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Tymphaea

(163 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Τυμφαία; Tymphaía). Region in Epirus, to the east of Mount Tymphe (2497 m high, modern Mavrovouni) in the Pindus [1]. T. extended in the northeast from the source rivers of the Veneticus to the basin region of the upper Haliacmon as far as modern Grevená, in the south as far as the area of the source of the Peneius around modern Kalabáka. The Tymphaei were originally considered as Epeirotae (Arr. An. 1,7,5; Str. 7,7,8f.; Plin. HN 4,6), and from the time of Philippus [4] II (cf. [1…

Stratos

(246 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Aetolians, Aetolia | Acarnanians, Acarnania | Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (ὁ or ἡ Στράτος/ Strátos (m/f)). The most important city of Acarnania (Thuc. 2,80; Acarnanians, Acarnania, with map); on the right bank of the Achelous [1], upstream of the modern Stratos; chief city of the Acarnanian confederacy in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. After the partition of Acarnania in 260 BC, S. became Aetolian; with the foundation of Nicopolis [3] in 30 BC, …

Metropolis

(1,797 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meriç, Recep (Izmir) | Et al.
(μητρόπολις/ mētrópolis, literally ‘mother city’). [German version] [1] Mother city of colonies in the era of the ‘Great’ Colonisation (c. 750-500 BC) Since the so-called Great Colonisation (c. 750-500 BC, Colonization IV, cf. the overview there), in numerous Greek communities an oikistḗs (‘founder’) and further ápoikoi (‘settlers’, ‘colonists’) were selected from the citizenry of the future metropolis as starting point for a colonisation enterprise (or they left on their own initiative) and entrusted with the establishment of an apoikía outside the …

Zacynthos

(656 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) (ἡ Ζάκυνθος; hē Zákynthos). The southernmost of the Ionian islands (401 km2; approximately 37 km in length, 19 km in width); the southeastern coast is 16 km from the mainland (Elis [1] in the Peloponnesus). Three zones cross Z. from northwest to southeast: in the west a broad almost uninhabited limestone mountain range (Vrachionas, up to 756 m high) with a steep harbourless coast, …

Onchesmus

(62 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ὀγχεσμός/ Onchesmós). Port in Epirus, today's Sarandë (Hagioi Saranda) in Albania. O. served as harbour for Phoenice, the main city of the district of Chaonia. In Roman times, O. was the ferry port between Epirus and Italy (Cic. Att. 7,2,1; Str. 7,7,5; Ptol. 3,14,2; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,51,2). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography P. Cabanes, L'Épire, 1976  N.G.L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967.

Ithaca

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Persian Wars (Ἰθάκη; Ithákē, Lat. Ithaca). [German version] A. Geography One of the central Ionian islands west of Greece, nowadays also known as Thiaki; it is 23 km long and c. 6 km wide, with a total area of c. 94 sq km, east of the island of  Cephallenia and separated from the latter by a 2-5 km wide sound. I. is divided into a larger northern half with Mt. Neriton (808 m), and a southern half with Mt. Merovigli (671 m); they are joined by a narrow isthmus (600 m wide) with Mt. Aetus…

Epirus

(1,836 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(Ἤπειρος; Ḗpeiros, Epirus) [German version] I. Region E. is located at the north-western fringe of the Greek cultural sphere, nowadays comprising northern Greece and southern Albania. From Homer (8th cent. BC) to the late 5th cent., the geographical term ἤπειρος ( ḗpeiros) referred to the mainland north of the Gulf of Ambracia. There is a wide variation in the attribution of individual tribes to E. both in ancient and modern literature, making it impossible clearly to define E.'s geographic expansion [1]. E. was bordered in the west by…

Aous

(127 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀῶος, Ἄωος; Aôos, Áōos). River in northern  Epirus (the modern Viosa, Albanian Vijosë); also called Aias (FGrH 1 Hecat. F 102b; Plin. HN 3,26). Sources on the Lacmon in the Pindus; on the upper reaches in the territory of the Molossi a bridge (Pol. 27,16; [2. 280, 628]); on the middle reaches the Paravaea (Arr. Anab. 1,7,5); here west of Tepelena (as a river border [1. 115 f.]) the gorge at the river's entry onto the plain (Liv. 32,5,11; 10,2). The A. was navigable from Apollonia [1] to its mouth (Plut. Caesar 38); here an asphalt spring with  nymphaeum and oracle [1. 494]. St…

Palaeste

(46 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Παλαίστη/ Palaíst ē). Town in Acroceraunia on the coast of Epirus, modern Palasë in Albania, where Caesar landed his troops during his Dyrrhachium campaign on 4 January 48 BC (Caes. B. Civ. 3,6,3; Luc. 5,460). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography N.G.L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967, 125f.

Pullaria

(59 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] Island in the  Ionios Kolpos off the southern extremity of  Histria (Plin. HN 3,151; Tab. Peut. 5,39; Geogr. Rav. 5,24). P. can be identified either with modern Lošinj (in Croatia) or with the Brioni Islands to the northwest of ancient Pola. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 4, 196  Id., The Illyrians, 1992, 185.

Elea

(99 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Ἐλέα; Eléa). [German version] [1] Coastal town in Epirus Coastal town in Epirus at the mouth of the Acheron near modern Veliani, main settlement of the Eleatis region (wrongly Elaia/Elaiatis in Thuc. 1,46,4) in Thesprotia. Origin of the pólis before 350 BC, first minting between 360 and 335 BC. Of the 10-ha. town mainly the 1.5-km-long walls are preserved. Documents: Scyl. 30; Str. 7,7,5. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Archaeological Reports 41, 1994/5, 26 P. Cabanes, L'Épire, 1976 S. I. Dakaris, Thesprotia, 1972 P. R. Franke, Die ant. Mz. von Epirus, 1961, 300-307. …

Evenus

(688 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Εὔηνος, Εύηνός; Eúēnos, Euēnós) [1] of Paros [German version] A. Personal Data Eratosthenes distinguishes between two elegiac poets from Paros, both named E. (Harpocr. s.v. Εὔηνος 139,15 Dindorf), others maintain that there had only been one [1]. Plato mentions an E. of Paros, a poet and ‘philosopher’ (Pl. Phd. 60d; 61b), a teacher of political rhetoric around 400 BC (Pl. Ap. 20a-b), who had ‘discovered’ a number of tropes (Pl. Phdr. 267a). Both his language and the subject matter of some of the extant fra…

Nicopolis

(1,739 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νικόπολις; Nikópolis). [German version] [1] Town on the upper Nestus river This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia Town on the upper Nestus river on the road from Philippopolis to the Aegean coast (Ptol. 3,11,13: Ν. ἡ περὶ Νέσσον; 8,11,7; Hierocles, Synekdemos 636,5), near modern Goce Delčev (Bulgaria), founded in AD 106 by Traianus. From the 2nd to 4th cents. AD, N. reached a high economic and cultural level (minting from Commodus to Caracalla: HN 287; thermal baths, peristyle buildings, sculpt…

