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(974 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, or Badr Ḥunayn, a small town south-west of Medina, a night’s journey from the coast, and at the junction of a road from Medina with the caravan route from Mecca to Syria. It lies in a plain, 5 m. (8 km.) long and 2½ m. (4 km.) broad, surrounded by steep hills and sand-dunes, and was a market centre. Here occurred on 17 (or 19 or 21) Ramaḍān, 2 A. H. (= 13 or 15 or 17 March, 624) the first great battle of Muḥammad’s career. Though there is a wealth of detail in the early sources, it is difficult to give a clear account of the battle and the events which…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Ubayy

(555 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
b. Salūl (Salul being Ubayy’s mother), chief of Ba ʾl-Ḥublā (also known as Sālim), a section of the clan of ʿAwf of the Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲, and one of the leading men of Medīna. Prior to the hid̲j̲ra he had led some of the Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ in the first day of the Fid̲j̲ār at Medīna, but did not take part in the second day of the Fid̲j̲ār nor the battle of Buʿāt̲h̲ since he had quarreled with another leader, ʿAmr b. al-Nuʿmān of Bayāḍa, over the latter’s unjust killing of Jewish hostages, perhaps because he r…


(483 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, one of the two main Arab tribes in Medina. With the other tribe, al-Aws [ q.v.], it formed the Banū Ḳayla in pre-Islamic times and the Anṣār [ q.v.] or “helpers” (sc. of Muḥammad) under Islam. The ancestors of al-K̲h̲azrad̲j̲ are given under al-Aws. The following are the main subdivisions of the tribe: Al-K̲h̲azrad̲j̲ and al-Aws settled together in Yat̲h̲rib or Medina after leaving the Yemen, and for a time were subordinate to the Jews there. The ¶ leader in gaining independence from the Jews was Mālik b. al-ʿAd̲j̲lān of the clan of Sālim (Ḳawāḳila) of al-K̲h̲azrad̲j̲. …

al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib

(458 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, with the kunya Abu ’l-Faḍl, half-brother of Muḥammad’s father, his mother being Nutayla bint ¶ Ḏj̲anāb of al-Namir. The ʿAbbāsid dynasty took its name from him, being descended from his son ʿAbd Allāh. Consequently there was a tendency for historians under the ʿAbbāsids to glorify him, and in his case it is particularly difficult to distinguish fact from fiction. He was a merchant and financier, more prosperous than his half-brother Abū Ṭālib, who, in return for the extinction of a debt, surrendered to him the office of providing pilgrims to Mecca with water ( siḳāya


(556 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, the Biblical Isaac, mentioned in fifteen passages of the Ḳurʾān. God gives Abraham ¶ “good tidings of Isaac, a prophet, of the righteous”, and blesses them both (XXXVII 112 f.). In a fuller description, when messengers concerning Lot corne to Abraham; his wife “laughed, and we gave her good tidings of Isaac, and af ter Isaac of Jacob” (XI, 71/74); and it is explained that this will happen despite their age. Several verses speak of Isaac and Jacob being given to Abraham (VI, 84; XIX, 49…


(837 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
(a.), the Emigrants, are primarily those Meccan Muslims who made the hid̲j̲ra or emigration from Mecca to Medina either just before Muḥammad himself or in the period up to the conquest of Mecca in 8/630. The word hid̲j̲ra [ q.v.] implies not only change of residence but also the ending of ties of kinship and the replacement of these by new relationships. In the document known as the Constitution of Medina (Ibn His̲h̲ām, 341-4), which is an agreement “between the Emigrants and the Anṣār (the Muslims of Medina)”, the Emigrants appear a…

Ḥalīma Bint Abī Ḏh̲uʾayb

(220 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
foster-mother of the prophet Muḥammad. She and her husband belonged to the tribe of Saʿd b. Bakr, a subdivision of Hawāzin. Muḥammad was given to her to suckle from soon after his birth until he was two years old. Well-to-do families thought desert-life healthier for infants than that in Mecca. Some modern scholars have doubted the whole episode, but Muḥammad probably lived with this tribe for a time. After the battle of Ḥunayn he honoured his fostersister al-S̲h̲aymā, and responded favourably w…


(765 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
the granting of protection ( d̲j̲iwār [ q.v.]) to a stranger according to ancient Arab practice. This form of protection was especially important for those who travelled about, but it was also used in other cases. The d̲j̲ār (pl. d̲j̲īrān ) is mostly the person protected, but may also be the protector (as in Sūra VIII, 48/50; Mufaḍḍaliyyāt , 760, 18). To ask for protection is istad̲j̲āra (Sūra IX, 6). The granting of protection was announced publicly (cf. Zaynab’s id̲j̲āra of her former pagan husband in Ibn His̲h̲ām, 469); and thus, when ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Maẓʿūn wanted to renounce the d̲j̲iwār of …


(635 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
or banū ’l-ḳayn , often contracted ¶ to Bal-Ḳayn (cf. Bal-Ḥārit̲h̲, etc.), the name of one or more Arab tribes. The best known is part of the tribal group of Ḳuḍāʿa, and al-Ḳayn is here interpreted as the nickname of al-Nuʿmān b. D̲j̲asr, so that the tribe is known as al-Ḳayn b. D̲j̲asr. The word ḳayn means “worker in iron”, “smith”, or possibly “slave”, and is used as a term of contempt in the Naḳāʾid D̲j̲arīr wa’l-Farazdaḳ . There is no evidence, however, of any connexion of Bal-Ḳayn b. D̲j̲asr with smiths. They act as a normal Bedouin tribe, and …


(419 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
(a.) “brothering”, is a practice found in the early days of Islam by which two men became “brothers”. The best-known example is the “brothering” by Muḥammad of Emigrants from Mecca with Muslims from Medina. This may have happened soon after he reached Medina, but is placed by Ibn Isḥāḳ just before the battle of Badr, accompanied by a list of thirteen such pairs (Ibn His̲h̲ām, 344-6). It is clear, however, from Ibn Ḥabīb ( Muḥabbar , 70 f.) that there had previously been some “brothering” at Mecca, and he gives a list of nine pairs. This is confirm…

Abū Sufyān

(676 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
b. Ḥarb b. Umayya , of the clan of ʿAbd S̲h̲ams of Ḳurays̲h̲, prominent Meccan merchant and financier (to be distinguished from Muḥammad’s cousin, Abū Sufyān b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib). His name was Ṣak̲h̲r, and his kunya is sometimes given as Abū Ḥanẓala. ʿAbd S̲h̲ams had been at one time a member of the political group known as the Muṭayyabūn (which included the clan of Hās̲h̲im), but about Muḥammad’s time had moved away from this group and in some matters cooperated with the rival group, Mak̲h̲zūm.…

