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Stoddard, Solomon

(85 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Oct 1, 1643, Boston, MA – Feb 11, 1729, Northampton, MA), Congregationalist minister, in 1672 called as the second pastor of Northampton Congregational Church. Against Boston’s ministers he favored opening the Lord’s Supper to all respectable persons as a “converting ordinance.” Two years before his death he presided over the installation of his grandson, J. Edwards, as his successor in the Northampton pulpit. Mark A. Noll Bibliography P.J. Tracy, American National Biography, ed. J.A. Garraty et al., vol. XX, 1999, 822f.

Briand, Jean Olivier

(167 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Jan 23, 1715, Plévin – Jun 25, 1794, Quebec), seventh Roman Catholic bishop of Quebec. Briand arrived in Canada from France in 1741 and soon became an influential diocesan leader as well as an important diplomat. After the defeat of the French by the British on the Plains of Abraham outside Quebec City in 1759, Briand quickly accommodated himself …

Coughlin, Charles Edwards

(138 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Oct 25, 1891, Hamilton, Ontario – Oct 27, 1979, Bloomfield Hills, MI), pioneer radio broadcaster, was ordained a Catholic priest in 1916. In order to raise money for his new aasignment at the parish in Royal Oak, MI, he took to the airwaves (Radio and television). His programs were at first strictly religious, but after the stock market crash of 1929 he added political commentary. In 1936 he organized the National Union for Social Justice and so…

Rowlands, Daniel

(102 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (1713, Pantybeudy, Wales – Oct 16, 1790, Llangeitho, Wales), revival preacher. He was ordained a priest in the Church of Wales in 1735 but was then converted in 1736 under the influence of Griffith Jones on Llanddowror. Immediately Rowland’s preaching, as curate of Llangeitho, attracted large crowds. By 1737 he was also establishing local societies in the Methodist pattern. In connection with fellow revivalist H. Harris, Rowland laid the groundwork for what became in the 19th century the Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Connexion. Mark A. Noll Bibliography E. Evans, Danie…

Know-Nothings

(158 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] The Know-Nothing Party was a 19th-century political organization that emerged in the New England states and in New York, and was based on opposition to Roman Catholicism. It began as a secret society among Protestants, who feared the effects of rising immigration. They answered “we know nothing” when questioned about the existence of their group. In their view, Catholic immigrants competed unfairly for jobs, demanded state aid for Catholic schools, and followed the dictates of pol…

Stiles, Ezra

(104 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Nov 29, 1727, North Haven, CT – May 12, 1795, New Haven, CT), Congregationalist minister and college president, entering the ministry (1755) as pastor of the Second Congregational Church in Newport, Rhode Island. There he opposed the slave trade and engaged in a variety of scientific and literary ¶ pursuits. He became president of Yale in 1778. His life-long support of liberty led him to oppose schemes to send an Anglican bishop to the colonies. He prophesied a great future for the independent United States. Mark A. Noll Bibliography E.S. Morgan, The Gentle Puritan: A …

Seton, Elizabeth Ann Bailey (Saint)

(137 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Aug 28, 1774, New York – Jan 4, 1821, Emmitsburg, MD), founder of a religious community. Seton traveled to Italy in 1803, where she was introduced to the Roman Catholic Church. Following her husband’s death and her return to the United States in 1804, she continued to study the Catholic faith and on Mar 14, 1805, entered the church. After moving to Maryland in 1808, she opened a school for girls and then joined the Sisters of Charity of Saint Joseph, whose first American director…

Stone, Barton Warren

(131 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Dec 24, 1772, near Port Tobacco, MD – Nov 9, 1844, Hannibal, MO), leader of the American Restoration Movement, was ordained as Presbyterian, but early on began to doubt aspects of traditional Presbyterian practice. In 1801 he was the ¶ key figure in the great Cane Ridge revival meeting in Kentucky (Revival/Revival movements: II). In an active career as preacher, writer ( Last Will and Testament of the Springfield Presbytery, 1804), and editor, he promoted an apocalyptic vision of Christian faith, the practice of baptism by immersion, and the resto…

Mind-Cure Movements

(266 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] Mind-cure movements, which arose in several places in the United States throughout the 19th century, shared a common commitment to metaphysical idealism and a belief in the ability of the mind to overcome physical illness. They were anticipated by aspects of animal magnetism supported by F.A. Mesmer and the spiritual biblical hermeneutics of E. Swedenborg. An earlier proponent was W.F. Evans (1817–1887), author of The Primitive Mind Cure (1885). Even more important was P.P. Quimby (1802–1866), who viewed God as a personified First Cause and perso…

Evangelical Union, The

(143 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] The Evangelical Union was formed in Scotland in May 1843 by James Morison and several other theological Arminians who had been excluded from the United Secession Church for promoting a theology of universal atonement, human free will, Congregational polity, and the Bible alone without ¶ creeds. The Union was influenced in many of its views by the American revivalist Charles G. Finney. It enjoyed particular success in urban ministry, where it was known for a firm stand against t…

The Civil War as a Theological Crisis

(104 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A
Bibliographic entry in Chapter 27: Race,…

