναγωγῆς, Περὶ βιβλίων χρήσεως, Περὶ τοῦ Διονυσιακοῦ συστήματος. Der fast zeitgenössische A. aus Pergamon, Kommentator des Pindaros (FGrH 569), ist möglicherweise dieselbe Person; älter ist jedoch A. aus Klazomenai (FGrH 443). A., der Herausgeber der Aristotelesbriefe (Demetrios, elocutiones 223), ist schwer zu identifizieren. …

Krates

(2,329 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Broggiato, Maria (London) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Κράτης). [English version] [1] att. Dichter der Alten Komödie, 5. Jh. v. Chr. Athener, Dichter der Alten Komödie, der um 450 v.Chr. mit Aufführungen begann [1. test. 7]; zuvor war er bereits Schauspieler bei Kratinos [1] gewesen [1. test. 2 und 3]. Die Zahl seiner Stücke wird teils mit sieben [1. test. 1 und 2], teils mit acht [1. test. 4] angegeben; insgesamt sind neun Stücktitel erh. (doch sind Μέτοικοι ‘Die Metöken und Πεδῆται ‘Die Gefangenen, vielleicht falsche Zuschreibungen). Auf der Liste der Dionysi…

Archias (Ἀρχίας)

(732 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Köln) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Volkmann, Hans (Köln) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
[English version] [1] Korinther, Gründer von Syrakus 733 v. Chr. Sohn des Euagetes aus Korinth, gehörte wahrscheinlich zur Familie der Bakchiadai. Er verließ nach schweren Streitigkeiten Korinth und führte auf Weisung des Orakels von Delphi Kolonisten nach Unteritalien. In Sizilien gründete er um 733 v. Chr. Syrakusai (Thuk. 6,3,2; Strab. 6,2,4; Plut. mor. 772e-773b). Kolonisation Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Köln) Bibliography W. Leschhorn, Gründer der Stadt, 1984, 13-16  H.-P. Drögemüller, s. v. Syrakus, RE Suppl. 13, 817-819. [English version] [2] Politiker aus Kamarina (2…

Ammonios

(1,280 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Et al.
[English version] [1] Günstling von Alexandros [II 13] I. (Balas) (Mitte 2. Jh. v. Chr.) Günstling von Alexandros [II 13] I. (Balas); herrschte an dessen Stelle in Syrien, ließ Verwandte und Anhänger des (toten) Demetrios I. umbringen und unterdrückte die Antiochener. Als er einen Anschlag auf Alexandros' wohl wichtigsten Förderer, Ptolemaios VI., versucht hatte und dieser seine Auslieferung forderte, Alexandros sie jedoch verweigerte, brach Ptolemaios mit Alexandros: Trotz seiner Verkleidung als Frau wurde A.…

Chorizontes

(176 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[English version] (χωρίζοντες). Kollektivname (von χωρίζειν, “trennen”), der in den Homerscholien Grammatiker bezeichnet, die auf Grund von gewissenhaften Beobachtungen der sprachlich-stilistischen Unterschiede und Widersprüche sowie der Inhalte in ‘Ilias und ‘Odyssee die These vertraten, die ‘Odyssee sei nicht von Homer. Die alexandrinischen Grammatiker, die die (von Aristoteles festgeschriebene) “orthodoxe” Position einnahmen, sahen in Homer den Autor von Ilias und Odyssee, daher polemisierten A…

Demetrios

(6,917 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Et al.
(Δημήτριος). Bekannte Persönlichkeiten: der maked. König D. [2] Poliorketes; der Politiker und Schriftsteller D. [4] von Phaleron; der jüd.-hell. Chronograph D. [29]. I. Politisch aktive Persönlichkeiten [English version] [1] Offizier unter Alexander d.Gr. Offizier unter Alexandros [4], kämpfte bei Gaugamela als Führer einer Ile der Hetairoi und in Indien als Kommandeur einer Hipparchie. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, Nr. 256. [English version] [2] D. Poliorketes Sohn von Antigonos [1], geb. 337/6 v.Chr. (Diod. 19,96,1). Er heiratete 320 Ph…

