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Ḳād̲j̲ār

(12,370 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
( kačar “marching quickly”, cf. Sulaymān Efendī, Lug̲h̲at-i Čag̲h̲atai , Istanbul 1298, 214; P. Pelliot, Notes sur l’histoire de la horde d’or, Paris 1950, 203-4), a Turcoman tribe, to which the Ḳād̲j̲ār dynasty of Persia belonged; also a village in the Lītkūh district of Āmul [ q.v.]. Nineteenth century Persian historians assert that the Ḳād̲j̲ār took their name from Ḳād̲j̲ār Noyān b. Sirtāḳ Noyān. The latter was the son of Sābā Noyān b. D̲j̲alāʾir, and was appointed atabeg [ q.v.] to Arg̲h̲ūn (Riḍā Ḳulī K̲h̲ān Hidāyat, Tāʾrīk̲h̲-i rawḍat al-ṣafā-yi nāṣirī , Te…

Imāmzāda

(1,299 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
is used to designate both the descendant of a S̲h̲īʿī imām and the shrine of such a person (with which this article is mainly concerned). The imāmzādagān are thus sayyids [ q.v.], but all sayyids are not accorded the title of imāmzāda . In common usage it is given to the sons and grandsons of the imāms, but excluding those who themselves became imāms, and also to those of their descendants distinguished by special sanctity or by suffering martyrdom. It is not normally accorded to the female descendants of the imāms. The lives of many of the imāmzādagān are recorded in biographical and hagio…

Ḳanāt

(5,080 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S. | Ed.
(a.), pl. ḳanawāt , ḳanā , ḳunī , aḳniya , “canal, irrigation system, water-pipe”. Used also for a baton, a lance, etc., the term originally meant “reed” [see ḳaṣab ] and it is with this meaning and that of “rush” that the word ḳanū is known in Akkadian (cf. Zimmern, Akkad. Fremdwörter , Leipzig 1915, 56); becoming ḳanä in Hebrew and ḳanyā in Aramaic, it passed into Arabic and was also borrowed in Greek and Latin in the forms χάννα χάννη (χάνη), canna ; by an evolution parallel to that of ḳanāt , the Latin word canalis “in the shape of a reed”, acquired the meaning of “pipe, canal”. In Persian ḳanāt is u…

Ḳazwīn

(6,427 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S. | Hillenbrand, R.
, a town and district north-west of Tehran and south of Gīlān. The town is situated in 36° 15 N. and 50° E., at a height of 4,165 ft. above sea level, about 90 miles from Tehran, on the edge of a wide alluvial plain with mountains about five miles to the north. It stands on the site of an ancient city built by S̲h̲āpūr II, which according to tradition was in turn on the site of a city built by S̲h̲āpūr b. Ardas̲h̲īr (Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī, Taʾrīk̲h̲-i guzīda , ed. E. G. Browne and R. A. Nicholson, 1910-13, 830, French tr. Barbier de Meynard, Description historique de la ville de Kazvin , in JA (1857)). Its po…

K̲h̲āṣī

(8,470 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Orhonlu, Cengiz
(a.), pl. k̲h̲iṣyān “castrated man, eunuch”. I.—In the central Islamic lands. From the 4th/10th century especially, several euphemisms were applied to eunuchs, who were numerous in the palaces and frequently invested with important functions: notably k̲h̲ādim (coll. k̲h̲adam , pl. k̲h̲uddām ), muʿallim , s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ , ustād̲h̲ (see M. Canard, Ak̲h̲bâr ar-Râdî ..., i, 210-1, note), later on ṭawās̲h̲ī (which, according to al-Maḳrīzī, Hist , des Sultans Mamlouks , tr. Quatremère, 1/2 (1849), 132, comes from the Turkish ṭābūs̲h̲ī = Osmanli̊ tapug̲h̲či̊

Marʿā

(9,855 words)

Author(s): Chelhod, J. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Güriz, Adnan
(a.), pasture. 1. In nomadic Arab life. The word marʿā is used only twice in the Ḳurʾān, where it has the purpose of praising the divine power (LXXIX, 31, and LXXXVII,4). In ḥadīt̲h̲ there are also two uses of this substantive to be noted (cf. Wensinck, Concordance ); one of them touches incidentally on the problem of the exploitation of pastures, but ḥadīt̲h̲ is more explicit with reference to kalaʾ , dry and green forage. In fact, a tradition asserts that “the Muslims are united ( s̲h̲urakāʾ ) in three things: water, forage and fire”; it is the principle of…