Acroceraunia

(106 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (τὰ Ἀκροκεραύνια; tá Akrokeraúnia). Mountain range on the coast of  Epirus (modern Karaburun in Albania), as a continuation of the Ceraunian Mountains on the territory of the  Chaones, border to Illyria (Str. 7,7,5; Plin. HN 3,97,1; 145,2), also a peninsula with a length of 16 km and a breadth of 3-5 km, and up to 800 m in height, protecting the Gulf of Aulon (Vlores) and the port of  Oricus. Because of its inhospitality and frequent storms metonymous for ‘dangerous places’ (Ov. Rem. am. 739; cf. ThLL 1, 42). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography N.G.L. Hammond, Epirus, 1…

Agrinium

(95 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Acarnanians, Acarnania (Ἀγρίνιον; Agrínion). Originally an Acarnanian town, in 314 BC under Cassander   synoikismos of the  Derieis in A., then, after capture by the  Aetolians (Diod. Sic. 19,67 f.), it became a member of the Aetolian koinon (several strategoi hailed from A.). Remains of the town (walls, stoa, houses) localized near Megali Chora, 3 km north-west of the modern A. (regional museum).  Acarnania;  Strategos Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography C. Antonetti, Les Étoliens, 1990, 23…

Dyrrhachium

(529 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Wine | | Coloniae | Commerce | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Rome | Delian League | Balkans, languages (Δυρράχιον; Dyrr[h]áchion, Dyrrhachium). [German version] I. Graeco-Roman period Harbour town on the Illyrian coast, the modern Durrës in Albania; founded on a peninsula by Corinth and Corcyra, probably in 626/625 BC, as the colony of Epidamnus (Eus. Chronicon 88f.; Thuc. 1,24-26; Scymn. 435-439). The name D. (c…

Lyncon montes

(64 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] Mountain massif in the Epirote part of the Pindus, up to 2,249 m high, whose northern foothills are directed towards Macedonia and whose southern ones towards Thessaly source area of the Aous (modern Viotsa). According to Liv. 32,13,2f., thickly wooded with wide tablelands and perennial springs.…

Astacus

(425 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Ἀστακός; Astakós, ‘lobster town’). [German version] [1] Town on the eastern end of the Gulf of A. or of  Nicomedia This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Delian League …

Thyamis

(83 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Θύαμις; Thýamis). River, today also T. (formerly Kalamas), and promontory, modern Akra Kalamas, in Epirus. The T. flows in two branches into the Ionios Kolpos opposite Corcyra [1] and forms the border between Thesprotia (Thesproti) in the south and Cestrine in the north (Thuc. 1,46,4; Str. 7,7,5; Plin.  HN 4,4). Pomponius [I 5] Atticus had an estate on the T.  (Cic. Att. 7,2,3; Cic. Leg. 2,7). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography N. G. L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967, 186 f.; 669 f.  Philippson/Kirsten 2, 38 f.; 87-90; 93-99.

Campylus

(35 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Καμπύλος; Kampýlos). One of the tributaries of the Achelous in Aetolia (Diod. Sic. 19,67,3); its location cannot be determined more closely. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography H. v. Geisau, s.v. K., RE 10, 1844.

Acheron

(499 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Ἀχέρων; Achérōn). [German version] [1] River in Epirus River in  Epirus, rising from the slopes of Tomarus [2. 166] (in the 4th cent. BC territory of the Molossi: Liv. 8,24,2), flows through the narrow gorges of Thesprotia (Thuc. 1,46,3); when it entered the plain its sluggish meanders formed in antiquity the swamp-like lake Ἀχερουσία λίμνη ( Acherousía límnē, today dried up). According to Str. 7,7,5 (as in Thuc. 1,46,3 based on Hecataeus [2. 443-469, 478]), it entered the sea near the γλυκὺς λιμήν ( glykỳs limḗn ‘Sweet-water harbour’, a station on the Roman   cursus publicus

Neritum

(148 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Νήριτον; Nḗriton). Originally probably a poetic designation for ‘mountain forest’ [1. 185], the name of a forested mountain on Ithaca (Hom. Od. 9,22; 13,351). In the Homeric Catalogue of Ships (Hom. Il. 2,632) the significance is unclear: N. can be understood either as a mountain [2. 591-596] or as an island or city next to Ithaca (cf. Verg. Aen. 3,271; Ov. Met. 13,712; Mela 2,110). Other ancient authors identify N. with the town of Nericus, which they localised on Leucas (cf. Plin. HN 4,5). Hence in ancient authors and in the MSS the forms Nericus and Neritus are mixed u…

Lissa

(169 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Island off the Dalmatian coast Island off the Dalmatian coast opposite Iader (Plin. HN 3,152), modern Ugljan. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 206, 208f. [German version] [2] Town in Lycia This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia (Λίσσα; Líssa). Town attested epigraphically on the south-west coast of Lycia in Asia Minor. Not identical with the place where the inscriptions [3; 6] were found, a Hellenistic tower farmstead in Kızılağaç on Kargın Gölü (different in [1. 520; …

Phoetiae

(138 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania (Φοιτίαι/ Phoitíai, also Φυτία/ Phytía). City in Acarnania (Acarnanians), 4 km to the northwest of modern Bambini. In a strategically favourable location P. dominated a fertile plateau in the interior of Acarnania and was one of the leading cities of the Acarnanian Koinon. During the division of Acarnania in the 3rd century BC P. remained Aetolian until conquered by Philip  [7] V in 219 BC. A plan of P. can be found in [1]. Cf. IG IX 12 2, 389, 602; mentions in theorodokoi lists: IG IV2 95 Z. 11; SEG 36, 3…

Cephallenia

(929 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Κεφαλληνία; Kephallēnía). The largest of the Ionian islands west of Greece, with an area of about 761 km2, a length of 50 km with a north-south orientation and a maximum width of 25 km. Because of the contour of the island and the high limestone mountains (modern Enos, Efmorfia, Agia Dinati), several separate settlement areas existed which only in modern times were linked by roads. From the main body of the island to the north protrudes the Erisos peninsula, while in the west, the latter is link…

Arachthus

(72 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἄραχθος; Árachthos). Greatest river of southern  Epirus (also Ἄραθθος, Ἄρατθος; Áraththos, Áratthos CEG 1,145; BMC Corinth 107; Str. 7,7,8; Dionysius Calliphontus 42); rises near the Molossi on the Lacmon (Pindus); navigable from its mouth on the Gulf of Ambracia to  Ambracia. Shifting river-bed in its lower reaches from ancient times [1]. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 P. N. Doukellis, É. Fouache, in: BCH 116, 1992, 375-382 2 N. G. L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967 3 Philippson/Kirsten 2, 115-121.

