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Sulṭān Ḥusayn

(569 words)

Author(s): Gandjeï, T.
Mīrzā b. Manṣūr b. Bayḳara was born in Harāt in Miḥarram 842/June 1438. At the age of 14 he entered the service of Abu’l-Ḳāsim Bābur. In 858/1454, when Abu’l-Ḳāsim Bābur made peace with Abū Saʿīd, Ḥusayn Mīrzā entered the service of the latter, but was imprisoned by him. After his release through the intervention of his mother, he returned to Abu’l-Ḳāsim Bābur, with whom he remained till his death (861/1457). He then joined Muʿizz al-Dīn Sand̲j̲ar, who held Marw, Māk̲h̲ān and D…

Hilālī

(243 words)

Author(s): Gandjeï, T.
, Badr al-Dīn , Persian poet of the late 9t̲h̲/15t̲h̲—early 10th/16th centuries, of Turkish origin, born in Astarābād. While a young man he went to Herāt and enjoyed the patronage of ʿAlī S̲h̲īr Nawāʾī. Sām Mīrzā, who gives the fullest account of Hilālī, states that although he was known as a Sunnī, he was executed as a S̲h̲īʿī heretic by ʿUbayd Allāh K̲h̲ān in 936/1529-30. Apart from his dīwān , consisting mainly of g̲h̲azals , he composed three mat̲h̲nawīs . These are, in chronological order: (a) S̲h̲āh u Darwīs̲h̲ , the content of which Bābur criticized on moral grounds ( The Bábar-náma

Ismāʿīl I

(2,029 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M. | Gandjeï, T.
( Abu’ l-Muẓaffar ), born 25 Rad̲j̲ab 892/17 July 1487, died 19 Rad̲j̲ab 930/23 May 1524, shah of Persia (907/1501-930/1524) and founder of the Ṣafawid dynasty [see ṣafawids ]. 1. Biographical and historical: Under Ismāʿīl, Iran became a national state for the first time since the Arab conquest in the 1st/7th century. An important factor in this process was the proclamation by Ismāʿīl of the It̲h̲nā ʿAs̲h̲arī (D̲j̲aʿfarī) form of S̲h̲īʿism as the official religion of the Ṣafawid state. By this action, Ismāʿīl decisively differ…