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Modern Period

(1,722 words)

Author(s): Wagner, Falk
1. Basic Structures The term “modern period” (Ger. Neuzeit), which has been in general use only since the mid-19th century, refers to the period from the end of the Middle Ages to the present. Since the 16th century it has also been accompanied by the consciousness of belonging to a new epoch. …

Analogy

(970 words)

Author(s): Wagner, Falk

Reason

(2,628 words)

Author(s): Wagner, Falk | Brown, Robert F.
1. Term and Issues The term “reason” derives from Lat. ratio. Earlier in history Gk. nous and logos expressed some of the same meanings. Reason is usually said to be an intellectual or mental ability or faculty, one distinguished from other psychological or bodily powers or activities of will, emotion, and sensation. Philosophers work with diverse concepts of reason and use the term in different ways. A number of issues arise in considering the nature, operations, and limitations of human reason. Is it a theoretical faculty, an ability to grasp the natures o…