Ḥanīfa b. Lud̲j̲aym

(413 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, ancient Arab tribe, part of Bakr b. Wāʾil [ q.v.] on a level with T̲h̲aʿlaba and ʿId̲j̲l. The chief subdivisions were al-Dūl (or al-Duʾil), ʿAdī, ʿĀmir, Suḥaym. They were partly nomadic, partly agricultural (date-palms and cereals), and also partly pagan, partly Christian. The town of al-Had̲j̲r, capital of al-Yamāma, belonged chiefly to them, also the town of Ḏj̲aww (later al-K̲h̲idrima). Other localities mentioned as belonging to them (and as chiefly occupied by them) include: the wādī of al-ʿIrḍ, al-Awḳa, Fays̲h̲ān, al-Kirs, Ḳurrān, al-Manṣif …


(254 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, Muḥammad’s mother. Her father was Wahb b. ʿAbd Manāf of the clan of Zuhra of the tribe of Ḳurays̲h̲, and her mother Barra bint ¶ ʿAbd al-ʿUzzā of the clan of ʿAbd al-Dār. It is said that She was the ward of her uncle Wuhayb b. ʿAbd Manāf, and that on the day he betrothed her to ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib he also betrothed his own daughter Hāla to ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib (Ibn Saʿd, i/1, 58). If this report is correct it may be an example of some forgotten marriage-custom. Āmina seems to have remained…

Kilāb b. Rabīʿa

(170 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, an Arab tribe belonging to the group of tribes called ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa [ q.v.], The territories and pre-Islamic history of the tribe are described in that article. Kilāb was considered to have ten main divisions, of which the chief for a time was D̲j̲aʿfar b. Kilāb, from which came leaders of the whole of ʿĀmir. The most serious war of the Fid̲j̲ār [ q.v.] resulted from the killing of ʿUrwa al-Raḥḥāl of Kilāb by al-Barrāḍ b. Ḳays al-Kinānī. Divisions within the tribe are reflected in hostility to the Muslims and friendship with them. Two men of Kilāb joined…

Ḥās̲h̲im b. ʿAbd Manāf

(265 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, great-grand-father of the prophet Muḥammad. As a grandson of Ḳusayy, who had made the tribe of Ḳurays̲h̲ dominant in Mecca and had reorganized the pilgrimage, he held the offices or functions of rifāda and siḳāya , that is, the provision of food and water for the pilgrims. For the first he collected contributions in money or kind from the chief men of Mecca. One year when food was scarce in Mecca, he brought baked cakes or loaves from Syria, and crumbled ( has̲h̲ama ) these to make broth ( t̲h̲arīd ) for the pilgrims; after this he was known as Hās̲h̲im, though…

Ahl al-Ṣuffa

(765 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, a group of Muḥammad’s Companions, mentioned chiefly in ascetic and mystical writings, where they have come to typify the ideal of poverty and piety. The ṣuffa or ẓulla (often rendered ‘bench’, ‘banquette’, etc.) was, according to Lane, a long, covered portico or vestibule, which formed part of the mosque at Medina. This—so the legend ran—was the sole home of these men, and they spent their time in study and worship, except when in obedience to a command from Muḥammad they went out to fight. They are sometimes said to have been as many as 400; Lane (s.v. ṣuffa) quotes al-Sayyid Murtaḍā as s…


(656 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, a large North Arabian tribe or group of tribes. The genealogy is given as: Hawāzin b. Manṣūr b. ʿIkrima b. K̲h̲aṣafa b. Ḳays b. ʿAylān (see kays ʿaylān , ʿadnān , al-ʿarab (D̲j̲azīrat), vi). Properly speaking Hawāzin includes the tribes of ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa [ q.v.] and T̲h̲aḳīf [ q.v.], but the term is sometimes restricted to what is more correctly ʿUd̲j̲z Hawāzin, “the rear of Hawāzin”, comprising D̲j̲usham b. Muʿāwiya b. Bakr, Naṣr b. Muʿāwiya b. Bakr and Saʿd b. Bakr [ q.v.]. Among the places reckoned to belong to Hawāzin were: Amlaḥ, ʿAds al-Maṭāḥil, al-Dardā, al-Ḍabʿān, a…


(391 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, the most suitable or fitting, a term used by theologians in a technical sense. The "upholders of the aṣlaḥ " were a group of the Muʿtazila who held that God did what was best for mankind. It is nowhere stated who composed the group. Abu ’l-Hud̲h̲ayl held that God did what was. best for men. Al-Naẓẓām introduced the refinement that there were an infinite number of equally good. alternatives, any of which God might adopt instead of acting as He does; in this way he avoided the implication that…

Bayʿat al-Riḍwān

(391 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, the name given to an oath exacted by the Prophet from some of his followers during the Medinan period. During the expedition to al-Ḥudaybiya [ q.v.] in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda of the year 6 (March 628), a report reached Muḥammad that the Meccans had killed ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿAffān, who had gone into Mecca to negotiate a truce. Muḥammad realised that he would lose face unless ʿUt̲h̲mān’s death was avenged, and summoned the members of the expedition to take an oath of allegiance to himself. There are different versions of the content …

ʿĀʾis̲h̲a Bint Abī Bakr

(1,220 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, the third and favourite wife of the Prophet, was born at Mecca about 614. Her mother, Umm Rūmān, came from the tribe of Kināna. Muḥammad gave ʿĀʾis̲h̲a the kunya Umm ʿAbd Allāh, after the name of her nephew ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr. The usual story of her marriage to Muḥammad is that the initiative came from Ḵh̲awla bint Ḥakīm, wife of ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Maẓʿūn, who possibly helped Muḥammad in domestic matters. Some time after the death of Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a. Ḵh̲awla suggested to Muḥammad that he should marry either ʿĀʾis̲h̲a, the six-year old daugh…

ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib b. Hās̲h̲im

(480 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, paternal grandfather of Muḥammad. Passing through Medina on trading journeys to Syria, Hās̲h̲im b. ʿAbd Manāf married Salmā bint ʿAmr of the clan of ʿAdī b. al-Nad̲j̲d̲j̲ār of the Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲, by whom he had two children, ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib (or S̲h̲ayba) and Ruḳayya. The mother and her son remained in her house in Medina, this apparently being the practice of her family in accordance with a matrilineal kinship system. Some time after Hās̲h̲im’s death his brother al-Muṭṭalib tried to strengthen h…