Didymos

(1,854 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Δίδυμος). [1] Aus Alexandreia griech. Grammatiker und Musiktheoretiker, 2. H. 1. Jh. v. Chr. [English version] A. Philogische Tätigkeit Der bedeutendste griech. Grammatiker der 2.H. des 1. Jh. v.Chr. Die biographische Notiz in der Suda (δ 872) besagt, daß er bis in die Zeit des Augustus lebte, und erwähnt den Beinamen “Chalkénteros” (Χαλκέντερος, “der Mann mit dem ehernen Gedärm”, vgl. Suda ι 399, χ 29). Ihn verdankte er seiner unermüdlichen Aktivität, die sich auf verschiedene Gebiete der Philol. erstreckte. Dur…

Hermippos

(948 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἕρμιππος). [English version] [1] Dichter der Alten Komödie, 5. Jh. v. Chr. Dichter der att. Alten Komödie, Bruder des Komödiendichters Myrtilos. Der Beginn seiner Schaffenszeit dürfte um 440 v.Chr. liegen: Ein Dionysiensieg ist für 435 v.Chr. bezeugt [1. test. 3], auf der inschr. Dionysien-Siegerliste steht H. hinter Pherekrates, sowie vor Aristophanes [1] und Eupolis [1. test. 4], auf der Lenäensiegerliste hinter Kratinos und Pherekrates und vor Phrynichos, Myrtilos und Eupolis [1. test. 5]. Neben dem Dio…

Aristonikos

(1,210 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Köln) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀριστόνικος). [English version] [1] Athen. Politiker (2.H. 4. Jh. v. Chr.) Aus Marathon, reich und polit. auf Seiten des Lykurgos und des Demosthenes (Plut. mor. 846a), beantragte 336/5 v. Chr. das Gesetz über die kleinen Panathenäen (LSCG Nr. 33), 335/4 mit Lykurgos das Psephisma über den Einsatz der athenischen Flotte gegen Piraten (IG II2 1623, B 276-285) und vor 322 Gesetze bei den Nomothetai (Alexis PCG 2, fr. 131,2). 324/23 wurde A. in den Harpalosprozessen (Harpalos) angeklagt (Deinarch. fr. XXVII und fr. 4 p. 146 Conomis). 323/22 bewirkte…

Aristodemos

(1,061 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Princeton) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀριστόδημος). [English version] [1] Ururenkel des Herakles Ururenkel des Herakles, einer der drei Herakliden, welche die Dorier auf die Peloponnes führten. Nach der verbreiteten Sagenversion (Plat. leg. 3,692 b; Apollod. 2,173; Paus. 3,1,6) starb A. noch außerhalb der Peloponnes unter Hinterlassung von Zwillingssöhnen, Eurysthenes und Prokles, die dann Lakonien erhielten und die Stammväter der beiden spartanischen Königshäuser wurden. Nach spartanischer Überlieferung führte A. selber die Spartaner hei…

Komanos

(512 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Κομανός). [English version] [1] griech. Grammatiker aus Naukratis, 2. Jh. v. Chr. K. aus Naukratis. Griech. Grammatiker aus dem 2. Jh.v.Chr., verfaßte ein exegetisches Werk über Homer (ein Hypómnēma?; polemisch dagegen Aristarchos [4] von Samothrake ‘Gegen K./Πρὸς Κομανόν, schol. Hom. Il. 1,97-99; 2,798a; 24,110b). Die Gleichsetzung mit dem homonymen alexandrinischen Politiker K. [2] ist problematisch, auch wenn der Grammatiker in schol. Hes. erg. 97 “Hauptmundschenk des Königs” genannt wird. Die etwa 20 Fr. lassen eine …

