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(858 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. De
, or Dāstān-i Ḳahramān , a popular romance in prose, several versions of which are known in both Persian and Turkish. It belongs to a series of prose works which develop themes from the Iranian epic tradition, embellishing them with fabulous touches borrowed from folk literature. Like the Hūs̲h̲ang-nāma , the Ṭahmūrat̲h̲-nāma and the Ḳiṣṣa-i Ḏj̲ams̲h̲īd . the story takes place in the earliest period of the legendary history of Iran, the times of the pis̲h̲dādīyān . The central hero is Kahramān, nicknamed Ḳātil, “the slayer”. His name is in fact a c…


(313 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Mad̲j̲d al-Dīn Muḥammad al-Bisṭāmī (or al-Harawī), Persian scholar and theologian, was born in 803/1400-1 at S̲h̲āhrūd near Bisṭām as a descendant of the famous theologian Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn al-Rāzī [ q.v.]. The nickname muṣannifak (“the little writer”) was probably given to him “in allusion to his youthful productivity as a writer” (Storey). He studied at Harāt and continued to live in Eastern Persia until 848/1444 when he travelled to Anatolia. While he was teaching at Ḳonya, his hearing d…


(1,781 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Ḥamīd al-Dīn Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh , was a prominent dāʿī of the Fāṭimids during the reign of al-Ḥākim bi-amr Allāh (386-411/996-1021) as well as the author of many works on the theory of the Imāmate and on Ismāʿīlī philosophy. The life of al-Kirmānī is known only in its main outlines, which can be traced on the basis of statements contained in his own works. Some other details can be derived from unpublished Ismāʿīlī sources, as has been done notably by Muṣṭafā G̲h̲ālib ( op. cit., 41 f.) who, however, does not specify these sources. His nisba points to his origin fro…

Sabk-i, Hindī

(1,736 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
(p.), the Indian style, is the third term of a classification of Persian literature into three stylistic periods. The other terms, sabk-i Ḵh̲urāsānī (initially also called sabk-i Turkistānī ) and sabk-i ʿIrāḳī , refer respectively to the eastern and the western parts of mediaeval Persia. The assumption underlying this geographical terminology is that the shifts of the centre of literary activity from one area to another, which took place repeatedly since the 4th/10th century, were paralleled by a stylisti…


(500 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
(the most probable interpretation of the consonants mhsty , for which other forms, like Mahistī, Mahsitī or Mihistī, have been proposed as well; cf. Meier, 43 ff.) a Persian female poet whose historical personality is difficult to ascertain. She must have lived at some time between the early 5th/11th and the middle of the 6th/12th century. The earliest sources situate her alternatively in the environment of Maḥmūd of G̲h̲azna, of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ Sultan Sand̲j̲ar, or of a legendary king of Gand̲j̲a in Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān. The qualification dabīr or dabīra is often …

Nūr al-Ḥaḳḳ al-Dihlawī

(269 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, or Nūr al-Dīn Muḥammad al-S̲h̲āhd̲j̲ahānābādī, a traditionist and historiographer of Mug̲h̲al India who flourished in the 11th/17th century. The nickname “al Turk al-Buk̲h̲ārī” points to his origin from Central Asia. As a poet he adopted the pen name “Mas̲h̲riḳī”. He was the son of the scholar ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ [ q.v.] al-Dihlawī, a well-known s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of the Ḳādiriyya order. Nūr al-Ḥaḳḳ succeeded his father as a religious teacher and was appointed a judge at Agra under S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān. His death at Dihlī occurred in 1073/1662. In Zubdat al-tawārīk̲h̲ , Nūr al-Ḥaḳḳ enlarged the Tārīk̲h̲-…


(445 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
(p.). a Persian word, derived as an adjective from the common Iranian root nāman- , “name”. Already in Middle Persian the form nāmag can be ¶ found also as a substantive referring to an inscription, a letter or a book. In the orthography of Pahlavī, the word could be written either phonemically, as n’mk’, or by means of any of two heterographs: S̲H̲M-k’, which was based on the Semitic word for “name”, and MGLT’, i.e. the Aramaic m e gill e ta , “scroll” (cf. L. Koehler and W. Baumgartner, Lexicon in Veteris Testamenti libros , Leiden 1953, 1091). It occurs also in co…

Maḥmūd B. ʿAbd al-Karīm b. Yaḥyā S̲h̲abistarī

(1,188 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, (or S̲h̲abustarī , according to modern Azeri writers) S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Saʿd al-Dīn, Persian mystic and writer. He was born at S̲h̲abistar, a small town near the north-eastern shore of Lake Urmiya. The date of his birth is unknown, but would have to be fixed about 686/1287-8 if the report that he died at the age of 33 (mentioned in an inscription on a tombstone erected on his grave in the 19th century) is accepted. He is said to have led the life of a prominent religious scholar at Tabrīz. Travels to Egypt, Syria and the Ḥid̲j̲āz are mentioned in the introduction to the Saʿādat-nāma