(271 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
or Mud̲j̲bira , the name given by opponents to those whom they alleged to hold the doctrine of d̲j̲abr , “compulsion”, viz. that man does not really act but only God. It was also used by later heresiographers to describe a group of sects. The Muʿtazila applied it, usually in the form Mud̲j̲bira, to Traditionists, As̲h̲ʿarite theologians and others who denied their doctrine of ḳadar or “free will” (al-K̲h̲ayyāṭ, K. al-intiṣār , 18, 24, 26 f., 49 f., 67, 69, 135 f.; Ibn Ḳutayba, K. taʾwīl muk̲h̲talif al-ḥadīt̲h̲ , 96; Ibn al-Murtaḍā, K. al-munya (ed. Arnold), 45, 71 — of Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn al…

Ibn Fūrak

(642 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan b. Fūrak al-Anṣārī al-Iṣbahānī , As̲h̲ʿarite theologian and traditionist, was born about 330/941, perhaps in Ispahan. In ʿIrāḳ, both at Basra and at Baghdad, he studied As̲h̲ʿarite kalām under Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Bāhilī along with al-Bāḳillānī [ q.v.] and al-Isfarāʾinī [ q.v.], and also traditions under ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Iṣbahānī. From ʿIrāḳ he went to Rayy, then to Nis̲h̲āpūr, where a madrasa was built for him beside the k̲h̲ānḳāh of the ṣūfī al-Būs̲h̲and̲j̲ī. He was in Nīs̲h̲āpūr before the death of the ṣūfī Abū ʿUt̲h̲mān …

ʿAmr b. ʿUbayd

(380 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
b. bāb , one of the first of the Muʿtazila, with the kunya , Abū ʿUt̲h̲mān. His grandfather Bāb was captured by Muslims at Kābul. He himself was born at Balk̲h̲ in 80/699 and was a mawlā of a branch of Tamīm. His father apparently moved to Baṣra, and ʿAmr seems for a time to have been a member of the school of al-Ḥasan al-Baṣrī, though al-Ḏj̲āhiẓ also speaks of him as a pupil of al-Faḍl b. ʿĪsā al-Raḳas̲h̲ī. He also had some connexion with Yazīd III. He gained a great reputation as an ascetic, and was known a…

Abū Ḏj̲ahl

(449 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, properly Abu ’l-Ḥakam ʿAmr b. His̲h̲ām b. al-Mug̲h̲īra of the Banū Mak̲h̲zūm of Ḳurays̲h̲, also named Ibn al-Ḥanẓaliyya after his ¶ mother, Asmāʾ bint Muk̲h̲arriba. He was born about 570 or a little after; he and Muḥammad were youths together at a feast in the house of ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḏj̲udʿān, while his mother became a Muslim and lived until after 13/635. A few years before the Hid̲j̲ra Abū Ḏj̲ahl seems to have succeeded al-Walīd b. al-Mug̲h̲īra as leader of Mak̲h̲zūm and also of the group of clans associated with …

Kaʿb b. Mālik

(484 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh or Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān , one of the poets supporting Muḥammad, was an Anṣārī of the clan of Salima of the tribe of al-K̲h̲azrad̲j̲ [see al-anṣār ]. He must have been born before 600 A.D., since he is said to have taken part in the internal fighting in Medina before the Hid̲j̲ra, and to have been present at the second ʿAḳaba [ q.v.], when allegiance was sworn to Muḥammad. He was not present at Badr, but took part in most of the subsequent expeditions led by Muḥammad. At Uḥud he received several wounds and was the first to recognize Muḥammad after the rumour ¶ that he had been killed. S…


(832 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, Banū , one of the three main Jewish tribes of Yat̲h̲rib (Medina), with lands towards the south-east of the oasis. As in the case of the other Jewish groups, it is not known whether they were descended from refugees of Hebrew stock or from Arabs who had adopted Judaism. They adhered firmly to the Jewish religion, but at the same time had adopted many Arab practices and had intermarried with Arabs. According to a genealogy given by al-Samhūdī, Ḳurayẓa, Hadl and ʿAmr were sons…

ʿAbbād b. Sulaymān

(312 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
al-Ṣaymarī (or al-Ḍaymarī ), one of the Muʿtazila of Baṣra, died c. 250/864. He was a pupil of His̲h̲ām b. ʿAmr al-Fuwaṭī ( fl.c. 210/825), like his father criticizing the main tendency of the school of Baṣra (that of Abu ’l-Hud̲h̲ayl), and being in his turn criticized by Abu ’l-Hud̲h̲ayl’s successors, al-Ḏj̲ubbāʾī and Abū Hās̲h̲im. Our knowledge of his distinctive views comes mainly from al-As̲h̲ʿarī’s Maḳālāt . He emphasized the difference between God and man, admitting that God might be called a "thing" in the sense that He was "other" ( l.c., 519). In particular he insisted that G…

Abū Lahab

(358 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, son of ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib and Lubnā bint Hād̲j̲ir (of Ḵh̲uzāʿa), and half-brother of Muḥammad’s father. His name was ʿAbd al-ʿUzza and his kunya Abū ʿUtba; Abū Lahab (literally "father of the flame") was a nickname given by his father on account of his beauty. At one time, doubtless before Muḥammad’s preaching had roused opposition, he was friendly with his nephew, for his sons ʿUtba and ʿUtayba were married (or perhaps only betrothed) to Muḥammad’s daughters Ruḳayya and Umm…

Abū Bakr

(2,031 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, the first caliph. i. Name, family, and early life.—Abū Bakr was probably born shortly after 570 as he is said to have been three years younger than Muḥammad. His father was Abū Ḳuḥāfa (ʿUt̲h̲mān) b. ʿĀmir of the clan of Taym of the tribe of Ḳurays̲h̲, and he is therefore sometimes known as Ibn Abī Ḳuḥāfa. His mother was Umm al-Ḵh̲ayr (Salmā) bint Ṣak̲h̲r of the same clan. The names ʿAbd Allāh and ʿAtīḳ (‘freed slave’) are attributed to him as well as Abū Bakr, but the relation of these names to on…


