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(974 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, or Badr Ḥunayn, a small town south-west of Medina, a night’s journey from the coast, and at the junction of a road from Medina with the caravan route from Mecca to Syria. It lies in a plain, 5 m. (8 km.) long and 2½ m. (4 km.) broad, surrounded by steep hills and sand-dunes, and was a market centre. Here occurred on 17 (or 19 or 21) Ramaḍān, 2 A. H. (= 13 or 15 or 17 March, 624) the first great battle of Muḥammad’s career. Though there is a wealth of detail in the early sources, it is difficult to give a clear account of the battle and the events which…


(483 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, one of the two main Arab tribes in Medina. With the other tribe, al-Aws [ q.v.], it formed the Banū Ḳayla in pre-Islamic times and the Anṣār [ q.v.] or “helpers” (sc. of Muḥammad) under Islam. The ancestors of al-K̲h̲azrad̲j̲ are given under al-Aws. Th…

al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib

(458 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, with the kunya Abu ’l-Faḍl, half-brother of Muḥammad’s father, his mother being Nutayla bint ¶ Ḏj̲anāb of al-Namir. The ʿAbbāsid dynasty took its name from him, being descended from his son ʿAbd Allāh. Consequently there was a tendency for historians under the ʿAbbāsids to glorify him, and in his case it is particularly difficult to distinguish fact from fiction. He was a merchant and financier, more prosperous than his half-brother Abū Ṭālib, who, in return for the extinction of a debt, surrendered to him the office of providing pilgrims to Mecca with water ( siḳāya ) and perhaps also with food ( rifāda ). Though he owned a garden in al-Ṭāʾif, he was not so wealthy as the leading men of the clans of ʿAbd S̲h̲ams and Mak̲h̲zūm. There is no clear evidence of any


(556 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, the Biblical Isaac, mentioned in fifteen passages of the Ḳurʾān. God gives Abraham ¶ “good tidings of Isaac, a prophet, of the righteous”, and blesses them both (XXXVII 112 f.). In a fuller description, when messengers concerning Lot corne to Abraham; his wife “laughed, and we gave her good tidings of Isaac, and af ter Isaac of Jacob” (XI, 71/74); and it is explained that this will happen despite their age. Several verses speak of Isaac and Jacob being given to Abraham (VI, 84; XIX, 49…


(837 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
(a.), the Emigrants, are primarily those Meccan Muslims who made the

Ḥalīma Bint Abī Ḏh̲uʾayb

(220 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
foster-mother of the prophet Muḥammad. She and her husband belonged to the tribe of Saʿd b. Bakr, a subdivision of Hawāzin. Muḥammad was given to her to suckle from soon after his birth until he was two years old. Well-to-do families thought desert-life healthier for infants than that in Mecca. Some modern s…


(765 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
the granting of protection ( d̲j̲iwār [ q.v.]) to a stranger according to ancient Arab practice. This form of protection was especially important for those who travelled about, but it was also used in other cases. The d̲j̲ār (pl. d̲j̲īrān ) is mostly the person protected, but may also be the protector (as in Sūra VIII, 48/50; Mufaḍḍaliyyāt , 760, 18). To ask for protection is istad̲j̲āra (Sūra IX, 6). The granting of protection was announced publicly (cf. Zaynab’s id̲j̲āra of her former pagan husband in Ibn His̲h̲ām, 469); and thus, when ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Maẓʿūn wanted to renounce the d̲j̲iwār of …


(22,344 words)

Author(s): Coon, C.S. | Wissmann, H. von | Kussmaul, F. | Watt, W. Montgomery
I. Pastoral nomads of Arabian blood, speech, and culture are found in the Arabian Peninsula proper and in parts of Iran, Soviet Turkestan, North Africa, and the Sudan. This article is limited to their way of life in their home territory. Unlike primitive hunting and gathering, pastoral nomadism is a sophisticated System of exploiting land incapable of cultivation. Later to arise than agriculture, pastoralism utilises seven species of domestic animals: the sheep, goat, and ox, domesticated in Neolithic times as part of the ¶ herding and sowing complex of Western Asia; the ass, …


(635 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
or banū ’l-ḳayn , often contracted ¶ to Bal-Ḳayn (cf. Bal-Ḥārit̲h̲, etc.), the name of one or more Arab tribes. The best known is part of the tribal group of Ḳuḍāʿa, and al-Ḳayn is here interpreted as the nickname of al-Nuʿmān b. D̲j̲asr, so that the tribe is known as al-Ḳayn b. D̲j̲asr. The word ḳayn means “worker in iron”, “smith”, or possibly “slave”, and is used as a term of contempt in the Naḳāʾid D̲j̲arīr wa’l-Farazdaḳ . There is no evidence, however, of any connexion of Bal-Ḳayn b. D̲j̲asr with smiths. They act as a normal Bedouin tribe, and …


(419 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
(a.) “brothering”, is a practice found in the early days of Islam by which two men became “brothers”. The best-known example is the “brothering” by Muḥammad of Emigrants from Mecca with Muslims from Medina. This may have happened soon after he reached Medina, but is placed by Ibn Isḥāḳ just before the battle of Badr, accompanied by a list of thirteen such pairs (Ibn His̲h̲ām, 344-6). It is clear, however, from Ibn Ḥabīb ( Muḥabbar , 70 f.) that there had previously been some “brothering” at Mecca, and he gives a list of nine pairs. This is confirm…