(547 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Sayyid (or Mīr) Muḥammad Ḥusayn , a modern Persian poet. He was born about 1905 at Tabrīz as the son of a lawyer, and belonging to a family of sayyid s in the village of K̲h̲us̲h̲gnāb. In his early work he used the pen name Bahd̲j̲at, which he later changed to S̲h̲ahriyār, a name chosen from the Dīwān of Ḥāfiẓ, who was his great model as a writer of g̲h̲azal s. He read medicine at the Dār al-Funūn in Tehran, but left his studies unfinished to become a government clerk in K̲h̲urāsān. After some time he returned to Tehran, where for many years…

Nizārī Ḳuhistānī

(754 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Ḥakīm Saʿd al-Dīn b. S̲h̲ams al-dīn Muḥammad poète persan, né en 647/1247-8 à Bīrd̲j̲and [ q.v.], où il mourut en 720/1320. Nizārī n’était pas seulement son pseudonyme en tant que poète, mais aussi une indication de la loyauté de sa famille à l’égard de Nizār [ q.v.] qui, à la fin du Ve/XIe siècle, prétendit à l’imāmat fāṭimide avec le soutien de la plupart des Ismāʿīliens persans. Les seules données biographiques doivent être tirées de ses propres oeuvres. D’après Borodin, suivi par Rypka, il aurait été attaché à la cour des Maliks Kart de Harā…

Muḥtas̲h̲am-i Kās̲h̲ānī

(875 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, S̲h̲ams al-S̲h̲uʿarāʾ Kamāl al-Dīn , Persian poet of the early Ṣafawid period, born ca. 1500 in Kās̲h̲ān. According to the most reliable sources, he died in 996/1587-8; a ¶ less likely dating of his death, given by Abū Ṭālib Iṣfahānī in K̲h̲ulāṣat al-afkār (see Storey i/2, 878), is 1000/1591-2. For some time he was a draper ( bazzāz ) like his father, but he abandoned this trade for the more profitable career of a professional poet. His work was appreciated at the Ṣafawid court at Ḳazwīn. He seems to have continued, however, to l…

ʿUbayd-I Zākānī

(909 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. De
, or Niẓām al-Dīn ʿUbayd Allāh al-Zākānī, Persian poet of the Mongol period who became especially famous for his satires and parodies. He was born into a family of scholars and state officials descending from Arabs of the Banū Ḵh̲afād̲j̲a [ q.v.] settled in the area of Ḳazwīn since early Islamic times. In 730/1329-30 the historian Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī described him as a talented poet and a writer of learned treatises. A collection of Arabic sayings by prophets and wise men, entitled Nawādir al-amt̲h̲āl , belongs to this early period. When later in the same …

Malik al-S̲h̲uʿarāʾ

(980 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
(a.), “King of the Poets”, honorific title of a Persian poet laureate, which is also known in other forms. It was the highest distinction which could be given to a poet by a royal patron. Like other honorifics [see laḳab ], it confirmed the status of its holder within his profession and was regarded as a permanent addition to his name which sometimes even became a hereditary title. Corresponding to this on a lower level was the privilege, given occasionally to court poets, of choosing a pen name [see tak̲h̲alluṣ ] based on the name or one of the laḳab s of their patron. Certain responsibilities we…

Rāmī Tabrīzī

(612 words)

Author(s): Berthels, E. | Bruijn, J. T. P. de
, S̲h̲araf al-dīn Ḥasan b. ¶ Muḥammad, poète et rhétoricien persan dont l’activité se situe au milieu du VIIIe/XIVe siècle. On ne sait que très peu de chose sur sa vie, et les rares indications que nous avons sont imprécises ou bien ne sont pas fiables. Dawlats̲h̲āh déclare qu’il fut poète lauréat ( malik al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ [ q.v.]) du ʿIrāḳ pendant le règne du Muẓaffaride S̲h̲āh Manṣūr (règn. 789-95/1387-93), mais les dédicaces de ses deux œuvres les plus importantes prouvent qu’il fréquenta la cour du sultan Abū l-Fatḥ Uways Bahādur dit aussi S̲h̲ayk̲h̲…


