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K̲h̲adīd̲j̲a

(688 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, first wife of Muḥammad, daughter of K̲h̲uwaylid of the clan of Asad of the tribe of Ḳurays̲h̲ in Mecca. Before her marriage to Muḥammad she had been married twice, to Abū Hāla al-Tamīmī, a client of the Meccan clan of ʿAbd al-Dār, and to ʿUtayyiḳ (or ʿAtīḳ) b. ʿĀʾid̲h̲ (incorrectly ʿĀbid) b. ʿAbd Allāh of the Meccan clan of Mak̲h̲zūm. The order of these marriages is disputed, as is also the ism of Abū Hāla and his genealogy. To Abū Hāla she is mostly said to have borne two sons with the (usually feminine) names of Hind and Hāla, and to ʿUtayy…

Kaʿb b. al-As̲h̲raf

(386 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, opponent of Muḥammad at Medina, reckoned to belong to his mother’s clan al-Naḍīr, though his father was an Arab of the Nabhān section of Ṭayyiʾ. He presumably followed the Jewish custom of taking his religion from his mother, but it is doubtful if he was a scholar, as the words in a poem sayyid al-aḥbār (Ibn His̲h̲ām, 659, 12) would imply, if the poem were genuine. Aroused by the deaths of many leading Meccans at Badr, he went to Mecca and used his considerable poetic gifts (he is called faḥl faṣiḥ in K. al-Ag̲h̲ānī ) to incite Ḳurays̲h̲ to fight the Muslims. On hi…

al-Abwāʾ

(155 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, a place on the road from Mecca to Medina, 23 miles from al-Ḏj̲uḥfa in the territory of Banū Ḍamra of Kināna. According to some authorities the name really belonged to a mountain situated there. Muḥammad’s mother, Āmina, is commonly said to have died there while returning from Medina to Mecca, and to be buried there; but she is sometimes said to be buried in Mecca (Ṭabarī, i, 980). The first expedition from Medina in which Muḥammad himself took part was to al-Abwāʾ and Waddān nearby. It is said…

Musaylima

(1,053 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
b. Ḥabīb, Abū T̲h̲umāma , a man of Banū Ḥanīfa who lived in al-Yamāma and led a large section of his tribe in revolt during the wars of the ridda [ q.v.]. The suggestion of some European scholars (as in the article in EI 1) that Musaylima is a contemptuous diminutive of Maslama appears to be mistaken. Because he claimed to be a prophet he is often called al-Kad̲h̲d̲h̲āb, the liar or false prophet. He is also said to have been called al-Raḥmān (al-Balād̲h̲urī, 105; al-Wāḳidī, 82); but this seems unlikely since al-Raḥmān was a name of God. …

Ḏj̲ahm b. Ṣafwān

(202 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, Abu muḥriz , early theologian, sometimes called al-Tirmid̲h̲ī or al-Samarḳandī. He was a client of Rāsib (a baṭn of Azd) and appears as secretary to al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Surayd̲j̲, “The man with the black banner” who revolted against the Umayyads and from 116/734 to 128/746 controlled tracts of eastern K̲h̲urāsān, sometimes in alliance with Turks. D̲j̲ahm was captured and executed in 128/746, shortly before al-Ḥārit̲h̲ himself. The basis of this movement of revolt, of which D̲j̲ahm was intellect…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḏj̲aḥs̲h̲

(131 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, of Banū Asad b. Ḵh̲uzayma, a confederate ( ḥalīf ) of Banū Umayya of Ḳurays̲h̲. His mother was Umayma bint ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib, Muḥammad’s aunt. An early Muslim along with his brothers, ʿUbayd Allāh and Abū Aḥmad, he took part with the former in the migration to Abyssinia. ʿUbayd Allāh became a Christian and died there, but ʿAbd Allāh returned to Mecca and was the most prominent of a group of confederates, including his sister Zaynab [ q.v.], who all migrated to Medina. He led the much-criticized raid to Nak̲h̲la where Muslims first shed Meccan blood, and fought at Badr. …

Ruḳayya

(236 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, daughter of Muḥammad and his wife K̲h̲adīd̲j̲a. She is sometimes said to have been the eldest of his four daughters, but this is unlikely. She and her sister Umm Kult̲h̲ūm were betrothed and married to two sons of Abū Lahab [ q.v.], but the latter told his sons to divorce their wives when Muḥammad began his career as a prophet. The divorces could not have been, as sometimes stated, after the revelation of ¶ sūra CXI, in which Abū Lahab is attacked, unless that was an early Meccan revelation. The statement in some sources that the divorces took …