Cissa

(45 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] Also Gissa, Kissa (Plin. HN 3,140; 151). North Dalmatian island (modern Pag, Croatia) of the  Mentores (Scyl. 21). Ancient settlement near modern Časka, relationship with the Roman Calpurnii family. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 199 Id., The Illyrians, 1992.

Ambracia

(566 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Acarnanians, Acarnania | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars (Ἀμβρακία; Ambrakía). South Epirote town in Thesprotia, originally about 80 stades upriver of the mouth of the Arachthus (navigable up to A.) into the Gulf of A. (Scyl. 33), the location of the modern Arta. The older form of its name, up to the 4th cent. BC, was Ἀμπρακία ( Amprakía; Hdt.; Thuc.; coins), derived from the castle of Ambrakos in the lagoons south of the town (Pol. 4,61,4 ff…

Aeginium

(140 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Αἰγίνιον; Aigínion). Town in Tymphania, originally taken as belonging to Epirus (Str. 7,7,9), but from 191 BC belonging to Macedonia, from 167 BC to the Thessalonian Hestiaiotis. Strategically important location in the upper valley of the Peneius (impregnable according to Liv. 32,15,4), destroyed by the Romans in the Third Macedonian War in 167 BC (Liv. 45,27). Its localization close to the modern Kalambaka [3. 121-123; 1. 898] (medieval Stagoi [4. 262 f.]) seems to be certain, de…

Amphilochi, Amphilochia

(306 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀμφίλοχοι, Ἀμφιλοχία; Amphílochoi, Amphilochía). Region and tribe east of the Gulf of  Ambracia, mainly mountainous, only a narrow coastal plain, bordering to the east on the   Agraei, to the south on  Acarnania. Str. 7,7,1; 7,8 ranked them amongst the Epirotes, but generally, they were considered to be a separate ‘Barbarian’ tribe (Dionysius Calliphontus 46 f.; Str. 9,5,1; Thuc. 2,68; [2. 351 f.]). According to older tradition, the main town of Argos Amphilochicum was founded by  A…

Issa

(187 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἴσσα; Íssa). Island and city off the Dalmatian coast, modern Vis, Croatia. The settlers who came from Syracuse to I. in the late 4th cent. BC (Scymn. 413f; Diod. Sic. 15,14,2) [3; 4] established colonies in their turn: Tragurium, Epetium and a settlement on Corcyra Melaina (SEG 43, 348) [3]. Elevated by Rome in 230/229 BC to a civitas libera et foederata [1. 100], in 167 BC I. was declared exempt from taxes. In 56 BC a legation from I. went to Caesar (SEG 43, 350). From the 1st cent. BC part of the administrative region of  Salona [1. 106f…

Atintani

(139 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀτιντᾶνες, Ἀτιντανοί; Atintânes, Atintanoí). The localization is controversial because of contradictory details supplied by ancient authors: according to App. Ill. 7, an Illyrian, according to Str. 7,7,8; Scyl. 26, an Epirotic tribe. [1] therefore identifies two tribes: the Atintani east of Epidamnus (Polyaenus, Strat. 4,11), in 229 BC in alliance with Rome (Pol. 7,9), after 205 belonging to Macedonia (Liv. 27,30; 45,30; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἀκαρνανία); the Atintanes, by contrast, north…

Ithoria

(85 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia (Ἰθωρία; Ithōría). Fortified settlement in Aetolia, destroyed in 219 BC by Philip V (Pol. 4,64,9f.). Finds within the line of the Hellenistic walls on the left bank of the  Achelous [1] on the hilltop above the modern village of Hagios Ilias date from the Mycenaean to the early Roman periods. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography S. Bommeljé (ed.), Aetolia and the Aetolians, 1987, 74 Pritchett 7, 15f. R. Scheer, s.v. I., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 284.

Potidania

(65 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ποτειδανία/ Poteidanía). City in Aetolia (Aetolians, Aetolia, with map) in the lands of the Apodoti, identified with the ruins southeast of modern Kambos on the middle reaches of the Mornos river by liberation documents (SEG 41, 528) of 135/4 BC found there. Cf. Thuc. 3,96,2; Liv. 28,8,9. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Pritchett 7, 49-52  D. Strauch, Römische Politik und griechische Tradition, 1996, 301.

Corcyra

(1,265 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Today Corfu (Κόρκυρα, Kórkyra, Lat. Corcyra; the island of Corfu). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) [German version] A. Name The northernmost of the Ionian islands, always referred to as C. on coins and local inscriptions, but in literature and other inscriptions (IG II-III2 96; SEG 25, 354) also called Κέρκυρα, Lat. Corcyra, today officially Kérkyra. The name Corfu has been in common use since the 10th cent. and stems from the Greek word Koryphḗ (‘summit’), named after the fortress overlooking the medieval and the modern city. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) [German version] B. …

Pale

(77 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) (Πάλη/ Pálē). Town west of Cephallenia on the Paliki peninsula north of modern Lixuri. Hdt. 9,28,5 confuses Παλέες/ Palées with αλεῖοι/ Waleíoi, 'citizens of Elis', when mentioning the involvement of the troops of P. in the battle of Plataeae in 479 BC. There are hardly any ancient remains. Inscriptions: IG IX 1, 645f.; Coins: BMC, Gr (Peloponnese) 84-88. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)

Cranii

(66 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Athenian League (Second) (Κράνιοι). City west of  Cephallenia, east of the main city today named Argostoli. It supported Athens in the  Peloponnesian War: Thuc. 2,30; 33; 5,35; 56; Str. 10,2,13. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography P. Kalligas, Ἱερὸ Δήμητρας καὶ Κόρης στὴν Κράνη Κεφαλλονιᾶς, in: ArchE, 1978, 136-146 R. Speich, Korfu und die Ion. Inseln, 1982, 263-265.

Oricus

(147 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones | Education / Culture (Ὤρικος/ Ṓ rikos, also Ὠρικός/ Ōrikós, Ὠρικόν/ Ōrikón). Port in Epirus, at the southern curve of the gulf of the same name (today the Gulf of Vlorë in Albania). According to legend, it was founded by Euboeans (Euboea) on their return from Troy. It is mentioned as early as the 6th cent. BC in Hecat. FGrH 1 F 106. It had close ties with Corcyra [1], from the 4th cent. BC on and probably earlier. The city, which lay …

Actium

(808 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (τὸ Ἄκτιον; tò Áktion, Actium). Flat, sandy promontory (medieval: Punta) opposite the modern Preveza at the entrance to the Ambracian Gulf (Str. 10,2,7; [9]), in ancient times belonging to  Anactorium; location of the decisive battle between Octavianus ( Augustus) and  Antonius [9]. It was also the location of the sanctuary of  Apollo Actius, founded by the Corinthian settlers of Anactorium in about 600 BC; its great age is confirmed by archaeological finds (kouroi of the early 6th c…