Ḥād̲j̲ib

(4,559 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D. | Bosworth, C.E. | Lambton, A.K.S.
, term which may be translated approximately as chamberlain, used in Muslim countries for the person responsible for guarding the door of access to the ruler, so that only approved visitors may approach him. The term quickly became a title corresponding to a position in the court and to an office the exact nature of which varied considerably in different regions and in different periods. Basically the Master of Ceremonies, the ḥād̲j̲ib often appears as being in fact a superintendent of the Palace, a chief of the guard or a righter of wrongs, s…

K̲h̲alīfa

(19,029 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Jong, F. de | Holt, P.M.
(i) The history of the institution of the caliphate A study of the caliphate, its institution and subsequent developments, has never been attempted in its entirety until the present. The principal reason is that it has not seemed possible to conduct such a survey independently of historical studies relating to different reigns, which are still in most cases insufficient, or even non-existent, whereas studies of doctrine, while more advanced, have not been developed to the same extent with regard to the v…

Ḥisba

(8,785 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Talbi, M. | Mantran, R. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, non-Ḳurʾānic term which is used to mean on the one hand the duty of every Muslim to “promote good and forbid evil” and, on the other, the function of the person who is effectively entrusted in a town with the application of this rule in the supervision of moral behaviour and more particularly of the markets; this person entrusted with the ḥisba was called the muḥtasib . There seems to exist ¶ no text which states explicitly either the reason for the choice of this term or how the meanings mentioned above have arisen from the idea of “calculation” or “sufficiency” which is expressed by the root. i.—G…

K̲h̲arād̲j̲

(31,524 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Orhonlu, Cengiz | Subhan, Abdus
, a word derived, via Syriac, from Greek χορηϒία, but attached by the Arabs to the native root k̲h̲ . r. d̲j̲ . Contrary to its original meaning, the word seems, in the current usage of the Near East, to have denoted “tax” in general, and is in fact found with reference to various specific taxes, thus causing considerable confusion [see d̲j̲izya ]. Arabic technical and legal literature uses it more specifically, at least in the period before the formation of Turkish states, in the sense of land tax, and it is this sense which is exclusively discussed in the present article. For other taxes, see bayt…

Iṣfahān

(11,844 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S. | Sourdel-Thomine, J. | J. Sourdel-Thomine
(in Arabic Iṣbahān), a town and province in Persia, whose name, according to Hamza al-Iṣfahānī, means “the armies” (Māfarruk̲h̲ī, Kitāb Maḥāsin Iṣfahān , ed. Sayyid D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn Tihrāni, Tehran n.d., 5-6). 1. history The province, whose precise boundaries have varied at different times, is bounded on the north-east and east by the central desert. In the south-east by Yazd and Fārs, in the south and south-west by the Bak̲h̲tiyārī mountains, with peaks rising to over 11,000 ft., in the north-west by Luristān, Kazzāz, Kamara, a…

Imtiyāzāt

(19,300 words)

Author(s): Wansbrough, J. | İnalcık, Halil | Lambton, A.K.S. | Baer, G.
, commercial privileges, capitulations. i. The earliest documentary evidence for commercial privileges emanating from Muslim chanceries in the Mediterranean world dates from the 6th/12th century. While it is unlikely that these documents represent the earliest manifestation of that diplomatic and commercial activity between rulers of Islam and Christendom which culminated in the Ottoman Capitulations, it is probably useless to speculate upon either the form or the language of chancery instruments bef…

Mawākib

(21,397 words)

Author(s): Sanders, P. | Chalmeta, P. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Nutku, Özdemir | Burton-Page, J.
(a., sing, mawkib ), processions. 1. Under the ʿAbbāsids and Fāṭimids The basic meaning of procession (mounted or unmounted), cortège, is found in ḥadīt̲h̲ (al-Buk̲h̲ārī. Badʾ al-k̲h̲alḳ , 6; Ibn Ḥanbal, iii, 213; al-Dārimī, 2695). This is the precise sense given in the dictionaries, and that used by the Umayyads, ʿAbbāsids and Fāṭimids, often to describe the cortège of an amīr , wazīr , or other official (see, e.g., al-Ṭabarī, ii, 1731; Hilāl al-Ṣābī, Rusūm dār al-k̲h̲ilāfa , 9-10, 12, 14ff.). By the 4th/10th century, it had acquired the broader meaning of audience as well …

al-Marʾa

(28,871 words)

Author(s): Tomiche, N. | Chelhod, J. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Afshar, Haleh | Ansari, Ghaus
(a) Woman. 1. In the Arab world. For a long time, the problem of woman has been avoided or dealt with only partially or in a biased way, but now a general twinge of conscience has brought it to the focus of our attention. Not just one but many different problems confront the Arab woman and affect how she is seen by society. There is the legal aspect, defining the precise relationship between divine and human law; there is the collection of “distorted pictures” (the expression used by Etiemble ¶ with which literature in particular presents the “myth” of woman; and there is feminine b…