Abū Sufyān

(676 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
b. Ḥarb b. Umayya , of the clan of ʿAbd S̲h̲ams of Ḳurays̲h̲, prominent Meccan merchant and financier (to be distinguished from Muḥammad’s cousin, Abū Sufyān b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib). His name was Ṣak̲h̲r, and his kunya is sometimes given as Abū Ḥanẓala. ʿAbd S̲h̲ams had been at one time a member of the political group known as the Muṭayyabūn (which included the clan of Hās̲h̲im), but about Muḥammad’s time had moved away from this group and in some matters cooperated with the rival group, Mak̲h̲zūm.…

Ḥanīfa b. Lud̲j̲aym

(413 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, ancient Arab tribe, part of Bakr b. Wāʾil [ q.v.] on a level with T̲h̲aʿlaba and ʿId̲j̲l. The chief subdivisions were al-Dūl (or al-Duʾil), ʿAdī, ʿĀmir, Suḥaym. They were partly nomadic, partly agricultural (date-palms and cereals), and also partly pagan, partly Christian. The town of al-Had̲j̲r, capital of al-Yamāma, belonged chiefly to them, also the town of Ḏj̲aww (later al-K̲h̲idrima). Other localities mentioned as belonging to them (and as chiefly occupied by them) include: the wādī of al-ʿIrḍ, al-Awḳa, Fays̲h̲ān, al-Kirs, Ḳurrān, al-Manṣif …


(254 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, Muḥammad’s mother. Her father was Wahb b. ʿAbd Manāf of the clan of Zuhra of the tribe of Ḳurays̲h̲, and her mother Barra bint ¶ ʿAbd al-ʿUzzā of the clan of ʿAbd al-Dār. It is said that She was the ward of her uncle Wuhayb b. ʿAbd Manāf, and that on the day he betrothed her to ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib he also betrothed his own daughter Hāla to ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib (Ibn Saʿd, i/1, 58). If this report is correct it may be an example of some forgotten marriage-custom. Āmina seems to have remained…

Kilāb b. Rabīʿa

(170 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, an Arab tribe belonging to the group of tribes called ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa [ q.v.], The territories and pre-Islamic history of the tribe are described in that article. Kilāb was considered to have ten main divisions, of which the chief for a time was D̲j̲aʿfar b. Kilāb, from which came leaders of the whole of ʿĀmir. The most serious war of the Fid̲j̲ār [ q.v.] resulted from the killing of ʿUrwa al-Raḥḥāl of Kilāb by al-Barrāḍ b. Ḳays al-Kinānī. Divisions within the tribe are reflected in hostility to the Muslims and friendship with them. Two men of Kilāb joined…

Ḥās̲h̲im b. ʿAbd Manāf

(265 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, great-grand-father of the prophet Muḥammad. As a grandson of Ḳusayy, who had made the tribe of Ḳurays̲h̲ dominant in Mecca and had reorganized the pilgrimage, he held the offices or functions of rifāda and siḳāya , that is, the provision of food and water for the pilgrims. For the first he collected contributions in money or kind from the chief men of Mecca. One year when food was scarce in Mecca, he brought baked cakes or loaves from Syria, and crumbled ( has̲h̲ama ) these to make broth ( t̲h̲arīd ) for the pilgrims; after this he was known as Hās̲h̲im, though…

Ahl al-Ṣuffa

(765 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, a group of Muḥammad’s Companions, mentioned chiefly in ascetic and mystical writings, where they have come to typify the ideal of poverty and piety. The ṣuffa or ẓulla (often rendered ‘bench’, ‘banquette’, etc.) was, according to Lane, a long, covered portico or vestibule, which formed part of the mosque at Medina. This—so the legend ran—was the sole home of these men, and they spent their time in study and worship, except when in obedience to a command from Muḥammad they went out to fight. They are sometimes said to have been as many as 400; Lane (s.v. ṣuffa) quotes al-Sayyid Murtaḍā as s…


(656 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, a large North Arabian tribe or group of tribes. The genealogy is given as: Hawāzin b. Manṣūr b. ʿIkrima b. K̲h̲aṣafa b. Ḳays b. ʿAylān (see kays ʿaylān , ʿadnān , al-ʿarab (D̲j̲azīrat), vi). Properly speaking Hawāzin includes the tribes of ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa [ q.v.] and T̲h̲aḳīf [ q.v.], but the term is sometimes restricted to what is more correctly ʿUd̲j̲z Hawāzin, “the rear of Hawāzin”, comprising D̲j̲usham b. Muʿāwiya b. Bakr, Naṣr b. Muʿāwiya b. Bakr and Saʿd b. Bakr [ q.v.]. Among the places reckoned to belong to Hawāzin were: Amlaḥ, ʿAds al-Maṭāḥil, al-Dardā, al-Ḍabʿān, a…


(391 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, the most suitable or fitting, a term used by theologians in a technical sense. The "upholders of the aṣlaḥ " were a group of the Muʿtazila who held that God did what was best for mankind. It is nowhere stated who composed the group. Abu ’l-Hud̲h̲ayl held that God did what was. best for men. Al-Naẓẓām introduced the refinement that there were an infinite number of equally good. alternatives, any of which God might adopt instead of acting as He does; in this way he avoided the implication that…

Bayʿat al-Riḍwān

(391 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, the name given to an oath exacted by the Prophet from some of his followers during the Medinan period. During the expedition to al-Ḥudaybiya [ q.v.] in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda of the year 6 (March 628), a report reached Muḥammad that the Meccans had killed ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿAffān, who had gone into Mecca to negotiate a truce. Muḥammad realised that he would lose face unless ʿUt̲h̲mān’s death was avenged, and summoned the members of the expedition to take an oath of allegiance to himself. There are different versions of the content …
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