Plymouth-Kolonie

(176 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Plymouth-Kolonie, eine Siedlung engl. Puritaner im Südosten von Massachusetts. Diese wanderten unter der Führung von Pfarrer J. Robinson nach ihrer Trennung von der engl. Staatskirche zunächst von Scooby, Nottinghamshire, nach Holland aus. Obwohl sie dort Glaubensfreiheit fanden, machte ihnen die Erziehung ihrer Kinder Sorge. Im September 1620 brachen daher 41 Siedler mit 61 anderen Passagieren an Bord der Mayflower nach Virginia auf. Sie landeten, von ihrem Kurs nach Norden abge…

Society for Ethical Culture

(171 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Society for Ethical Culture, 1876 in New York von F. Adler gegründet. Der Reformjude (Reformjudentum) Adler lehnte den traditionellen Monotheismus ab, betrachtete aber weiter die HB und die Person Jesu als Quellen der Inspiration. Unter dem Motto »deed, not creed« (Tat, nicht Glaubensbekenntnis) warb er für das Bemühen des einzelnen anstatt für Institutionen und ritualisierte Traditionen. Die S. mit ihren sonntäglichen Gottesdiensten und humanistischen Ansprachen Adlers wurde zum…

Tindley

(182 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Tindley, Charles Albert (7.7.1856 Berlin, MD – 29.7.1933 Philadelphia, PA), berühmter Prediger und Vf. von Gospel-Liedern (Gospel-Musik), wurde als Sohn ehem. Sklaven geboren; schon in jungen Jahren faßte er den Entschluß, methodistischer Pfarrer zu werden. 1900 wurde er Pfarrer an der Bainbridge Street Methodist Church in Philadelphia, die schon bald zu einem Zentrum des rel. Lebens für die schwarze Bevölkerung der Stadt wurde. Ab 1901 erschienen seine »Songs of Paradise«, kirchl.…

Spencer

(158 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Spencer, Herbert (27.4.1820 Derby, England – 8.12.1903 Brighton, ebd.), Sozialwissenschaftler und Schriftsteller, arbeitete zunächst als Eisenbahningenieur und polit. Journalist. Mit seinem »System of Synthetic Philosophy« (1862–1896) begründete er seinen Ruf als früher Sozialwissenschaftler und umfassender Denker bzgl. Gesellschaft, Erziehung, Ethik und Politik. Auf all diesen Gebieten brachte er allg. Evolutionsideen zur Anwendung. Evolution erkläre auch die Religionsgesch., die…

Southcott

(162 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Southcott, Joanna (April 1750 [getauft 6.6.] Devonshire – 27.12.1814 London), selbsternannte Prophetin, die im frühen 19.Jh. eine beträchtliche Anhängerschaft um sich sammelte. Aus einer Bauernfamilie stammend, trat sie 1792 den Methodisten bei, brach mit ihnen aber zwei Jahre später, nachdem sie begonnen hatte, Prophezeiungen zu verkünden. Ihr erster Traktat »The Strange Effects of Faith« (1801) schildert ihre Erwartung des baldigen Weltendes und ihre eigene Rolle im Endgeschehen…

Robinson

(166 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Robinson, Edward (10.4.1794 Southington, CT – 27.1.1863 New York City), seinerzeit einer der einflußreichsten amer. Bibelwissenschaftler. Nach seinem Abschluß 1816 am Hamilton College war R. von 1823–1826 Doz. für Hebr. am Andover Seminary, MS, wo er zutiefst von Moses Stuarts Anwendung der dt. Philol. und des Kritizismus beeinflußt wurde. R. studierte von 1826 bis 1830 in Deutschland, wurde anschließend in Andover Prof. für bibl. Lit. und gründete dort 1831 das Biblical Repositor…

Sheen

(165 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Sheen, Fulton John (8.5.1895 El Paso, IL – 1.12.1979 New York), im 20.Jh. lange die führende öfftl. Stimme des röm. Katholizismus in Amerika; 1919 Ordination zum Priester, danach Promotionsstudium in Louvain, Rom und Washington, DC. Sh. lehrte 1926–1950 Philos. an der Catholic University of America und war 1966–1969 Bischof von Rochester, NY. Seine öfftl. Berühmtheit begann 1930 mit seiner Tätigkeit als Radiosprecher in »Catholic Hour Broadcasts« bei Radio NBC. 1940 stand er einem …

Nordamerika, Theologie in

(2,060 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] In keinem Bereich ist der Status Amerikas als intellektuelle Kolonie Europas so offensichtlich wie in seiner offiziellen christl. Theol. Mit nur wenigen Ausnahmen waren die röm.-kath. Theologen in Amerika zufrieden damit, der Führung von Europäern zu folgen, was sich in der amer. Förderung des Neothomismus von etwa 1870 bis 1960 als wichtigstem Beispiel zeigt. Eine ähnliche Situation zeigt sich in der orth. Theol. – mit dem Unterschied, daß der eur. Einfluß in Gestalt russ. Flüch…

Swift

(116 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Swift,  Jonathan (30.11.1667 Dublin – 19.10.1745 ebd.), anglo-irischer Satiriker, Dichter und Patriot, Studium am Trinity College (Dublin) und in Oxford (Abschluß 1692), 1695 zum anglik. Geistlichen ordiniert, ab 1713 Dekan an St. Patrick's (Dublin). In seinen Veröff. griff er Deismus, Dissenters, wiss. Naturalismus und polit. Korruption an. Seine größte Satire, »The Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World by Lemuel Gulliver« (2 Bde., 1726, dt. 1727), kritisierte in einer…
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