Calydon

(553 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Καλυδών; Kalydṓn). [German version] [1] Eponymous of the Aetolian city of the same name The eponymous of the Aetolian city of the same name, C. [3], son of  Aetolus and  Pronoe, brother of Pleuron, husband of Aeolia and through her the father of Epicaste and Protogenea (Apollod. 1,58-59). A similar genealogically linked construct in Deimachus (FGrH 65 F 1 = schol. Hom. Il. 217-218 Erbse) where the succession Endymion-Aetolus-Pleuron-C. is found, also the names of the region and both of the largest cities. According to Steph. Byz. s.v., either Endymion or Aetolus is the father of C. C. is a…

Alyzeia

(151 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania (Ἀλύζεια, Ἀλυζία; Alýzeia, Alyzía). City (of Corinthian origins?) on the Acarnanian west coast, near to today's Kandila. Allied with Athens in the  Peloponnesian War (Thuc. 7,31,2). In 375 BC near A., Athenian victory at sea in the battle against the Spartan hegemony (Xen. Hell. 5,4,65 f.); in the Roman imperial period dependent on  Nicopolis (Str. 10,2,2); way station of the   cursus publicus (Geogr. Rav. 5,13: (H)Alissa). Harbour, Heracles sanctuary (Scyl. 34; St…

Molossi

(516 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Μολοσσοί/ Molossoí). One of the main tribes of Epirus, with many small tribes. They originated in northern Pindus. From the 5th cent. BC, the tribes of the M. populated the basin of modern Ioannina, which originally belonged to the Thesproti, with the sanctuary of Dodona (Str. 7,7,8; 11). The borders in the north were the upper part of the Thyamis (modern Kalamas), and in the south-east the Arachthus. In the early 4th cent., part of the northern bank of the Ambracian Gulf also bel…

Melite

(761 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
(Μελίτη; Melítē). [German version] [1] Oceanid Oceanid, playmate of Persephone's (Hom. H. 2, 419). Stenger, Jan (Kiel) [German version] [2] Nereid Nereid (Hom. Il. 18,42; Hes. Theog. 247; Verg. Aen. 5,825). She is present on Attic vases at the struggle between Peleus and Thetis [1]. Stenger, Jan (Kiel) [German version] [3] Naiad Naiad ( Nymphs), daughter of the river-god Aegaeus. When Hercules comes to the land of the Phaeacians to atone for the murder of his children, he fathers a son, Hyllus [2], by M. (Apoll. Rhod. 4,537ff.). Stenger, Jan (Kiel) [German version] [4] Lover of Hercules Dau…

Medion

(132 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania (Μεδιών/ Mediṓn; Μεδεών/ Medeṓn, Thuc. 3,106). City in central Acarnania, south of the modern village of Katouna, on the important route from the Gulf of Ambracia to the central plain between Aetolia and Acarnania. In 231 BC, the city was unsuccessfully besieged by the Aetolians (Pol. 2,2f.), in 191 it supported Antiochus III (Liv. 36,11,10-12,12). Mentioned repeatedly in lists of theōrodokoi. (IG IV 12, 95 l. 13; [1. 157 Z. 2]; SEG 36, 331 l. 44-46). Inscriptions: IG IX 12,2, 387f.; SEG 25, 633; [2. …

Buthrotum

(480 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | Coloniae | Macedonia, Macedones | Education / Culture (Βουθρωτόν; Bouthrōtón). [German version] A. Greek and Roman period Harbour town in Epirus opposite Corcyra (Str. 7,7,5), modern Butrint/Albania. Its mythological foundation by Helenus has been attested (FGrH 274 fr. 1), its early habitation verified by archaeological finds (prehistoric and Corinthian pottery of the 7th to 5th cents. [1]) and by Hecataeus. (FGrH 1 fr. 106). Caesar ordered the foundati…

Dodona, Dodone

(1,049 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Dark Ages | Oracles | Persian Wars | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Δωδώνη; Dōdṓnē). [German version] I. Topography, historical development Sanctuary and settlement in Epirus, 22 km south-west of today's Ioannina in the 640 m high plain of Hellopia beneath the Tomarus [1. 85-87, 92]. D. is the oldest oracle site in Greece attested in literature (myth of its founding in Hdt. 2,54f. [2. 51-54]), already known to the Homeric epics (Il. 16,233-235; Od. 19,296-301). The or…

Conope

(98 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia (Κωνώπη; Kōnṓpē). Place in Aetolia near modern Angelocastro at the southern edge of the Achelous plain, new foundation between 287 and 281 BC as Polis Arsinoeia in honour of Arsinoë [II 3], the wife of Lysimachus. A favourable location on a ford of the Achelous (Str. 10,2,22), member of the Aetolian koinon ( Aitoloi, map). Epigraphy: IG IX 1,131-133; SEG 17,269-272; 25,625; 34,468f.; 40,457 [1]. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 G. Klaffenbach, in: SPrAW 1936, 360-364. C. Antonetti, Les Étoli…

Leucimme

(51 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Λευκίμμη/ Leukímmē, Dorian Λευκίμμα/ Leukímma). A low promontory (‘white cape’) protruding to the north, on the south-east coast of Corcyra, modern Lefkimi. Thuc. 1,30,1; 4,47,2; 51,4; 3,79,3; Str. 7,7,5; Ptol. 3,17,11. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography A. W. Gomme, A Historical Commentary on Thucydides 1, 1945, 183 Philippson/Kirsten, vol. 2, 445f.

Lysimachia

(508 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Λυσιμάχεια; Lysimácheia). [German version] [1] City on the Thracian Chersonesus This item can be found on the following maps: Diadochi and Epigoni | Natural catastrophes City founded by one of the Diadochi Lysimachus, in 309 BC - in place of the city of Cardia destroyed by him - as the capital city of Thracian Chersonesus and the seat of government (Str. 7, fr. 51; Liv. 23,38,11; Ptol. 3,11) there on the southern coast of Melas Kolpos near modern Bakla Burnu. In the Hellenistic period L. was the most important trans-sh…

Euripus

(288 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Strait between Chalcis on Euboea and Boeotia (Εὔριπος ὁ Χαλκιδικός; Eúripos ho Chalkidikós). This strait, 9 km in length between Chalcis on Euboea and Boeotia, with three narrows, lies at the approximate mid-point of the sound between  Euboea and the Greek mainland (Anon. in GGM 1,105 § 29: ἡ τῶν Εὐβοέων θάλατττα). Originally, two channels ran through the most northerly narrows at Chalcis, one at the western shore, 0.5 m deep and 15 m wide, bounded on the seaward side by a reef, and with a…

Tecmon

(49 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Τέκμων; Tékmōn). Fortified township of the Molossi in Epirus, probably at modern Kestritza to the south of the modern Lake of Ioannina. T. was conquered by the Romans in 167 BC (Liv. 45,26,4). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography P. Cabanes, L'Épire, 1976, 506  N. G. L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967, 527.

