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(334 words)

Author(s): Newman, A.J.
, Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ Mullā Hādī b. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ Mahdī (1212-95 or 1298/1797-1878 or 1881), Persian philosopher of the Ḳād̲j̲ār period, best-known for his commentary on, and revival of the ideas of Saḍr al-Dīn al-S̲h̲īrāzī, Mullā Ṣadrā (d. 1050/1640 [ q.v.]). Born in Sabzawār to a landowning merchant family, Mullā Hādī studied Arabic language and grammar in his home city and fīḳh , logic, mathematics and ḥikma in Mas̲h̲had. He then studied in Iṣfahān with such scholars as Mullā ʿAlī Nūrī (d. 1246/1830-1), the first of the Ḳād̲j̲ār-period scholars…


(3,294 words)

Author(s): Newman, A.J. | Jansen, J.J.G.
(a.), lit. “those who go back to first principles”, from uṣūl , sing, aṣl “root, basic principle” or, considered as a modern abstract noun formation, “the doctrine of going back to first principles”. 1. In the legal parlance of classical Islam More specifically, the term uṣūliyya is applied within the Twelver S̲h̲īʿī tradition [see it̲h̲nā ʿas̲h̲ariyya ] to those of its adherents commonly identified as supporting application of the rationalist principles of jurisprudence—especially id̲j̲tihād [ q.v.] to the revelation accepted by the Twelvers to interpret doctrine and …


(30,242 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Newman, A.J. | