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Himeraeus

(111 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἱμεραῖος; Himeraîos). Son of Phanostratus of Phalerum, Athenian rhetor of the 4th cent. BC, brother of  Demetrius [4] of Phalerum, priest of Poseidon (Syll.3 289,18); opponent of the Macedonians and counsel for the prosecution against Demosthenes in the trial of  Harpalus in 323 BC (Plut. Mor. 846C). After the defeat of Athens in the Lamian War in 322 BC, H. fled to Aegina, was sentenced to death in his absence on the orders of Demades, seized and executed by command of  Antipater [1] (Arr. FGrH 156 F 9 (13); Lucian. Demosthenis Encomium 31; Plut. Demosthenes 28,4). Enge…

Melanopus

(136 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Μελάνωπος; Melánōpos), son of Laches of Aexone. Member of the Athenian legation to Sparta in 372/1 BC (Xen. Hell. 6,3,2). He proposed a decree of the Council in 364/3 (IG II2 145,11-14) and in 355 was legate (possibly as strategos IG II2 150,5) to Maussollus of Halicarnassus, and possibly also to Naucratis in Egypt (Demosth. Or. 24,12). M. was accused of corruption several times, primarily by Demosthenes [2] (Demosth. Or. 24,127; cf. Aristot. Rhet. 1,14,1, 1374b 25), and was a political opponent of Callistratus [2] of A…

Aphobus

(113 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἄφοβος; Áphobos). Son of Mnesiboulus of the Attic deme of Sphettus (?),  before 400 BC, died after 361. Cousin of the orator  Demosthenes, trierarch (Dem. Or. 27,14); from 376/75 to 366 one of the guardians of Demosthenes. Accused by the latter in 366 of embezzlement, he was sentenced in 364/63 to repay the sum of 10 talents (cf. Dem. Or. 27-29 Against A. and 30-31 Against  Onetor; see especially Dem. Or. 27,4; 29,60; 30,6-8; Plut. Mor. 844C-D; PA and Davies 2776, cf. also Davies 3597, V-VI). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography D. M. MacDowell, The Authenticity of…

Cercidas

(694 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(Κερκιδᾶς, Κερκίδας; Kerkidâs, Kerkídas). [German version] [1] Arcadian orator, supposedly acting in the political interest of Philippus II C., an Arcadian orator mentioned by  Demosthenes [2] (Dem. Or. 18,295) in his famous ‘list of traitors’ in the speech ‘On the Crown’ and supposedly acting in the political interest of  Philippus II (similar also Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 119; Pol. 18,14,1-2). The conclusiveness of the accusations by Demosthenes and Theopompus can no longer be verified. C. was descended from a rich…

Polycles

(443 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Πολυκλῆς/ Polyklês). [German version] [1] Athenian councillor 367/6 BC Son of Polycrates from the deme of Anagyrous; Athenian councillor in 367/6 BC (Agora XV,14) and several times trierarch and syntrierarch (IG II2 1609,105 f.; 1611,371; 1622b,238 and 1630,6: again 327/6-325/4 BC). P. did not take over his trierarchy until a long time after the appointed date, for which he was taken to court by Apollodorus [1] in 359 BC (Dem. Or. 50). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 465 f.  Develin, Nr. 2567  PA 11988. [German version] [2] Sculptor in bronze from Argos, 4th cent. BC Scul…

Cephisodotus

(988 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κηφισόδωτος; Kēphisódōtos). [German version] [1] Athenian stratēgós, killed in 405/4 BC in the battle of Aigos Potami Athenian stratēgós, killed in 405/4 BC in the battle of  Aigos Potami or executed afterwards with other Athenian prisoners of war (Xen. Hell. 2,1,16-32; Diod. Sic. 13,105f.; Plut. Alcibiades 36,4; Plut. Lysander 13,1) [1]. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian stratēgós, friend of  Charidemus, whom he unexpectedly faced as enemy in 360/59 BC Athenian stratēgós from the Acharnae deme; friend of  Charidemus [2], on whose request he …

Mantias

(261 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Μαντίας; Mantías). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos, 360/359 BC Son of Mantitheus of Thoricus In 377/76 BC tamias of the shipyards (IG II2 1622,435f). In 360/359 BC Athenian strategos of a naval division and auxiliary troops sent to assist the Macedonian claimant Argaeus against Philip II. By delaying in Methone, he was co-responsible for Argaeus's defeat (Diod. Sic. 16,2,6 and 16,3,5; in c. 358/7). Details about his family are distorted by diabolḗ (‘slander, calumny’) in Demosthenes (Or. 39 and 40). For his trierarchies cf. IG II2 1604,10 and 46 as well as 1609,61f. Engels, Joh…

Lachares

(480 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Λαχάρης; Lacháres). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue and confidant of Cassander Athenian, demagogue and confidant of Cassander. L. succeeded, with a mercenary force, in establishing a rulership in Athens, probably from early in 300 BC to early in 295 (Olympiad Chronicle FGrH 257a F 1-4; Plut. Demetrius 33; however, IG II2 646 indicates 294 BC), which is described in ancient sources as a tyrannis, although fundamental organs of democracy continued to operate. Following the death of Cassander (297), L. managed to hold out, but was forced …

Milyas

(216 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] Trustee of the legacy of Demosthenes Milyas (Μιλύας; Milýas), a confidant of Demosthenes [2], administered his inheritance. In a legal dispute between Demosthenes and his guardians, the latter accused M. of irregularities. Aphobus demanded that the presumed slave M. be handed over for interrogation under torture. Demosthenes refused, on the grounds that M. had already been freed by his father (cf. Dem. Or. 29). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Schäfer, Vol. 4, supplements, 1885, 82-85 Traill, PAA 653990. [German version] [2] Region in southern Asia…

Callippus

(640 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
(Κάλλιππος; Kállippos). [German version] [1] Athenian student of Plato Athenian student of  Plato, who took Callistratus, who had been sentenced in an   eisangelía proceeding, to Thasos in 361 BC on the order of the stratēgós Timomachus (Dem. Or. 50,47-52). In 357 C. evaded charges in Athens by accompanying  Dion [I 1] during his enforced return to Sicily (Plut. Dion 22,5 and 54,1; Pl. Ep. 7, 333e). Though initially held in high esteem by Dion as a philosophical and political advisor and ‘condottiere’, C. turned against Dion in 3…

Mnesicles

(642 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Μνησικλῆς; Mnēsiklês). [German version] [1] Greek architect, c. 430 BC Greek architect of the classical period. His chief work are the Propylaea on the Athenian Acropolis, begun in 437 BC and prematurely discontinued at the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC (Plut. Pericles 13). The forms and proportions of the architecture of the Propylaea show that M. acquired his skills among the masons of the Parthenon. While the Propylaea remained unfinished and their original design had to be altered owing…

Democles

(138 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Δημοκλῆς; Dēmoklês). [German version] [1] Athenian, attempted to flee from erotic pursuit by Demetrius Poliorcetes At the baths the Athenian D. saved himself as an ‘immature boy’ (παῖς ἄνηβος; paîs ánēbos) from erotic pursuit by  Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes by jumping into a kettle of boiling water but was killed as a result (Plut. Demetrios 24,2-6). D. is not identical with the defender of the sons of Lycurgus against the suits of Moerocles and Menesaechmus (Ps.-Plut. Mor. 842E).  Athens Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Attic orator of the school of Theophrastus Attic o…

Philippides

(307 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
(Φιλιππίδης/ Philippídēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (2nd half of 4th cent. BC) Athenian, follower of Philip II (Philippus [4] II), mocked by the comic poets Alexis, Aristophon [4] and Menander [4] (Ath. 6,230c; 238c; 11,503a; 12,552d-f). After two convictions for proposing illegal measures, as charged by Hyperides in 336 BC or between 336 and 334, he was again prosecuted on such a charge ( paranómōn graphḗ ) for his proposal to grant honours to the próhedroi (Hyp. Or. 4), among whom Philip [4] II had been honoured. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography J. Engels, Stu…

Dromocleides

(88 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Δρομοκλείδης; Dromokleides). [German version] [1] Athenian archon 475/4 BC Athenian archon 475/4 BC. (Diod. Sic. 11,50,1). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian demagogue c. 295 BC Influential and active Athenian demagogue, supporting  Demetrius [2] Poliorketes. In 295 BC he proposed that Piraeus and Munychia be handed over to Demetrius and, probably in 292/1, that the ‘saviour’ Demetrius be asked for an oracle (Plut. Demetrius 13,1-3; 34,1-7).  Athens;  Kolakes Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Habicht, 94; 98-100 Id., Unt. zur polit. Ge…

Neaera

(250 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Νέαιρα; Néaira). [German version] [1] Helios' mistress Helios' mistress, mother of the cowherds tending their father's herd on Thrinacie (Hom. Od. 12,133). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Strymon's mistress Strymon's mistress and mother of Euadne, who was spouse of Argos [I 1] (Apollod. 2,3). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Daughter of Pereus Daughter of Pereus, spouse of Aleus [1], mother of Auge [2] (Apollod. 3,102). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [4] Spouse of Aetas Spouse of Aetas (alsoIdyia; schol. Apoll. Rhod. 3,240). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) …

Ctesiphon

(390 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Hauser, Stefan R. (Berlin)
(Κτησιφῶν; Ktésiphôn). [German version] [1] Athenian, supporter of Demosthenes [2], 2nd half of the 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Leosthenes from Anaphlystus, supporter of  Demosthenes [2], whom he had successfully, though technically pre-empting official endorsement ( Euthynae), proposed in 337/6 for a crowning.  Aeschines [2] lodged a protest against this that was unambiguously rejected in 330 at the ‘crown trial’ (Aeschin. In Ctes.; Dem. Or. 18; Plut. Mor. 840C and 846A). C. was also one of the emissaries to queen Cleopatra in Epirus (Aeschin. In Ctes. 242). Engels, Johannes (C…

Dinarchus

(546 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Δείναρχος; Deínarchos). [German version] A. Life Attic orator, born about 361 BC in Corinth, son of Sostratus, died after 292. The source of information on his life is the (incompletely transmitted) treatise De Dinarcho of Dionysius of Halicarnassus, who relied in particular on a lost speech by D. (‘Against Proxenus’); the other lives (Ps.-Plut., Photius, Suda) depend on Dionysius. D. relocated in his younger years ( c. 340/38) to Athens, lived there as a metic and had links to the Peripatetic school. After about 336/5 he was active as a  logographer. Despite his successful activity …

Demophilus

(250 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
(Δημόφιλος; Dēmóphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian orator, mid-4th cent. BC Athenian orator who, in 346/45 BC, proposed the scrutiny of citizen lists which resulted in loss of citizenship for many (Aeschin. In Tim. 77,86; Androtion FGrH 324 F 52 = Philochorus FGrH 328 F 52; Sch. Aeschin. In Tim. 77) [1; 2]. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian prosecutor of Aristotle 323 BC Athenian, accused  Aristotle in 323 BC (Diog. Laert. 5,5; Ath. 696a) of asébeia,impiety, because of the hymn and epigram to Hermias of Atarneus (cf. [3]). D. was successful in…

Menyllos

(166 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Μένυλλος; Ményllos). [German version] [1] Military officer in the Lamian War, 322 BC After the Athenian defeat in the Lamian War by Antipater [1] in 322 BC, M. was appointed commander of the Macedonian garrison at the Munychia fortress in Piraeus (Diod. 18,18,5; Plut. Phocion 28,1 and 7). He was on good terms with Phocion who was then in charge of Athenian policy. After the death of Antipater, Cassander replaced M. with Nicanor. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography W. S. Ferguson, Hellenistic Athens, 1911, 20. [German version] [2] Envoy of Ptolemy VI to Rome, 163/2 BC In 163/2 BC, M. …

Hegesander

(324 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] [1] Athen. rhetor, middle of 4th cent. BC Athenian rhetor, son of Hegesias from the deme Sunium and brother of  Hegesippus [1], in 361/60 BC treasurer (Aeschin. In Tim. 55f.; 95) of the strategos Timomachus and despite the latter's sentence for bribery shortly afterwards   tamias of Athena (Aeschin. In Tim. 110f. and schol.), implying that he was a rich man. In the trial against Timocrates  Aeschines [2] most likely slanderously accused him of illegal enrichment. H. was considered an opponent of Aristop…
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