Neium

(49 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Νήϊον/ Nḗïon). A woody mountain on Ithaca, mentioned only in Hom. Od.1,186 and 3,81 and after that by lexicographers. Even the ancient exegetes of Homer could not identify it (Str. 10,2,11). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography A. Heubeck, A Commentary on Homer's Odyssey, vol. 1, 1988, 100, 165.

Aegilips

(68 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Αἰγίλιψ; Aigílips). In Homer's catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,633) listed as a place under Odysseus' rule, its exact location controversial even in antiquity (Str. 10,2,10: on  Leucas; Steph. Byz. s. v. Κροκύλειον; Krokýleion: on  Ithaca; Suda s. v. A.: on  Cephallenia), modern searches concentrate on Ithaca. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography E. Visser, Homers Katalog der Schiffe, 1997 R. H. Simpson, J. F. Lazenby, The catalogue of ships, 1970, 103 f.

Derieis

(48 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Δεριεῖς; Derieîs). Tribe and district in the east of Acarnania, destination of the Peloponnesian ceremonial emissaries (IG IV2 96, l. 61ff.; SEG 36,331, l. 41ff.). In 314 BC synoikismós in  Agrinium (Diod. Sic. 19,67,4). Capital not located. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Pritchett, vol. 8, 81-85.

Omphalium

(222 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Ὀμφάλιον/ Omphálion). [German version] [1] Plain in Crete Plain (Diod. Sic. 5,70) on Crete in the area of Knossos on the river Triton (modern Platyperama; Callim. H. 1,42ff.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὀ.). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography C. Bursian, Geographie von Griechenland, vol. 2, 1868, 570  M. Guarducci, Inscriptiones Creticae, vol. 1, 1935, 45f. [German version] [2] Place in Thessalia Place in Thessalia (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὀ.) near modern Lutra Smokovu, possibly the sanctuary of Omphale. The Dolopian cities of Angeae and Ctimenae fought over its possession [1]. Kramolisch,…

Thesproti, Thesprotia

(207 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Θεσπρωτοί/ Thesprōtoí, Θεσπρωτία/ Thesprōtía). One of the three main tribes of Epirus with an area of settlement between the river Thyamis in the north, the Gulf of Ambracia as far as the river Aphas (modern Louros) in the southeast and the Adriatic (Ionios Kolpos) in the west. In Hom. (Od. 14,314-320; 16,425-427), the T. are mentioned, particularly the oracle of the dead, nekyomanteíon, of Ephyra [3]; the coastal city of Buthrotum is described by Hecat. FGrH 1 F 105 as a pólis . Ancient authors (Str. 7,7,11; Hdt. 2,56) describe the T. as …

Tomarus

(74 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Τόμαρος/ Tómaros, also Τμάρος/ Tmáros). A sacred mountain (1972 m elevation) to the west of Dodona (Str. 7,7,11; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 319; Plin.  HN 4,2), now again Tómaros (formerly Olytsika). Derived from T. are Τμάριος/ Tmários, Τομαριάς/ Tomariás and Latin Tomarius as epithets of Zeus and the sacred oak in Dodona, and probably the term τομοῦροι/ tomoûroi for oracle priests [1. 368 f.] Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 N. G. L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967. Philippson/Kirsten, vol. 2, 1, 86 f.

Brattia

(48 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Βραττία; Brattía). Liburnian island, also called Brettia (Steph. Byz. s.v. B.) or Cratea (Scyl. 23), modern Bra (Croatia), dependency of  Salona (12 km to the north), known for its goats, wine and quarries.  Liburni Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969 Id., The Illyrians, 1992.

Ptychia

(46 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Πτυχία/ Ptychía). Island between Corcyra [1] and the mainland (Thuc. 4,46,3); probably modern Vido to the north of the modern town of Kerkyra. Recorded also at Ptol. 3,13,9 and Plin. HN 4,53. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography E. Kirsten, s. v. P., RE 23, 1893 f.

Portunata

(60 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] Island and city of the same name in the sinus Flanaticus, the bay to the east of Histria (Plin. HN 3,140). Identified, but not beyond doubt [1], with Dugi Otok (in Croatia) [2]. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 E. Polaschek, s. v. P., RE 22, 400 2 J. Chapman, The Changing Face of Dalmatia, 1996, Index s.v. Dugi Otok.

Curictae

(86 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (also Curica, Tab. Peut.; Κυρικτική, Str. 2,5,20). Island off the Dalmatian coast (now Krk, Croatia) with two towns: Curictae (Κούρικον, Ptol. 2,16,13) near what is today the town of Krk and Fertinates (Φουλφίνιον, Ptol. loc.cit.) near modern Omisalj. Contested by the armies of Pompey and Caesar (Caes. B Civ. 3,10,5), since Augustus part of Illyricum. Claudius awarded the residents the ius Italicum (Plin. HN 3,139, tribus Claudia). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography G. Alföldy, Bevölkerung und Gesellschaft in [...] Dalmatien, 1965 J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1…

Ionios Kolpos

(217 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἰόνιος κόλπος; Iónios kólpos), Adria (ὁ Ἀδρίας, Mare Adriaticum or s uperum), Ionian Sea. In contrast with the modern view, the Ionios Kolpos (IK) was seen by Hecataeus (FGrH 1 F 91f.) as starting from Istria, by Hellanicus (FGrH 4 F 4) from the mouth of the Spines. In the south the name is occasionally transferred to the Sicilian Sea (Mela 2,37; 48; 110). Originally, Adria only referred to the innermost corner of the Adriatic Sea at the mouth of the Po and the settlement area of the Veneti, from the name of whose town  Atria, the name Adria a…

Echinades

(222 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἐχινάδες, Ἐχῖναι; Echinádes, Echînai). Archipelago off the SW coast of Acarnania and the mouth of the Achelous; today, it belongs to the nomos Cephallenia. The islands were largely uninhabited, but they were exploited economically (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,51). Already in antiquity it was observed that the islands became joined to the mainland due to the  Achelous [1] depositing debris into the area (Hdt. 2,10; Thuc. 2,102; Scyl. 34; Str. 1,3,18; 10,2,19 [1; 2]). This phenomenon was a…

Cassiope

(160 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Κασσιόπη; Kassiópē, Lat. Cassiope). Port on the north-eastern coast of  Corcyra (Korfu), modern Kassiopi. From Hellenistic times onwards (founded by Pyrrhus?) important staging point for the crossing to Italy, as used by Cicero in 50 BC (Cic. Fam. 16,9,1) and Nero in AD 66 (Suet. Nero 22,3). Zeus Kasios was venerated in C. (Plin. HN 4,52), as evident from coins [2] and inscriptions (ILS 4043; SEG 23, 395; 477) [1]. His temple was later built over with a three-naved basilica in the early Christian period [3; 4]. In late antique itineraries, C. ( Cassiape, Cassiope) is used…

Colentum

(46 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] Dalmatian island (today known as Murter, Croatia), which belonged to the conventus of  Salona; Plin. HN 3,140; Ptol. 2,13,3; Geogr. Rav. 408,13. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 487 S. Čače, Colentum insula (Plinio Nat. Hist. 3,140), in: Diadora 10, 1988, 65-72.