Hid̲j̲ra

(1,111 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, latinized as Hegira, the emigration of Muḥammad from Mecca to Medina in September 622. The first stem of the verb, had̲j̲ara , means “to cut someone off from friendly association” (cf Ḳurʾān IV, 34/38) or “to avoid association with” (LXXIII, 10); there is often an explicit or implicit reference to a sexual relationship, as in the first Ḳurʾānic verse. The third stem hād̲j̲ara refers to a mutual ending of friendly relationships. Thus hid̲j̲ra properly does not mean “flight” as it has been traditionally translated but connotes primarily the brea…

Iram

(559 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, name of a tribe or place: (1) A tribe called Iram is mentioned several times in ancient poems (over a dozen references are given by J. Horovitz, Koranische Untersuchungen , Berlin 1926, 89 f.). It is mostly coupled with ʿĀd, but sometimes also with T̲h̲amūd. Ḥimyar, etc., and is said to have been destroyed by a man called Ḳudār al-Aḥmar (Uḥaymir). In this meaning Iram is an ajicient Arabian tribe. In his Muʿallaḳa , 68, al-Ḥārīth b. Ḥilliza uses the adjective iramī in the sense of ‘a man of ancient race’ (cf. al-Tibrīzī, ad loc). When Muslim scholars came to link up traditional Arab gen…

al-G̲h̲azālī

(3,499 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-Ṭūsī (450/1058-505/1111), outstanding theologian, jurist, original thinker, mystic and religious reformer. There has been much discussion since ancient times whether his nisba should be G̲h̲azālī or G̲h̲azzālī; cf. Brockelmann, S I, 744; the former is to be preferred in accordance with the principle of difficilior lectio potius. 1. Life He was born at Ṭūs in Ḵh̲urāsān, near the modern Mes̲h̲hed, in 450/1058. He and his brother Aḥmad were left orphans at an early age. Their education was begun in Ṭūs. Then al-G̲h̲a…

Saʿd b. Bakr

(191 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, Banū , a small Arab tribe, usually reckoned as part of the tribe or tribal group of Hawāzin [ q.v.]. To a section of this tribe belonged Ḥalīma bint Abī Ḏh̲uʾayb, Muḥammad’s wet-nurse. After the battle of Ḥunayn [ q.v.] her daughter S̲h̲aymāʾ, who had been taken prisoner, obtained her release by proving to Muḥammad that she was his milk-sister [see also raḍāʿ. 2]; and some of the men of the tribe, because they were Muḥammad’s milk-brothers, were able to facilitate various negotiations. The tribe was apparently divided into several small sections. The grou…

Hamdān

(578 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Watt, W. Montgomery
, a large Arab tribe of the Yemen group, the full genealogy being Hamdān (Awsala) b. Mālik b. Zayd b. Rabīʿa b. Awsala b. al-K̲h̲iyār b. Mālik b. Zayd b. Kahlān. Their territory lay to the north of Ṣanʿā [ q.v.], stretching eastwards to Maʾrib [ q.v.] and Nad̲j̲rān [ q.v.], northwards to Ṣaʿda [ q.v.], and westwards to the coast (Abū Arīs̲h̲). The eastern half belonged to the sub-tribe of Bakīl, the western to Ḥās̲h̲id [ q.v.], and these are still found there. In the D̲j̲āhiliyya Hamdān worshipped the idol Yaʿūḳ (but probably not Yag̲h̲ūt̲h̲ as sometimes stated; cf. Wellhausen, Reste

Ad̲j̲al

(803 words)

Author(s): Goldziher, I. | Watt, W. Montgomery
, the appointed term of a man’s life or the date of his death; a topic regularly discussed in the earlier kalām along with that of rizḳ or sustenance. The idea that the date of a man’s death is fixed presumably belongs to pre-Islamic thought. The word ad̲j̲al is used in the Ḳurʾān in a variety of ways, e.g. for the date when the embryo emerges from the womb (xxii, 5), for the period Moses had to serve for his wife (xxviii, 28 f.), for the date when a debt is due (ii, 282), etc. In creating the heavens and earth, the sun and moon, God fixed an ad̲j̲al for them (xlvi, 3; xxxix, 5 etc.); with this is con…