Filāḥa

(13,214 words)

Author(s): Shihabi, Mustafa al- | Colin, G.S. | Lambton, A.K.S. | İnalcık, Halil | Habib, Irfan
, agriculture. Falḥ , the act of cleaving and cutting, when applied to the soil has the meaning of “to break up in order to cultivate”, or “to plough”. Fallāḥ “ploughman”, filāḥa “ploughing”. But from pre-Islamic times the word filāḥa has assumed a wider meaning to denote the occupation of husbandry, agriculture. In this sense it is synonymous with zirāʿa , to which the ancients preferred filāḥa (all the earlier writers called their works on agriculture Kitāb al-Filāḥa ). At the present time this latter word is very widely used in North Africa, both …

D̲j̲amʿiyya

(9,663 words)

Author(s): Hourani, A.H. | Rustow, D.A. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Demeerseman, A. | Ahmad, Aziz
This term, commonly used in modern Arabic to mean a “society” or “association”, is derived from the root D̲J̲ - M - ʿ, meaning “to collect, join together, etc.”. In its modern sense it appears to have come into use quite recently, and was perhaps first used to refer to the organized monastic communities or congregations which appeared in the eastern Uniate Churches in Syria and Lebanon at the end of the seventeenth and beginning of the eighteenth centuries ( e.g., D̲j̲amʿiyyat al-Muk̲h̲alliṣ , the Salvatorians, a Greek Catholic order founded c. 1708). In …

Marāsim

(20,279 words)

Author(s): Sanders, P. | Chalmeta, P. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Groot, A.H. de | Burton-Page, J.
(a), official court ceremonies, both processional and non-processional. The whole range of ceremonial, including protocol and etiquette, is called also rusūm other terms found frequently are mawsim [ q.v.] and mawkib . Mawākib [ q.v.] refer specifically to solemn processions, but seem also to have had the more general meaning of audiences (for the ʿAbbāsids, see references in D. Sourdel, Le vizirat ʿabbāside de 749 à 946, Damascus 1960, ii, 684, n. 3; for the Fāṭimids, see e.g. al-Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī, Ṣubḥ , iii, 494: d̲j̲ulūs [ al-k̲h̲alīfa ] fi ’l-mawākib; ayyām al-mawākib ). 1. Under the …

Dīwān

(16,419 words)

Author(s): Duri, A.A. | Gottschalk, H.L. | Colin, G.S. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, a collection of poetry or prose [see ʿarabiyya ; persian literature ; turkish literature ; urdū literature and s̲h̲iʿr ], a register, or an office. Sources differ about linguistic roots. Some ascribe to it a Persian origin from dev , ‘mad’ or ‘devil’, to describe secretaries. Others consider it Arabic from dawwana , to collect or to register, thus meaning a collection of records or sheets. (See Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī, Ṣubḥ , i, 90; LA, xvii, 23-4; Ṣūlī, Adab al-kuttāb , 187; Māwardī, al-Aḥkām al-sulṭāniyya , 175; D̲j̲ahs̲h̲iyārī, Wuzarāʾ , ¶ 16-17; cf. Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ ,…

Maḥkama

(51,808 words)

Author(s): Schacht, J. | İnalcık, Halil | Findley, C.V. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Layish, A. | Et al.
(a.), court. The subject-matter of this article is the administration of justice, and the organisation of its administration, in the Muslim countries, the office of the judge being dealt with in the art. ḳāḍī . The following topics are covered: 1. General The judicial functions of the Prophet, which had been expressly attributed to him in the Ḳurʾān (IV, 65, 105; V, 42, 48-9; XXIV, 48, 51), were taken over after his death by the first caliphs, who administered the law in person in Medina. Already under ʿUmar, the expansion of the Islami…

Ḳawmiyya

(15,445 words)

Author(s): Vatikiotis, P.J. | Brett, M. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Dodd, C.H. | Wheeler, G.E. | Et al.
(a.), nationalism. 1. In the Arab world east of the Mag̲h̲rib. The term derives from ḳawm , a term of tribal provenance used to denote a group of people having or claiming a common ancestor, or a tribe descended from a single ancestor. One’s ḳawm is simply one’s people, either genealogically determined or mythologically and folklorishly depicted. In this century, ḳawmiyya refers to the movement of nationalism among the Arabs of the Ottoman dominions in the Fertile Crescent that were conquered by the Allies in the Great War. The use …
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