Antigonea

(401 words)

Author(s): Sontheimer, Walther (Stuttgart) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
(Ἀντιγόνεια; Antigóneia). [German version] [1] City in Syria This item can be found on the following maps: Diadochi and Epigoni In Syria (Str. 16,750; Diod. Sic. 20,47) at the Orontes. Founded by Antigonus in the year 307 BC. Sontheimer, Walther (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] City on the west coast of the Chalcidice On the west coast of the Chalcidice (at Hagios Pavlos?), probably founded by Antigonus [2] as a counterpoise to Cassandria (Potidaea). In a historical context only mentioned about 200 BC in a Delphic list of theorodokoi [1. 18, col. III, 76] and mentioned in the thir…

Athamania

(176 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀθαμανία; Athamanía). Region in the south-east of Epirus, in the Pindus range (Str. 7,7,8), bordering on Thessaly in the east (later counted as Thessalian: Str. 9,5,11; Steph. Byz. s.v. A.). During the 4th cent. BC, the Ἀθαμᾶνες ( Athamânes) joined the League of Corinth and Second Athenian Confederacy (Diod. Sic. 14,82; Nep. Tim. 2), and in the 3rd cent. BC, it was a member of the Epirote League. Under the rule of kings Theodorus and  Amynander (Pol. 4,16; Str. 9,4,11; [1]), A. became particularly important in the Macedonian Wars [2].   Koinon in the…

Cassope

(280 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Κασσώπη; Kassṓpē). City in south-western Epirus near the modern Kamarina, main city of the Thesprotian tribe of the Cassopaei (Κασσωπαῖοι, Str. 7,7,1; 7,7,5 and inscriptions; Κασσωποί, Scyl. 31); they settled in an area of about 900 km2 -- very fertile in its southern parts -- between the Gulf of Ambracia, the Ionian Sea and the Acheron (map: [6. 116]). Within this tribal territory lay the Elean colonies of Buchetium, Elatria, Pandosia, and Batiae (localization…

Achelous

(512 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Isler, Hans-Peter (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Greece's longest, most voluminous river (Ἀχελῷος; Achelôios). Greece's longest, most voluminous river, in the territory of the Aitoli and the Acarnanes; original name Thoas, from the Middle Ages Aspropotamos, today again Acheloos; sources in the territory of the Dolopes (Thuc. 2,102,2) near Mount Lacmon in the Pindus; fed there by five tributaries; today greatly transformed by dams. Coming from the territories of the Agraei and the Amphilochi (Str. 10,2,1), its bed widened (nowadays …

Aetolians, Aetolia

(2,622 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Αἰτωλοί, Αἰτωλία; Aitōloí, Aitōlía). [German version] A. Topography Largest region (4500 km2), most important tribe of central Greece. Existing sources only allow a limited definition of area where the Aetolians first settled, and of the phases of their early expansion. Tribes of the Aetolian ethnic group lived between the mountain ranges of Mount Vardousia and Mount Gkiona in the east (modern administrative district of Phocis), Mount Thymphrestus in the north (height 2319m, modern district of Evritania),…

Anactorium

(206 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania | Colonization | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars (Ἀνακτόριον; Anaktórion). Corinthian foundation of the 7th cent. BC (Str. 10,2,8; FGrH 90 Nicolaus F 57,7), in co-operation with  Corcyra (Thuc. 1,55,1) [different in 1. 6-48, 132-148] on the south coast of the gulf of Ambracia. Ports in the gulf and the Ionic Sea near the polis sanctuary of  Actium (Scyl. 34). In 479 BC, A. fought alongside the Greeks at  Plataeae (Hdt. 9,28,5; Paus…

Carnus

(66 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Κάρνος; Kárnos). [German version] [1] Epithet of Apollo and Zeus see  Carnea Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) [German version] [2] Island on the Acarnanian west coast Island on the Acarnanian west coast of Alyzeia, identified as the modern Calamus. Documentation: Scyl. 34; Plin. HN 4,53; Artem. in Steph. Byz. s.v. C. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography W. M. Murray, The Coastal Sites of Western Akarnania, 1982 Philippson/Kirsten 2, 390-392.

Amaltheum

(45 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀμαλθεῖον; Amaltheîon). An unlocated country estate of T.  Pomponius Atticus in the Roman province of  Epirus, on the coast near Buthrotum (Cic. Leg. 2,3,7; Att. 1,13; 16,15). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography P. Cabanes (ed.), L'Illyrie méridionale et l'Epire dans l'antiquité 1, 1987, 245-254.

Strophades

(93 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Στροφάδες; Strophádes). Two small, flat, barren, uninhabited islands belonging to Cyparissia [1] (Str. 8,4,3) located 44 km south of Zacynthos in the open sea, with the original name of Plotae (Mela 2,110; Plin. HN 4,55), Strophadia ever since the Roman Period (Hierocles, Synecdemus 648,10). According to legend, the sons of Boreas turned about there during their pursuit of the Harpies (aition for the place name in Apoll. Rhod. 2,285-297). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography R. Baladié, Le Péloponnèse de Strabon, 1980, 5f.  Philippson/Kirsten, 541-545  L. Ro…

Aeolis

(298 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Name of a goddess associated with agrarian wealth in the imperial period Name of a goddess associated with agrarian wealth ( karpophóros) in the imperial inscriptions of Lesbos and Aegae; identified with Agrippina I and II (as Θεὰ Αἰολὶς Σεβαστή; Theà Aiolìs Sebastḗ, IG XII suppl. 134). She corresponds to the Αἰοληία θεά ( Aiolēía theá) mentioned in Alc. fr. 129 LP, who was worshipped together with Zeus and Dionysus Omestes in the main Lesbian sanctuary at Messa. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography L. Robert, Recherches épigraphiques V. (Inscriptions de L…

Cestrine

(90 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Κεστρίνη; Kestrínē). Region in Epirus opposite Corcyra north of the Thyamis, nowadays in the Albanian-Greek border region. According to Hecataeus (in Thuc. 1,46,4; [3. 446f.]) belonging to the  Chaones, from the 4th cent. BC (?) to the territory of the Thesproti. A coastal settlement by the name of Cestria is mentioned in Plin. HN 4,4; [2. 111f.; 3. 677f.]. C. was famous for its cattle (Hsch. s.v. Κεστρινικοὶ βόες). Inscriptions: [1. 126, 137, 586]. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 P. Cabanes, L' Épire, 1976 2 S. I. Dakaris, Thesprotia, 1972 3 N. G. L. …