(248 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, Alexander the Great. It is generally agreed both by Muslim commentators and modéra occidental scholars that D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳarnayn, “the two-horned”, in Sūra XVIII, 83/82-98 is to be identified with Alexander the Great. The story is told in reply to questioners, often said to be Jews. D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳarnayn was given power on earth, and made his way te the furthest west and furthest east; and in response to an appeal from oppressed people built a wall or rampart of iron and brass against the incursions of Yādiūd̲j̲ and Mād̲j̲ūd̲j̲ [ q.v.]. The origin and precise significance here of the name D…

ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib

(224 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
of B. Hās̲h̲im of Ḳurays̲h̲, father of the prophet Muḥammad. The earliest and most reliable sources give little information about him. His mother was Fāṭima bint ʿAmr of B. Mak̲h̲zūm. Al-Kalbī places his birth in the 24th year of the reign of Anūs̲h̲irwān (554), but he is usually said to have been twenty-five when he died (? 570). According to a well-known story, picturesque but probably with little factual basis, ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib vowed that, if he had ten sons who reached maturity, he would sac…


(370 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, banū , a clan of the Meccan tribe of Ḳurays̲h̲. The genealogists reckon Nawfal as one of the sons of ʿAbd Manāf, and brother of ʿAbd S̲h̲ams. Hās̲h̲im and al-Muṭṭalib. Nawfal himself is said to have been specially concerned to develop trade with ʿIrāḳ and the Persian empire, and is also reported to have quarrelled with ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib b. Hās̲h̲im (Muḥammad’s grandfather). Some information has been preserved about the mutual relations of the clans of Ḳurays̲h̲. At one period, all the descendants of ʿAbd Manāf together with some other clans formed a group …

Ibn His̲h̲ām

(310 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Malik , a scholar best known for his work on the biography of Muḥammad. His family was usually said to be of Ḥimyarite origin, and had moved from Baṣra to Egypt, where he was born and spent his life. His knowledge of genealogy and grammar was outstanding. He died in Egypt on 13 Rabīʿ II 218/8 May 833 or in 213/828. His Kitāb al-Tīd̲j̲ān on South Arabian antiquities is extant. He is chiefly famous, however, for his edition of the Sīra (Life of Muḥammad) of Ibn Isḥāḳ [ q.v.], which became the basic work on this subject. The Sīra of Ibn Isḥāḳ is not preserved as a single work…


(280 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, the name of two valleys on the way from Mecca to al-Ṭāʾif, distinguished as S̲h̲aʾmiyya (Syrian, northern) and Yamāniya (Yemenite, southern). The name is presumably due to an abundance of palms ( nak̲h̲l) in the valleys. On a height in Syrian Nak̲h̲la there was an idol of al-ʿUzzā which was specially venerated by Ḳurays̲h̲ and Banū Kināna. Some regarded the circumambulation of al-ʿUzzā as an essential for the completion of the ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ to the Kaʿba. Three Samura trees were closely associated with the deity. After the conquest of Mecca, Muḥa…


(656 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, or al-Ḥudaybiyya , a medium-sized village on the edge of the ḥaram or sacred territory of Mecca, one marḥala from Mecca itself. Both the village and the Mosque of the Tree (presumably on the site of the pledge described below) were unknown in the time of al-Fāsi (d. 832/1429). One authority says the name was derived from a dome-shaped or hump-like ( ḥadbāʾ ) tree, but this may be conjecture. The village gave its name to an important Muslim expedition from Medina, led by Muḥammad, in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda of the year 6 (March 628). Muḥammad had a dream (cf. Ḳurʾān, XLVII…


(308 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
is a collective name for the northern Arab tribes (see D̲j̲azīrat al-ʿarab (vi) = i, 544b). According to the standard genealogy, Maʿadd was a son of ʿAdnān [ q.v.]. His son Nizār [ q.v.] had three sons, Muḍar, Iyād and Rabīʿa, from the first and third of whom most of the northern Arabs claimed descent. Maʿadd and his descendants are said to have lived for a time in the neighbourhood of Mecca and to have intermarried with D̲j̲urhum [ q.v.]. The name Maʿadd is found in pre-Islamic poets, e.g. in verses of Imruʾ al-Ḳays (ed. Ahlwardt, no. 41, l. 5) and al-Nābig̲h̲a (ed. Ahlwa…

al-As̲h̲ʿarī, Abu ’l-Ḥasan

(958 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, ʿalī b. ismāʿīl , theologian, and founder of the school of orthodox theology which bears his name. He is said to have been born in 260/873-4 at Baṣra, and was ninth in descent from the Companion Abū Mūsā al-As̲h̲ʿarī. Little is known of his life. He was one of the best pupils of al-Ḏj̲ubbāʾī, head of the Muʿtazila in Baṣra, and might have succeeded him, had he not left the Muʿtazila for the party of the orthodox traditionists ( ahl al-sunna). This change or conversion is placed in 300/912-3. In later life he moved to Baghdād, and died there in 324/935-6. The story of al-As̲h̲ʿarī’s conversion …

Abū Ṭālib

(307 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, son of ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib b. Hās̲h̲im and Fāṭima bint ʿAmr (of Mak̲h̲zūm), and full brother of Muḥammad’s father. His own name was ʿAbd Manāf. He is said to have inherited the offices of siḳāya and rifāda (providing water and food for pilgrims) from his father, but at the Ḥilf al-Fuḍūl and war of the Fid̲j̲ār his brother al-Zubayr seems to have been the leading man of Hās̲h̲im. He fell into debt, and to meet this surrendered the siḳāya and rifāda to al-ʿAbbās. Nevertheless he seems to have remained chief of the clan of Hās̲h̲im, and their quarter of the town was called the s̲h̲iʿb


(381 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, time, especially infinitely extended time (cf. Lane; al-Bayḍāwī on K. 76.1). The pre-Islamic Arabs, as is shown by many passages in their poetry, regarded time (also zamān , and al-ayyām , the days) as the source of what happened to a man, both good and bad; they thus give it something of the connotation ¶ of Fate, though without worshipping it (W. L. Schrameier, Über den Fatalismus der vorislamischen Araber , Bonn 1881; Th. Nöldeke, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics , i, 661 b; for possible parallels cf. A. Christensen, Iran , 149 f., 157—Zurvān as both time …