(317 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, ʿAlāʾ al-dīn ʿAlī b. Mad̲j̲d al-dīn Muḥammad al-Biṣtāmī (ou al-Harawī), écrivain et théologien persan. Il naquit en 803/1400-1 à S̲h̲āhrūd, près de Bisṭām, dans une famille descendant du fameux théologien Fak̲h̲r al-dīn al-Rāzī [ q.v.]. Le surnom de Muṣannifak «le petit écrivain» lui fut probablement donné «par allusion à son œuvre précoce d’écrivain» (Storey). Il étudia à Harāt et demeura dans la Perse orientale jusqu’en 848/1444, date à laquelle il se rendit en Anatolie, Alors qu’il enseignait à Ḳonya, son ouïe se détériora a…

Taḳī Awḥadī

(451 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, ou Taḳī al-dīn Muḥammad al-Ḥusaynī al-Awḥadī, auteur d’anthologies, lexicographe et poète persan. Né à Iṣfahān le 3 Muḥarram 973/31 Janvier 1565, d’une famille de tradition ṣūfie originaire de Balyān, dans le Fārs. Il eut pour ancêtre du côté de son père, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Abū ʿAlī al-Daḳḳāḳ, au Ve/XIe siècle. Au cours de son adolescence, il étudia à S̲h̲īrāz, où il présenta ses premiers poèmes à un cercle de poètes et il fut encouragé par ʿUrfī [ q.v.]. De retour à Iṣfahān, il attira l’attention du jeune S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās Ier et rejoignit ses familiers. En 1003/1594-5, Taḳī se retira pour …


(2,077 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Aḥmad, mystique persan, m. le 10 muḥarram 425/5 décembre 1033 à l’âge de 73 ans. Sa nisba vient du village de Ḵh̲araḳān situé dans les montagnes au Nord de Bisṭām, sur la route d’Astarābād (mod. Gurgān); ce nom de lieu est diversement vocalisé, même dans les sources anciennes relatives à la vie de ce mystique, et la confusion peut fort bien provenir de l’existence d’autres toponymes dont le ductus consonantique est le même, notamment Ḵh̲arḳān, près de Samarḳand, et Ḵh̲anaḳān, entre Hamadān et Ḳazwīn. Dans les poèmes de ʿAṭṭār, la nisba de ce mystique est uniformément…


(1,360 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Abū l-Ḳasim Ḥasan b. Aḥmad, poète persan de la cour g̲h̲āznavide, au début du Ve/XIe siècle. Les renseignements extérieurs sur sa vie sont avant tout anecdotiques. On dit qu’il naquit à Balk̲h̲. et qu’il fut orphelin dès son jeune âge; il gagnait sa vie en tant que marchand dans sa jeunesse. L’histoire, rapportée par certaines sources, selon laquelle il aurait été associé à une histoire de vol, lors de l’un de ses voyages, lui a été attribuée à tort (cf. Storey-de Blois, V/1, 234-5). Il débuta sa carrière de p…

Nūr al-Ḥaḳḳ al-Dihlawī

(267 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, ou Nūr al-dīn Muḥammad al-S̲h̲āhd̲j̲ahānābādī, traditionniste et historiographe de l’Inde mug̲h̲ale, qui vivait au XIe/XVIIe siècle. Son surnom d’al-Turk al-Buk̲h̲ārī est une allusion au fait qu’il était originaire de l’Asie Centrale. Comme poète, il avait pour pseudonyme Mas̲h̲riḳī. Il était le fils de ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ [ q.v.] al-Dihlawī, un s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ bien connu de la confrérie des Ḳādiriyya. Nūr al-Ḥaḳḳ lui succéda comme professeur de religion et fut nommé juge à Agra sous le règne de S̲h̲āh Ḏj̲ahān. Il mourut à Dihlī en 1073/1662. Dans la Zubdat al-tawārīk̲h̲, Nūr al-Ḥaḳḳ a comp…


(308 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Muḥammad S̲h̲arīf b. S̲h̲ams al-dīn al-S̲h̲īrāzī (vers 1001 - après 1063/1592-1653), prosateur et poète persan qui utilisa le tak̲h̲alluṣ de Kās̲h̲if (on trouve également les formes de Kās̲h̲if-i Kumayt [cf. Rosen, Manuscrits persans, 285], et S̲h̲arīfā Kās̲h̲if [cf. Tad̲h̲kira-i Naṣrābādī dans le synopsis de A. Sprenger, Catal. Oud̲h̲., 91]); il vécut à Iṣfahān et plus tard à Rayy où il exerça les fonctions de ḳāḍī pendant 15 ans. Ses frères Ismāʿīl Munṣif et Muḳīma sont également connus comme poètes. De l’œuvre de Kās̲h̲if, il ne subsiste apparemment que …
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