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Wieman

(119 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Wieman, Henry Nelson (19.8.1884 Rich Hill, MO – 19.6.1975 Grinell, IA), einer der frühen Prozeßtheologen (Prozeßtheologie) des liberalen amer. Protestantismus. Nach der Ausbildung für den Dienst in der presbyterianischen Kirche und dem Studium in Deutschland wurde W. stark von W.E. Hocking und Ralph Barton Perry in Harvard beeinflußt, wo er 1917 zum Ph.D. promoviert wurde. Als Dozent am Occidental College und an der University of Chicago vertrat er einen naturalistischen Theismus, …

Slessor

(146 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Slessor,  Mary (2.12.1848 Aberdeen, Schottland – 13.1.1915 Use, Nigeria), schottische Wegbereiterin der Mission in Westafrika. Aus der Arbeiterschicht stammend, nahm sie seit frühester Jugend an der Kirchen- und Jugendarbeit teil. Nach mehrjährigen Bemühungen wurde ihr schließlich vom United Presbyterian Church Mission Commitee eine Stelle als Lehrerin in Calabar, Nigeria, zugewiesen. 1888 wurde sie zu den Okoyong geschickt, wo sie barfuß ging, in nahezu einheimische Tracht geklei…

Yale, Universität

(303 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Yale, Universität, 1701 als »Collegiate School of CT« gegr. 1717 wurde sie dauerhaft nach New Haven verlegt, 1718 erhielt sie ihren Namen von Elihu Yale, einem brit. Philanthropen. Einer der ersten Absolventen (1720) und späterer Tutor war J. Edwards. Unter dem gemäßigten E. Stiles (Präsident von 1778–1795) und dem energischen T. Dwight (1795–1817) wurde Y. ein führendes Zentrum für weite Kreise der ev. Christenheit in den USA. 1822 wurde unter N.W. Taylor ein theol. Seminar (Y. …

Stone

(112 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Stone, Barton Warren (24.12.1772 nahe Port Tobacco, MD – 9.11.1844 Hannibal, MO), führende Gestalt des amer. Restoration Movement, presbyterianischer Geistlicher, der schon früh die eigene Tradition kritisierte. 1801 war S. die herausragende Persönlichkeit bei einem großen camp meeting in Cane Ridge, KY (Erweckung: II.). Als aktiver Prediger, Autor (Last Will and Testament of the Springfield Presbytery, 1804) und Hg. vertrat er ein apokalyptisches Christentum, die Ganzkörpertaufe u…

Rockefeller

(125 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Sr., John Davison (8.7.1839 New York – 23.5.1937 Ormond Beach, FL), Industriebaron und Philanthrop, etablierte sich in den 70er Jahren des 19.Jh. als führende Gestalt der neu entstandenen Ölindustrie. Durch seine Standard Oil Company gewann er immensen Reichtum. Durch seine Mutter Eliza Davison erhielt R. eine strenge, baptistisch geprägte Erziehung. Sein ganzes Leben lang unterstützte er viele Kirchen, Hilfsorganisationen und Stiftungen. Obwohl führende Persönlichkeiten des Social…

Reconstructionism

(253 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Reconstructionism, christlich. R., auch als Theonomie oder Herrschaftstheol. bekannt, entstand in den frühen 70er Jahren innerhalb konservativer Kreise des amer. Presbyterianismus (Presbyterianer). Die Grundsätze wurden erstmals 1973 von Rousas John Rushdoony (1916–2001) in den »Institutes of Biblical Law« publiziert. Weitere Führungsgestalten waren Greg L. Bahnsen (1948–1995), der 1977 »Theonomy in Christian Ethics« veröff., und Gary North, Gründer des Institute for Christian Eco…

Lightfoot, John

(155 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Mar 29, 1602, Stoke-upon-Trent, England – Dec 6, 1675, Ely) was a noted Hebraist, educated at Cambridge. He later became influenced by Sir Rowland Cotton, a lay student of Hebrew, and began studying Semitic languages. From 1629 onwards he published a series of works using his extensive knowledge of the Talmud to elucidate the Christian scriptures. From 1643 until his death he served both as rector of Much Munden, Hertfordshire, and as master of Catherine Hall, Cambridge. During t…

Otterbein, Philipp Wilhelm

(170 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] ( Jun 2, 1726, Dillenburg, Prussia – Nov 17, 1813, Baltimore, MD), German Reformed minister who became a founder of the United Brethren in Christ. Otterbein went to the United States in 1752 at the invitation of the German Reformed Pietist, Michael Schlatter (1718–1790). Otterbein had been educated in Calvinist and Pietist teachings at the Reformed University of Herborn (Reformed Colleges in Germany). In America, Otterbein energetically encouraged prayer meetings, recruited lay le…

Orange Order

(268 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] The Orange Order is a Protestant fraternal organization founded in 1795 in the north of Ireland and dedicated to the victory of the English Protestant king William (from Orange in Holland) over the ¶ Roman Catholic James I at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690 (Ireland: II). The order arose at a time of particular tension in County Armagh when both Catholic agitation and Enlightenment thinking threatened the social and political dominance of Protestantism. It developed through the construction of lodges, the for…

Scougal, Henry

(94 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Jun 1650, Leuchars, Scotland – Jun 13, 1678, Aberdeen, Scotland), was appointed professor of divinity at King’s College, Aberdeen, in 1673. His The Life of God in the Soul of Man, or, The Nature and Excellency of the Christian Religion (1677) stressed the necessity for “true Christianity” in contrast to ecclesiastical formalism. He had great influence on the Wesley brothers and other leading figures of the 18th-century evangelical movement. Mark A. Noll Bibliography The Works of the Rev. Henry Scougal, 1818 D. Butler, Henry Scougal and the Oxford Methodists, 1899.