Ḳays ʿAylān

(1,917 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery | Baer, G. | Hoexter, M.
, one of the two subdivisions of Muḍar, which along with Rabīʿa was reckoned as constituting the sons of ʿAdnān, the so-called Northern Arabs [see d̲j̲azīrat al-ʿarab ]. The other subdivision of Muḍar was K̲h̲indif or al-Yās. ʿAylān is sometimes said to be the father of Ḳays, but it is more likely that the double name means “Ḳays (owner) of ʿAylān” (sc. a horse, dog or slave). The following is an abbreviated genealogical table: ¶ Ḳays ʿAylān does not appear to have functioned as a unit before Islam, and in the accounts of “the days of the Arabs” o…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAwf

(199 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M.Th. | Watt, W. Montgomery
, originally called ʿAbd ʿAmr or ʿAbd al-Kaʿba, the most prominent early Muslim convert from B. Zuhra of Ḳurays̲h̲. He took part in the Hid̲j̲ra to Abyssinia and in that to Medina, and fought at Badr and the other main battles. He commanded a force of 700 men sent by Muḥammad in S̲h̲aʿbān 6/December 627 to Dūmat al-Ḏj̲andal; the Christian chief, al-Aṣbag̲h̲ (or al-Aṣyaʿ) al-Kalbī, became a Muslim and made a ‘treaty, and ʿAbd al-Raḥmān married his daughter Tumāḍir (but cf. Caetani, Annali , i, 700). By his shrewdness and skill as a merchant he made an enor…

al-Madīna

(13,695 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery | Winder, R.B.
(usually Medina in English, Médine in French), residence of the Prophet Muḥammad after the ḥid̲j̲ra and one of the sacred cities of Islam. Medina is situated in the Ḥid̲j̲āz province of Saʿūdī Arabia in latitude 24° 28′ N, longitude 39° 36′ E, about 160 km. from the Red Sea and about 350 km. north of Mecca. It has developed from an oasis on relatively level ground between the hill of Uḥud on the north and that of ʿAyr on the south. East and west are lava flows (in Arabic ḥarra [ q.v.] or lāba ). There are several wādī s or watercourses which cross the oasis from south to…

Ḥirāʾ

(190 words)

Author(s): Weir, T.H. | Watt, W. Montgomery
also written Ḥarāʾ , and without hamza ), a mountain three Arabian miles to the north-east of Mecca, often mentioned along with another mountain opposite, T̲h̲abīr [ q.v.]. It was near the s̲h̲iʿb or quarter of the family of al-Ak̲h̲nas, on the left of the pilgrim road to ʿIrāḳ. Muḥammad is said to have been in the habit of spending a month each year in a cave on Ḥirāʾ engaged in taḥannut̲h̲ , presumably some form of religious devotion, and to have been visited here by an angel (Ibn His̲h̲ām, 152; cf. Ṭabarī, i, 1147 f., 1155); this experience is sometimes identified with ¶ the beginning of revel…

Badw

(22,344 words)

Author(s): Coon, C.S. | Wissmann, H. von | Kussmaul, F. | Watt, W. Montgomery
I. Pastoral nomads of Arabian blood, speech, and culture are found in the Arabian Peninsula proper and in parts of Iran, Soviet Turkestan, North Africa, and the Sudan. This article is limited to their way of life in their home territory. Unlike primitive hunting and gathering, pastoral nomadism is a sophisticated System of exploiting land incapable of cultivation. Later to arise than agriculture, pastoralism utilises seven species of domestic animals: the sheep, goat, and ox, domesticated in Neolithic times as part of the ¶ herding and sowing complex of Western Asia; the ass, …

Makka

(45,581 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery | Wensinck, A.J. | Bosworth, C.E. | Winder, R.B. | King, D.A.
(in English normally “Mecca”, in French “La Mecque”), the most sacred city of Islam, where the Prophet Muḥammad was born and lived for about 50 years, and where the Kaʿba [ q.v.] is situated. 1. The pre-Islamic and early Islamic periods Geographical description. Mecca is located in the Ḥid̲j̲āz about 72 km. inland from the Red Sea port of Jedda (D̲j̲udda [ q.v.]), in lat. 21° 27′ N. and long. 39° 49′ E. It is now the capital of the province ( manātiḳ idāriyya ) of Makka in Suʿūdī Arabia, and has a normal population of between 200,000 and 300,000, which …
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