(228 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, a mountain-road, or a place difficult of ascent on a hill or acclivity. There are many places of this name: the best-known is that between Minā and Mecca. Here, according to traditional accounts, Muḥammad had secret meetings with men from Medina at the pilgrimages of the years 621 and 622 A. D. In 621, at “the first ʿAḳaba”, twelve were present, and they gave to Muḥammad an undertaking known as ‘the pledge of the women’ ( bayʿat al-nisāʾ ); at “the second ʿAḳaba” seventy-three men and two women promised to defend Muḥammad, if necessary, by arms, in what is known as ‘the pledge of war’ ( bayʿat al-ḥ…


(367 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, people observing rigorous religious taboos, especially Ḳurays̲h̲ and certain neighbouring tribes. The word is the plural of aḥmas , “hard, strong (in fighting or in religion)”, but one of the Ḥums is called aḥmasī (fern, aḥmasiyya ). Ibn His̲h̲ām (126) thinks that taḥammus , the observance of the taboos in question, was an innovation of Ḳurays̲h̲ about the time of Muḥammad’s birth, and some changes may have been made to emphasize the superiority of Ḳurays̲h̲ to other tribes; but the nature of the taboos makes it li…


(693 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, an early sect, frequently mentioned but somewhat mysterious. Identity. No names are known of any members of the sect, apart from the alleged founder D̲j̲ahm [ q.v.]. The basic fact is that “after the translation of the Greek books in the second century a doctrine ( maḳāla ) known as that of the D̲j̲ahmiyya was spread by Bis̲h̲r b. G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Marīsī [ q.v.] and his generation (IbnTaymiyya, ʿAḳīda Ḥamawiyya , ap. M. Schreiner in ZDMG, liii, 72 f.; lii, 544). A pupil of Abū Yūsuf (d. 182/798), Bis̲h̲r (d. 218/833 or a little later) was questioned about his strange v…


(456 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, a North Arabian tribe, reckoned part of D̲h̲ubyān, which was itself included in G̲h̲aṭafān [ q.v.]. Its main pasture-grounds were in Wādi ’l-Rumma in Nad̲j̲d, and the names of many localities associated with it have been preserved (cf. Yāḳūt, index, s.v. Fazāra). In the Ḏj̲āhiliyya the famous war of Dāḥis between Abs and D̲h̲ubyān arose out of a wager between Ḳays b. Zuhayr, chief of Abs, and Ḥud̲h̲ayfa b. Badr of Fazāra about their respective horses Dāḥis and G̲h̲abrā. The latter won because of underhand acts by some men of Fazāra, and this led to the killing of a brother of Ḥud̲h̲ayfa. ¶ In t…

Banū Ḥanẓala b. Mālik

(403 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, a branch of the tribe of Tamīm [ q.v.], of the group of Maʿādd, descended from Zayd Manāt b. Tamīm. The chief subdivisions were Dārim (from which came the poet al-Farazdaḳ), Yarbūʿ (to which D̲j̲arīr belonged) and the Barād̲j̲im (five families descended from Mālik b. Ḥanẓala). They inhabited the Yamāma between the hills D̲j̲urād and Marrūt, near ḥimā Ḍariyya [ q.v.]. Among their villages were al-Ṣammān (with wells, cisterns and irrigation) and al-Raḳmatān; but they were mainly nomadic. In history they appear at the first “day of Kulāb” (probably before 550 A.D.) as suppo…


(452 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, an Arab tribe, reckoned along with Ḵh̲at̲h̲ʿam as a subdivision of Anmār; the nisba is Bad̲j̲alī. Bad̲j̲īla is sometimes said to be a woman, but her place in the genealogy is vague (cf. F. Wüstenfeld, Register zu den genealogischen Tabellen , 101-3; also Die Chroniken der Stadt Mekka , Leipzig 1858, ii, 134). Some genealogists held that Bad̲j̲īla was a Yemenite tribe; others made Anmār the son of Nīzār b. Maʿadd b. ʿAdnān (Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Usd al-G̲h̲āba , i, 279, art. ‘Ḏj̲arīr b. ʿAbd Allāh’; Ibn Durayd, ed. Wüstenfeld, 101 f.). The tribe was sometim…


(1,754 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
(a.) (pl. ḥunafāʾ ), means in Islamic writing one who follows the original and true (monotheistic) religion. 1. The Ḳurʾān. The word ḥanīf is used especially of Abraham as the type of this pure worship of God; II, 135/129; III, 67/60, 95/89; IV, 125/124; VI, 79, 161/162; XVI, 120/121, 123/124; XXII, 31/32. In most of these verses the ḥanīf is contrasted with the idolaters ( mus̲h̲rikūn ). Il is also asserted that Abraham was neither a Jew nor a Christian (III, 67/60; cf. II, 135/129), and that the people of the book were originally commanded to worship God as ḥunafāʾ (XCVIII, 5/4). In the rem…

Saʿd b. Muʿād̲h̲

(401 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, chief of the clan of ʿAbd al-As̲h̲hal in Medina in succession to his father. At the time of the Hid̲j̲ra he seems to have been the strongest man in the tribe of al-Aws, of which his clan was a part. He had taken part in the fighting prior to the battle of Buʿāt̲h̲ [ q.v.] and been wounded. The leader of al-Aws at Buʿāt̲h̲, Ḥuḍayr b. Simāk, is reckoned to another clan, but his son, Usayd b. Ḥuḍayr, seems to have been second-in-command to Saʿd in ʿAbd al-As̲h̲hal. Saʿd and Usayd were both for a time opposed to Islam and wanted to stop its spread, bu…


(906 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, ‘the helpers’, the usual designation of those men of Medina who supported Muḥammad, in distinction from the Muhād̲j̲irūn or ‘emigrants’ i.e. his Meccan followers. After the general conversion of the Arabs to Islam the old name of al-Aws and al-Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ jointly, Banū Ḳayla, fell out of use and was replaced by Anṣār, the individual being known as an Anṣārī (cf. Ḳurʾān, ix, 100/101, 117/118). In this way the early services of the men of Medina to the cause of Islam were honourably commemorated. Anṣār is presumably the plural of naṣīr , but the latter is never used as a technical term. The verb n…

Ḏj̲urhum or D̲j̲urham

(370 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, an ancient Arab tribe reckoned to the ʿArab al-ʿĀriba (see art. ʿarab , d̲j̲azīrat al-, vi). According to later standard Arab tradition, D̲j̲urhum was descended from Yaḳtān (Ḳaḥtān). The tribe migrated from the Yaman to Mecca. After a protracted struggle with another tribe Ḳatūra (also referred to as ʿAmālīḳ), led by al-Sumaydiʿ, D̲j̲urhum under their chief (called Muḍād b. ʿAmr, al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Muḍāḍ, etc.) gained control of the Kaʿba. This they retained till driven out by Bakr b. ʿAbd Manāt of K̲h̲uzāʿa. Th…