Sheen, Fulton John

(188 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (May 8, 1895, El Paso, IL – Dec 1, 1979, NY), the leading public voice for American Roman Catholicism for much of the 20th century. He was ordained a priest in 1919 and then did doctoral study at Louvain, Rome, and Washington, DC. From 1926 to 1950 he lectured in philosophy at the Catholic University of America, and from 1966 to 1969 he served as bishop of Rochester, New York. Sheen’s public renown began in 1930 as the featured speaker on “Catholic Hour Broadcasts” for NBC radio. …

Weld, Theodore Dwight

(140 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Nov 23, 1803, Hampton, CT – Feb 3, 1895, Hyde Park, MA) was a leading opponent of slavery (Abolitionism); he was converted in 1826 under the preaching of C.G. Finney. In 1834 he led a group of students out of Lane Seminary, Cincinnati, in order to found Oberlin College, the nation’s first institution of higher learning to welcome women. From the mid-1830s Weld was one of America’s best-known abolitionist orators; he made converts but also generated mob opposition. Worn out by his…

Swift, Jonathan

(134 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Nov 30, 1667, Dublin – Oct 19, 1745, Dublin), Anglo-Irish satirist, poet, and patriot, studied at Trinity College (Dublin) before receiving his degree at Oxford (1692) and being ordained an Anglican clergyman (1695). From 1713 on, he served as dean of St. Patrick’s in Dublin. His graphic, forceful publications attacked Deism, dissenting Protestantism (Dissenters), scientific naturalism, and political corruption. His greatest satire, The Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World by Lemuel Gulliver (2 vols., 1726), used fanciful descriptions of i…

Brown, George

(89 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Nov 29, 1818, Alloa, Scotland – May 9, 1880, Toronto), a Presbyterian journalist and politician. Brown emigrated from Scotland to New York (1837) and then to Toronto (1843). After the Disruption of 1843 divided the Presbyterian Church of Scotland (Presbyterians), Brown and his father Peter were energetic advocates of the Free Church. In various newspapers, especially the Toronto Globe, Brown ¶ supported Protestantism and resisted the influence of Roman Catholicism. Mark A. Noll Bibliography J.M.S. Careless, Brown of the Globe, 2 vols., 1959/63 (repr. 1989).

Common Sense Realism

(764 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] has two histories. The first concerns the effort by Thomas Reid (1710–1796) to refute the skeptical conclusions that D. Hume had drawn from the sensationalist epistemology of J. Locke. Reid's main argument was that sense perceptions, operating under normal conditions disclose the material world as it is.They are not, as Locke had suggested, merely “ideas.” Reid suggested rather that the human mind is structured in such a way that it is impossible to act…

Union Theological Seminary

(153 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (UTS). America’s first interdenominational theological seminary was founded in 1836 by “New School” Presbyterians. From 1870 to 1892 it served the Northern Presbyterian Church, but became independent once again when C.A. Briggs was expelled from the denomination for promoting higher critical views of Scripture. Notable faculty in the 19th century included the theologian Henry Boynton Smith and P. Schaff. Ties with Germany remained strong into the 20th century, especially with the …

Wieman, Henry Nelson

(111 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Aug 19, 1884, Rich Hill, MO – Jun 19, 1975, Grinell, IA), an early process theologian (Process theology) in liberal American Protestantism. After training for the Presbyterian ministry and study in Germany, Wieman was greatly influenced by W.E. Hocking and Ralph Barton Perry at Harvard where he received his Ph.D. in 1917. In teaching at Occidental College and at the University of Chicago, Wieman advocated a naturalistic theism as, for example, in his books The Wrestle of Religion with Truth (1927) and The Source of Human Good (1946), also opposing theological pers…

Douglass, Frederick

(171 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (c. 1818, Talbot County, MD – Feb 20, 1895, Washington DC), African-American abolitionist (Slavery), was born Frederick Bailey of a slave mother and an unknown white father. After a childhood of cruel neglect, he was taken to Baltimore, where he learned to read and write. On Sep 2, 1838 he escaped from slavery, soon changed his name to Dou…

Prohibition, Alcohol

(270 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] Prohibition, Alcohol, a movement in the United States to ban alcoholic beverages, including beer and wine, began in the early 19th century with efforts at temperance reform associated with the revivals of the Second Great Awakening (Revival/Revival movements: II). Neal Dow, who spearheaded the drive for the first state prohibition law (Maine, 1846), called temperance (Asceticism) “Christ’s work,” which “every true soldier of the Cross” should fight. In the industrial era of the la…

Worthington, John

(108 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Feb, 1617, Manchester – buried Nov 30, 1671, Hackney), earned his M.A. from Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in 1632. From 1650 to 1660 he served as master of Jesus College, Cambridge, but then was replaced at the Restoration of the English monarchy. His liberal Christian spirit led him to stress the experience of practical godliness. He edited the works of the leading Cambridge Platonist, J. Mede, provided the first widely used English translation of Thomas à Kempis’s Imitation of Christ, and published several books, including The Great Duty of Self-resignation to …
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