Limnaea

(133 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania (Λιμναία; Limnaía). Harbour town on a bay in the south-east of the Gulf of Ambracia near modern Amphilochia, from which a hollow of the valley leads into the Achelous plain (Pol. 5,5,14). In the 5th cent. an unfortified village (Thuc. 2,80,2; 3,106,2), in the 4th cent. the destination of the theorodokoi (IG IV2 1,95 l. 8; SEG 36,331 l. 31-33), member of the Acarnanian League (IG IX 12,2, 588 l. 9). The fortified acropolis was connected to the harbour by ‘long walls’. There are no clues tha…

Arba

(53 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] One of the Liburnian  Mentores Islands (today Rab, Croatia), with a town of the same name.   Municipium from the time of Augustus; belonged to the tribus Sergia (Plin. HN 3,140; Ptol. 2,17,13).  Liburni Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography G. Alföldy, Bevölkerung und Ges. in der röm. Prov. Dalmatien, 1965 J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969.

Hydra

(450 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Water monster (Ὕδρα; Hýdra, ‘water snake’). A monster, born of the monsters  Typhon and  Echidna (‘snake’) and raised by  Hera out of anger at Zeus. It lives at the spring of  Amymone in the swamps of Lerna, stealing cattle and humans until it is finally killed by  Heracles (Hes. Theog. 313-318; Diod. Sic. 4,11,5f.; Apollod. 2,77-80; Hyg. Fab. 30) despite the help of a crab sent to its aid by Hera. This killing constitutes Heracles' second deed in the canonical sequence. His lion'…

Elimea

(204 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Ἐλίμεια; Elímeia). Region, originally belonging to Epirus (Str. 9,5,11), east of the Pindus range on the upper course of the Haliacmon south of Orestis and Eordaea; from the 5th. cent. BC, the people of the Elimiotaea in upper Macedonia took their name from E. (Thuc. 2,99). The location of the eponymous town is uncertain (Kozani, Palaiogratsiano?). Cities of the Hellenistic and Roman era are  Aeane and Caesarea (bishop's seat: Hierocles Synekdemos 642,11). Despite its dependence o…

Heraclea

(2,510 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Peschlow-Bindokat, Anneliese (Berlin) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Et al.
(Ἡράκλεια; Hērákleia). [German version] [1] H. Trachinia This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (Ἡράκλεια ἡ Τραχινία; H. hē Trachinía). City on a rock to the left of and above the exit of the gorge of the  Asopus [1] into the Spercheus plain, separated from Oete ( Oetaei, Oete) on the southern and western flanks by deep streambeds, where the Trachinian rocks rise up with their numerous tomb caves. The lower city has vanished without trace. H. was founded in …

Apsyrtides

(70 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀψυρτίδες; Apsyrtídes). Liburnian group of islands east of Istria; linked in Theopompus (FGrH 115 fr. 130; cf. Str. 2,5,20; 7,5,5) with the Argonaut myth ( Argonauts); in the north of the largest island of Crepsa (today Cres, Croatia) Crexa/Crexi, in the south Asporus (Plin. HN 3,140); both of them   municipia from the time of Tiberius.  Liburni Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 196 f. Id., The Illyrians, 1992.

Same

(156 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) (Σάμη/ Sámē). In Homer, an island in Odysseus' kingdom (name forms: Sámos, Hom. Il. 2,634; Sámē is more recent, Hom. Od. 1,246); in the historical period, a city in the east of the island of Cephallenia, modern Sami. In 223/2 BC, an Aetolian colony was dispatched to S. (IG IX 12,1, 2); In 189 BC, S. was besieged and destroyed by Fulvius [I 15]  (Liv. 37,50,5; 38,28,5-30,1). Quite recent excavations and (to some extent unpublished Latin) inscriptio…

Acarnanians, Acarnania

(2,460 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀκαρνᾶνες, Ἀκαρνανία; Akarnánes, Akarnanía). Tribe and region in the west of central Greece, between the Ionian Sea, the Ambracian Gulf and the Gulf of Patras; in the 3rd cent. BC, the  Achelous [1] marked its eastern border to the  Aetolians (in the 4th cent. BC, the A. also settled east of the river: Agrinion, Aeolis). A. is divided by four valleys, running from north to south [17. 368-373]: the easternmost (Stratike or Akarnanikon Pedion) along the Achelous, east of the Lykovitsi…

Bomies

(43 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Βωμιεῖς; Bōmieîs). North-eastern district of the Aetolian  Ophieis on the upper course of the  Evenus: Thuc. 3,96; Str.10,2,5. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography W. Woodhouse, Aetolia, 1897, 70f. C. Antonetti, Problemi di geografia storica del territorio etolo-acarnano, in: P. Janni (ed.), Γεωγραφία, 1985, 11-24.

Charadrus

(384 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Χάραδρος; Cháradros). A. Towns [German version] [1] Town in southern Epirus Town in southern Epirus, from 167 BC independent of the Epirote koinon. By means of a border agreement (SEG 35, 665; c. 160 BC) located to the north-west of  Ambracia, near the modern Palaia-Philippias; Pol. 4,63; 21,26. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography BCH 112, 1988, 359-373 V. Karatzeni, Τὸ ἱερὸν ὄρος, in: FS Dakaris, 1995, 289-299. [German version] [2] Port town and river in Cilicia Port and river (FGrH 1 Hecat. fr. 265) in Cilicia Tracheia, the modern Yakacık (previously Kaledıran),…

Alalcomenae

(256 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Ἀλαλκομεναί; Alalkomenaí). [German version] [1] Small Boeotian city Small Boeotian city on the southern edge of the former Lake  Copais, between  Haliartus and  Coronea at the foot of a low mountain, with the famous  Athena sanctuary on the plain by the Triton stream (birthplace of Athena), in direct proximity to the sanctuary of Athena Itonia. A. likely lay to the north below what is today Solinarion; the Athena sanctuary was either north-east near the church Agios Ioannis or north-west near Ajia Para…

Phanote

(67 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Φανότη; Phanótē). Fortified city in the north of Epirus, in the border region between Thesprotia and Molossia, mentioned only in the context of the third Macedonian War (172-168 BC)  (Pol. 27,16,4; Liv. 43,21,4; 45,26,2f.). P. was probably in the  Thyamis valley, near either modern Raveni or modern Doliani. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography P. Cabanes, L'Épire, 1976, 296  N.G.L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967, 186f., 628f., 676.