Konon

(929 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Κόνων). [English version] [1] Athener, ab 411/10 v. Chr. mehrfach strategós Athener, 413 v.Chr. Befehlshaber in Naupaktos, von 411/10 an mehrfach stratēgós. K. wurde 406 von der peloponnes. Flotte im Hafen von Mytilene eingeschlossen, wobei er 30 Schiffe verlor (Xen. hell. 1,6,14-23; Diod. 13,77-79). Durch Athens Sieg bei den Arginusai wurde er befreit. Da er an der Schlacht nicht teilgenommen hatte, wurde er nicht wie die anderen Feldherrn abgesetzt und zum Tode verurteilt (Xen. hell. 1,6,38-7,1). Der Vernichtung …

Chrysippos

(3,128 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rom) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Χρύσιππος). [English version] [1] Lieblingssohn des Pelops Lieblingssohn des Pelops aus dessen erster Ehe mit der Nymphe Axioche (schol. Pind. O. 1,89, schol. Eur. Or. 4) oder Danais (Plut. mor. 313E). Mit ihm werden zwei Erzählungen verbunden: Zeus (Praxilla 3,6 Edmonds = Athen. 13 p. 603a) oder Laios, Ch.' Lehrer im Wagenlenken (so wohl im “Ch.” des Euripides, TGF fr. 839-844, evtl. schon im Laios des Aischylos), entbrennt in Liebe zu dem außerordentlich schönen Jüngling und entführt ihn aus dem Haus seines Vaters oder aber während der Nemeischen Spiele n…

Kritische Zeichen

(779 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[English version] (griech. σημεῖα/ sēmeía, lat. notae). Eine der wichtigsten technischen und methodologischen Erfindungen der alexandrinischen Philologie waren die in der philol.-exegetischen Arbeit benutzten k.Z. Ihre Entwicklung und Anwendung ist nur sporadisch und lückenhaft belegt. Eine Ausnahme bildet jedoch die Editions- und Exegesetechnik der alexandrinischen Grammatiker im Hinblick auf Homer, über die wir sowohl durch eine kleine Zahl anon. gramm. Exzerpte und Homerscholien (vgl. [4; 6]) als a…

Iulianus/-os

(4,346 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
Beinamen bei vielen Gentilicia [1]. Bekannte Personen: der Jurist Salvius I. [1], der Arzt I. [2], der Kaiser I. [11], gen. “Apostata”, die Bischöfe I. [16] von Aeclanum und I. [21] von Toledo. [English version] [1] L. Octavius Cornelius P. Salvius I. Aemilianus röm. Jurist, 2. Jh. Jurist, geb. um 100 n.Chr. in Nordafrika, gest. um 170 n.Chr., war ein Schüler des Iavolenus [2] Priscus (Dig. 40,2,5) und der letzte Vorsteher der sabinianischen Rechtsschule (Dig. 1,2,2,53). I., dessen Ämterfolge die Inschr. aus Pupput/Prov. Africa (CIL VIII 24…

Boëthos

(1,193 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Et al.
(Βόηθος). I. Politische Persönlichkeiten [English version] [1] Ptolemäischer Verwaltungsbeamter um 136/5 v. Chr. Sohn des Nikostratos aus Karien; bereits vor 149 v.Chr. in ptolemäischen Diensten durchlief, er verschiedene Verwaltungsämter, bevor er 136/5 Epistratege der Thebais wurde. Gründete zwei Städte in Unternubien. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography K. Vandorpe, Der früheste Beleg eines Strategen der Thebais als Epistrategen, in: ZPE 73, 1988, 47-50. II. Philosophen und Schriftsteller [English version] [2] Von Sidon stoischer Philosoph, 2. Jh. v. Chr. Stoischer …

Akusilaos

(271 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[English version] (Ἀκουσίλαος) aus Argos. Lebte Ende des 6. und 1. H. des 5. Jh. v. Chr., war nach Hekataios von Milet einer der ersten griech. Prosaschriftsteller und schrieb im ion. Dialekt. Er wird traditionell zur Gruppe der sog. Logographen (eine allg. Bezeichnung des Thuk. 1,21,1) gerechnet (Logographos) und beschäftigte sich, soweit wir wissen, hauptsächlich mit Mythographie. Seine Γενεαλογίαι oder Ἱστορίαι umfaßten drei Bücher, die, wie es scheint, der Einteilung in göttliche, heroische un…
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