(351 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, ditch, trench or moat. The word seems to have come into Arabic from Persian through Syriac (cf. A. Siddiqi, Studien über die persischen Fremdwörter im klassischen Arabisch , Göttingen 1919). It is also known as a place-name (cf. Yāḳūt, ii, 476; al-Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ , 85). Its best-known application is to the so-called “expedition of the K̲h̲andaḳ”, in which Muḥammad foiled a Meccan attempt to storm Medina by digging a moat or trench at those parts of the oasis which were open to attack by cavalry. This was in D̲h̲…


(380 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, ancient Arabian tribe, reckoned part of Bakr b. Wāʾil [ q.v.]. Their common ancestor ʿId̲j̲l b. Lud̲j̲aym was proverbially noted for his stupidity (Goldziher, Muh . St., i, 48n; Eng. tr. i, 52n.). The tribe as a whole had a reputation for niggardliness (Masʿūdī, vi, 138f.; Yāḳūt, i, 183). They originally lived in al-Yamāma and in the region about the roads from Kūfa and Baṣra to Mecca. Among the settled localities belonging to them were Arāka, D̲j̲awk̲h̲āʾ and al-K̲h̲aḍārim; while their waters included Buḳayʿ, Tuḳayyid,…


(902 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, one of the two main Arab tribes in Medina. The other was al-Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲, and the two, which in pre-Islamic times were known as Banū Ḳayla from their reputed mother, constituted after the Hid̲j̲ra the ‘helpers’ of Muḥammad or Anṣār [ q.v.]. The genealogy as given by Ibn Saʿd (iii/2,1) is: al-Aws b. T̲h̲aʿlaba b. ʿAmr (Muzayḳiyāʾ) b. ʿĀmir (Māʾ al-Samāʾ) b. Ḥārit̲h̲a b. Imriʾ al-Ḳays b. T̲h̲aʿlaba b. Māzin b. al-Azd b. al-G̲h̲awt̲h̲ b. Nabt b. Mālik b. Zayd b. Kahlān b. Sabaʾ b. Yas̲h̲d̲j̲ub b. Yaʿrub b. Ḳaḥṭān. The following table giv…


(308 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, an early companion of Muḥammad’s, commonly known as al-Arḳam b. Abi ’l-Arḳam, and having the kunya Abū ʿAbd Allāh. His father’s name was ʿAbd Manāf, and he belonged to the influential clan of Mak̲h̲zūm at Mecca. His mother’s name is variously given, but she is usually said to be of the tribe of Ḵh̲uzāʿa. As al-Arḳam’s death is placed in 53/673 or 55/675 at the age of over eighty, he must have been born about 594; and he must have become a Muslim when very young, sin…


(520 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
b. K̲h̲uzayma , an Arab tribe, genealogically related to Asad (b. K̲h̲uzayma) [ q.v.]. The territories of Kināna were around Mecca from the Tihāma on the south-west, where they were next to Hud̲h̲ayl, to the north-east where they bordered on Asad. There were six main subdivisions of the tribe, though more are sometimes mentioned: al-Naḍr (or Ḳays), the ancestor of Ḳurays̲h̲ [ q.v.], which is reckoned a separate tribe; Mālik; Milkān (or Malkān); ʿĀmir; ʿAmr; ʿAbd Manāt. The latter was further subdivided. Bakr b. ʿAbd Manāt was a strong group, ¶ and included as parts Mudlid̲j̲, al-Duʾi…


(862 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, a theological school, the followers of Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-As̲h̲ʿarī [ q.v.], sometimes also called As̲h̲āʿira. (The history of the school has been little studied, and some of the statements in this article must be regarded as provisional). External history. During the last two decades of his life al-As̲h̲ʿarī attracted a number of disciples, and thus a school was founded. The doctrinal position of the new school was open to attack from several quarters. Apart from members of the Muʿtazila, certain groups of orthodox theologians attacked them. To the Ḥanbalīs [ q.v.] their use of ration…


(1,525 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, the tribe inhabiting Mecca in the time of Muḥammad and to which he belonged; the name, which may be a nickname, is mostly (e.g. Ibn His̲h̲ām, 61) said to come from taḳarrus̲h̲ , “a coming together, association”; but it is also possible (cf. Ṭabarī, i, 1104) that it is the diminutive of ḳirs̲h̲ , “shark”, and it could then be a totemic name like Kalb, etc. (A man called Ḳurays̲h̲, other than Fihr, is mentioned in Nasab Ḳurays̲h̲ , 12.7-9.) The tribe is taken to consist of the descendants of Fihr, and he himself is sometimes spoken of as Ḳurays̲h̲; bu…


(482 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
b. kaʿb al-ʿansī , of the tribe of Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲, leader of the first ridda in al-Yaman. His proper name is said to have been ʿAyhala or ʿAbhala, and he was also known as Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḵh̲imār, "the veiled one" (or Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥimār, "the man with the donkey"). After the murder of Ḵh̲usraw II Parwīz (Ar. Abarwīz) in 628, but possibly not before the capture of Mecca in 630, the Persians in al-Yaman, under Bād̲h̲ām (or Bād̲h̲ān), made an alliance with Muḥammad, since they realised that they could ob…

Saʿd b. ʿUbāda

(458 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, chief of the clan of Sāʿida at Medina. The clan appears to have been small since it is not mentioned in the fighting leading to the battle of Buʿāth [ q.v.], but it may have been more influential than its size warranted, perhaps because it was wealthy. Only two members of the clan were at the second meeting with Muḥammad at al-ʿAḳaba [ q.v.], but both were included among the nuḳabāʾ or representatives. One of these was Saʿd b. ʿUbāda, who had become a Muslim at an early date. Saʿd was badly treated by some Meccans on his way back from al-ʿAḳ…


(4,200 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
(a.), creed; but sometimes also doctrine, dogma or article of faith; and hence ʿaḳāʾid (pl.), articles of faith, is also used for "creed". 1. The Development and Use of the Form. The documents to which the terms ʿaḳīda or ʿaḳāʾid are applied vary in length, and the longer ones cannot be sharply divided from the comprehensive theological treatises (e.g. al-ʿAḳīda al-Niẓāmiyya by al-Ḏj̲uwaynī). The terms, however, may usefully be taken to signify compositions where the chief interest is in the formulation of doctrine or dogma, and not…