Chaones, Chaonia

(126 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Χάονες, Χαονία; Cháones, Chaonía). Important people to the north of Epirus, between the Aous and the Acroceraunia, opposite Corcyra (Str. 7,7,5; Ptol. 3,14,7). Although originally based on village settlements (Scyl. 28), in the 6th cent. BC C. contained the cities of  Buthrotum,  Onchesmus and  Phoenice (main centre), and later Chimera and  Antigonea [4]. Mentioned in connection with the Peloponnesian and Macedonian Wars: Thuc. 2,80f.; Liv. 32,5; 43,23. Inscriptions: SEG 15, 397; 24, 448; 38, 468; 38, 470; IG IV2 95 l. 29; IG IX 12, 2, 243. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bi…

Torybea

(75 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania (Τορύβεια/ Torýbeia, Τύρβειον/ Týrbeion). City in the interior of Acarnania (Acarnanes) above modern Komboti, mentioned only in a few lists of theorodokoi (cf. IG IV2 1, 95, 18; FdD III 3, 203). The city was systematically laid out in the 4th cent. BC (orthogonal streets, insulae; Insula ). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Pritchett 8, 104-108  D. Strauch, Römische Politik und griechische Tradition, 1996, 305 f.

Hylli

(127 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ὕλλοι; Hýlloi). Illyrian tribe, first mentioned in the 4th cent. BC among the bárbaroi (Scyl. 22); other spellings Hylleîs (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὑλλεῖς) and Hyllaîoi (Ὑλλαῖοι, Ptol. 2,16,5). Their settlement area has been located approximately between the rivers Titius (modern Krka) and Nestus (modern Cetina). Like other smaller Illyrian tribes, the H. were absorbed by the  Dalmatae after the 4th cent. BC, so that, in the Roman period, only the designation of the coast south of Šibenik as the peninsula Hyllica/ Hyllis (Plin. HN 3,141; Scymn. 405) recalled the H.…

Nericus

(83 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Νήρικος; Nḗrikos). Hom. Od. 24,377 mentions a place named N. on the mainland (ἀκτὴν ἠπείροιο), described in Str. 10,2,8 as a predecessor settlement of the town of Leucas. Besieged in vain by Athens in 426 BC (Thuc. 3,7,5). Location probably near the modern Hagios Georgios on the mainland opposite the ancient town of Leucas. Further evidence: Str. 1,3,18; Plin. HN 4,5. Neriton Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography M. Fiedler, Zur Topographie der Polis Leukas, in: P. Berktold (ed.), Akarnanien, 1996, 159f.

Callieis

(208 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Καλλιεῖς; Kallieîs). The westernmost branch of the Aetolian  Ophieis in the upper Daphnus valley (modern Mornos; Thuc. 3,96,3). Their chief place of Callion (or Callipolis, modern Kallion, formerly Velouchovo) occupied a strategic position above the right bank of the Daphnus, and, for that reason, is mentioned in connection with the campaigns of  Demosthenes [1] in 426 BC, of  Acilius [I 10] Glabrio in 191 BC, and also the raid by Gauls in 279 BC (in which the town and its inhabit…

Coronta

(90 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania (Κόροντα, Κορόνται; Kóronta, Koróntai). City in  Acarnania near modern Chrysovitsa, with finds dating to Mycenaean times, mentioned only at Thuc. 2,102,1, member of the Acarnanian Koinon, destination of the Peloponnesian theorodokoi (SEG 36, 331 l. 49-51). Inscriptions: IG IX 12, 2, 427-433; 603f.; AD 25 B 2, 1970, 297; 26 B 2, 1971, 321; 40 B, 1985, 140; SEG 29. 473. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Pritchett, vol. 8, 102f. D. Strauch, Röm. Politik und Griech. Tradition, 1996, 274.

Arethusa

(416 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Ἀρέθουσα; Aréthousa). Frequent name for springs. [German version] [1] Spring on Homer's Ithaca Spring on Homer's  Ithaca, where the swine of  Eumaeus graze (Hom. Od. 13,408; Plut. Mor. 776 E; Steph. Byz. s. v. A.). To identify A. with the spring of Perapigadi on the modern Ithaka, 5 km south-east of Vathy, is speculative. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography A. Heubeck, A commentary on Homer's Odyssey, 1992, 189 f. A. J. Wace, F. H. Stubbings, A companion to Homer, 1963, 414-416. [German version] [2] Name for the main spring of Chalkis on Euboia The name handed down by numerou…

Corax

(964 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen)
(Κόραξ; Kórax). [German version] [1] Mountains Mountains to the east of Aetolia, today's Giona in the Nomos Phokis, 2484 m high; Str. 7 fr. 6; 9,3,1; 10,2,4; Liv. 36,30,4; 37,4,7. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten, vol. 1, 650. [German version] [2] see Siegecraft see  Siegecraft Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) [German version] [3] C. From Syracuse, inventor of rhetoric In ancient rhetoric tradition, C. and Tisias (T.) from Syracuse were regarded as the inventors and founders of rhetoric, the practical, learnable and teachable téchnē rhētorikḗ based on exper…

Pharos

(177 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Lighthouse Lighthouses Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) [German version] [2] Island in the Adriatic ( Pharia, Plin. HN 3,152). 68 km long island in the Adriatic Sea off the Dalmatian coast (Scyl. 23; Str. 2,5,20), modern Hvar (Croatia). According to Pol. 5,108,7, the island was called ὁ Φάρος/ ho Pháros, while the city was called ἡ Φ./ hē Ph. (ruins near Stari Grad, cf. [1]). Since 385/4 BC (Diod. Sic. 15,13,4), Ph. was a colony of Paros (Ephor. FGrH 70 F 89), since 229 BC, it was part of the Illyrian kingdom of Agron [3] and Teuta, then i…

Echinus

(668 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Ἐχῖνος; Echînos). [German version] [1] Town on the northern shore of the Gulf of Malia Town on the northern shore of the Gulf of Malia near today's village of Achino. Originally part of the Achaea Phthiotis, Echinus was granted by Philippus II to the Malieis in 342 with whom E. belonged to the Aetolian league from c. 235. In 210, E. was conquered by Philippus V (Pol. 9,41; [1]) who refused to return it to the Aetolians; after 193, the Romans conquered it and assigned E. to Malis again in 189. In Roman times, E. was considered part of Achaea Phthiot…

Paxos

(65 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Παξός; Paxós). P. and Antipaxos, collectively known as the Paxoi Islands, 13 km south of Corcyra , still known as P. In 229 BC, they were the theatre of a naval battle during the 1st Illyrian War (Pol. 2,10,1-7). There are a few remains of early Christian churches. Cf. Plin. HN 4,52; IG IX 1, 966. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 2, 456-459.

Aperanti

(54 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀπεραντοί; Aperantoí). Tribe in northern  Aetolia, east of the Agraei, west of the Panaetolicum [2. 97 f.]; capital probably near Hagios Vasileios [1] (Pol. 20,11). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 S. Bommeljé et al. (ed.), Aetolia and the Aetolians, 1987, 105, s. v. Sidira 2 P. Cabanes (ed.), L'Illyrie méridionale et l'Epire dans l'antiquité, 1, 1987, 95-113.
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