(688 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, first wife of Muḥammad, daughter of K̲h̲uwaylid of the clan of Asad of the tribe of Ḳurays̲h̲ in Mecca. Before her marriage to Muḥammad she had been married twice, to Abū Hāla al-Tamīmī, a client of the Meccan clan of ʿAbd al-Dār, and to ʿUtayyiḳ (or ʿAtīḳ) b. ʿĀʾid̲h̲ (incorrectly ʿĀbid) b. ʿAbd Allāh of the Meccan clan of Mak̲h̲zūm. The order of these marriages is disputed, as is also the ism of Abū Hāla and his genealogy. To Abū Hāla she is mostly said to have borne two sons with the (usually feminine) names of Hind and Hāla, and to ʿUtayy…

Kaʿb b. al-As̲h̲raf

(386 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, opponent of Muḥammad at Medina, reckoned to belong to his mother’s clan al-Naḍīr, though his father was an Arab of the Nabhān section of Ṭayyiʾ. He presumably followed the Jewish custom of taking his religion from his mother, but it is doubtful if he was a scholar, as the words in a poem sayyid al-aḥbār (Ibn His̲h̲ām, 659, 12) would imply, if the poem were genuine. Aroused by the deaths of many leading Meccans at Badr, he went to Mecca and used his considerable poetic gifts (he is called faḥl faṣiḥ in K. al-Ag̲h̲ānī ) to incite Ḳurays̲h̲ to fight the Muslims. On hi…


(155 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, a place on the road from Mecca to Medina, 23 miles from al-Ḏj̲uḥfa in the territory of Banū Ḍamra of Kināna. According to some authorities the name really belonged to a mountain situated there. Muḥammad’s mother, Āmina, is commonly said to have died there while returning from Medina to Mecca, and to be buried there; but she is sometimes said to be buried in Mecca (Ṭabarī, i, 980). The first expedition from Medina in which Muḥammad himself took part was to al-Abwāʾ and Waddān nearby. It is said…


(1,053 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
b. Ḥabīb, Abū T̲h̲umāma , a man of Banū Ḥanīfa who lived in al-Yamāma and led a large section of his tribe in revolt during the wars of the ridda [ q.v.]. The suggestion of some European scholars (as in the article in EI 1) that Musaylima is a contemptuous diminutive of Maslama appears to be mistaken. Because he claimed to be a prophet he is often called al-Kad̲h̲d̲h̲āb, the liar or false prophet. He is also said to have been called al-Raḥmān (al-Balād̲h̲urī, 105; al-Wāḳidī, 82); but this seems unlikely since al-Raḥmān was a name of God. …

Ḏj̲ahm b. Ṣafwān

(202 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, Abu muḥriz , early theologian, sometimes called al-Tirmid̲h̲ī or al-Samarḳandī. He was a client of Rāsib (a baṭn of Azd) and appears as secretary to al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Surayd̲j̲, “The man with the black banner” who revolted against the Umayyads and from 116/734 to 128/746 controlled tracts of eastern K̲h̲urāsān, sometimes in alliance with Turks. D̲j̲ahm was captured and executed in 128/746, shortly before al-Ḥārit̲h̲ himself. The basis of this movement of revolt, of which D̲j̲ahm was intellect…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḏj̲aḥs̲h̲

(131 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, of Banū Asad b. Ḵh̲uzayma, a confederate ( ḥalīf ) of Banū Umayya of Ḳurays̲h̲. His mother was Umayma bint ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib, Muḥammad’s aunt. An early Muslim along with his brothers, ʿUbayd Allāh and Abū Aḥmad, he took part with the former in the migration to Abyssinia. ʿUbayd Allāh became a Christian and died there, but ʿAbd Allāh returned to Mecca and was the most prominent of a group of confederates, including his sister Zaynab [ q.v.], who all migrated to Medina. He led the much-criticized raid to Nak̲h̲la where Muslims first shed Meccan blood, and fought at Badr. …


(236 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, daughter of Muḥammad and his wife K̲h̲adīd̲j̲a. She is sometimes said to have been the eldest of his four daughters, but this is unlikely. She and her sister Umm Kult̲h̲ūm were betrothed and married to two sons of Abū Lahab [ q.v.], but the latter told his sons to divorce their wives when Muḥammad began his career as a prophet. The divorces could not have been, as sometimes stated, after the revelation of ¶ sūra CXI, in which Abū Lahab is attacked, unless that was an early Meccan revelation. The statement in some sources that the divorces took …


(1,111 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, latinized as Hegira, the emigration of Muḥammad from Mecca to Medina in September 622. The first stem of the verb, had̲j̲ara , means “to cut someone off from friendly association” (cf Ḳurʾān IV, 34/38) or “to avoid association with” (LXXIII, 10); there is often an explicit or implicit reference to a sexual relationship, as in the first Ḳurʾānic verse. The third stem hād̲j̲ara refers to a mutual ending of friendly relationships. Thus hid̲j̲ra properly does not mean “flight” as it has been traditionally translated but connotes primarily the brea…


(559 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, name of a tribe or place: (1) A tribe called Iram is mentioned several times in ancient poems (over a dozen references are given by J. Horovitz, Koranische Untersuchungen , Berlin 1926, 89 f.). It is mostly coupled with ʿĀd, but sometimes also with T̲h̲amūd. Ḥimyar, etc., and is said to have been destroyed by a man called Ḳudār al-Aḥmar (Uḥaymir). In this meaning Iram is an ajicient Arabian tribe. In his Muʿallaḳa , 68, al-Ḥārīth b. Ḥilliza uses the adjective iramī in the sense of ‘a man of ancient race’ (cf. al-Tibrīzī, ad loc). When Muslim scholars came to link up traditional Arab gen…


(3,499 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-Ṭūsī (450/1058-505/1111), outstanding theologian, jurist, original thinker, mystic and religious reformer. There has been much discussion since ancient times whether his nisba should be G̲h̲azālī or G̲h̲azzālī; cf. Brockelmann, S I, 744; the former is to be preferred in accordance with the principle of difficilior lectio potius. 1. Life He was born at Ṭūs in Ḵh̲urāsān, near the modern Mes̲h̲hed, in 450/1058. He and his brother Aḥmad were left orphans at an early age. Their education was begun in Ṭūs. Then al-G̲h̲a…

Saʿd b. Bakr

(191 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, Banū , a small Arab tribe, usually reckoned as part of the tribe or tribal group of Hawāzin [ q.v.]. To a section of this tribe belonged Ḥalīma bint Abī Ḏh̲uʾayb, Muḥammad’s wet-nurse. After the battle of Ḥunayn [ q.v.] her daughter S̲h̲aymāʾ, who had been taken prisoner, obtained her release by proving to Muḥammad that she was his milk-sister [see also raḍāʿ. 2]; and some of the men of the tribe, because they were Muḥammad’s milk-brothers, were able to facilitate various negotiations. The tribe was apparently divided into several small sections. The grou…


(578 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Watt, W. Montgomery
, a large Arab tribe of the Yemen group, the full genealogy being Hamdān (Awsala) b. Mālik b. Zayd b. Rabīʿa b. Awsala b. al-K̲h̲iyār b. Mālik b. Zayd b. Kahlān. Their territory lay to the north of Ṣanʿā [ q.v.], stretching eastwards to Maʾrib [ q.v.] and Nad̲j̲rān [ q.v.], northwards to Ṣaʿda [ q.v.], and westwards to the coast (Abū Arīs̲h̲). The eastern half belonged to the sub-tribe of Bakīl, the western to Ḥās̲h̲id [ q.v.], and these are still found there. In the D̲j̲āhiliyya Hamdān worshipped the idol Yaʿūḳ (but probably not Yag̲h̲ūt̲h̲ as sometimes stated; cf. Wellhausen, Reste


(803 words)

Author(s): Goldziher, I. | Watt, W. Montgomery
, the appointed term of a man’s life or the date of his death; a topic regularly discussed in the earlier kalām along with that of rizḳ or sustenance. The idea that the date of a man’s death is fixed presumably belongs to pre-Islamic thought. The word ad̲j̲al is used in the Ḳurʾān in a variety of ways, e.g. for the date when the embryo emerges from the womb (xxii, 5), for the period Moses had to serve for his wife (xxviii, 28 f.), for the date when a debt is due (ii, 282), etc. In creating the heavens and earth, the sun and moon, God fixed an ad̲j̲al for them (xlvi, 3; xxxix, 5 etc.); with this is con…

Ḳays ʿAylān

(1,917 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery | Baer, G. | Hoexter, M.
, one of the two subdivisions of Muḍar, which along with Rabīʿa was reckoned as constituting the sons of ʿAdnān, the so-called Northern Arabs [see d̲j̲azīrat al-ʿarab ]. The other subdivision of Muḍar was K̲h̲indif or al-Yās. ʿAylān is sometimes said to be the father of Ḳays, but it is more likely that the double name means “Ḳays (owner) of ʿAylān” (sc. a horse, dog or slave). The following is an abbreviated genealogical table: ¶ Ḳays ʿAylān does not appear to have functioned as a unit before Islam, and in the accounts of “the days of the Arabs” o…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAwf

(199 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M.Th. | Watt, W. Montgomery
, originally called ʿAbd ʿAmr or ʿAbd al-Kaʿba, the most prominent early Muslim convert from B. Zuhra of Ḳurays̲h̲. He took part in the Hid̲j̲ra to Abyssinia and in that to Medina, and fought at Badr and the other main battles. He commanded a force of 700 men sent by Muḥammad in S̲h̲aʿbān 6/December 627 to Dūmat al-Ḏj̲andal; the Christian chief, al-Aṣbag̲h̲ (or al-Aṣyaʿ) al-Kalbī, became a Muslim and made a ‘treaty, and ʿAbd al-Raḥmān married his daughter Tumāḍir (but cf. Caetani, Annali , i, 700). By his shrewdness and skill as a merchant he made an enor…


(13,695 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery | Winder, R.B.
(usually Medina in English, Médine in French), residence of the Prophet Muḥammad after the ḥid̲j̲ra and one of the sacred cities of Islam. Medina is situated in the Ḥid̲j̲āz province of Saʿūdī Arabia in latitude 24° 28′ N, longitude 39° 36′ E, about 160 km. from the Red Sea and about 350 km. north of Mecca. It has developed from an oasis on relatively level ground between the hill of Uḥud on the north and that of ʿAyr on the south. East and west are lava flows (in Arabic ḥarra [ q.v.] or lāba ). There are several wādī s or watercourses which cross the oasis from south to…


(190 words)

Author(s): Weir, T.H. | Watt, W. Montgomery
also written Ḥarāʾ , and without hamza ), a mountain three Arabian miles to the north-east of Mecca, often mentioned along with another mountain opposite, T̲h̲abīr [ q.v.]. It was near the s̲h̲iʿb or quarter of the family of al-Ak̲h̲nas, on the left of the pilgrim road to ʿIrāḳ. Muḥammad is said to have been in the habit of spending a month each year in a cave on Ḥirāʾ engaged in taḥannut̲h̲ , presumably some form of religious devotion, and to have been visited here by an angel (Ibn His̲h̲ām, 152; cf. Ṭabarī, i, 1147 f., 1155); this experience is sometimes identified with ¶ the beginning of revel…


(22,344 words)

Author(s): Coon, C.S. | Wissmann, H. von | Kussmaul, F. | Watt, W. Montgomery
I. Pastoral nomads of Arabian blood, speech, and culture are found in the Arabian Peninsula proper and in parts of Iran, Soviet Turkestan, North Africa, and the Sudan. This article is limited to their way of life in their home territory. Unlike primitive hunting and gathering, pastoral nomadism is a sophisticated System of exploiting land incapable of cultivation. Later to arise than agriculture, pastoralism utilises seven species of domestic animals: the sheep, goat, and ox, domesticated in Neolithic times as part of the ¶ herding and sowing complex of Western Asia; the ass, …


(45,581 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery | Wensinck, A.J. | Bosworth, C.E. | Winder, R.B. | King, D.A.
(in English normally “Mecca”, in French “La Mecque”), the most sacred city of Islam, where the Prophet Muḥammad was born and lived for about 50 years, and where the Kaʿba [ q.v.] is situated. 1. The pre-Islamic and early Islamic periods Geographical description. Mecca is located in the Ḥid̲j̲āz about 72 km. inland from the Red Sea port of Jedda (D̲j̲udda [ q.v.]), in lat. 21° 27′ N. and long. 39° 49′ E. It is now the capital of the province ( manātiḳ idāriyya ) of Makka in Suʿūdī Arabia, and has a normal population of between 200,000 and 300,000, which …
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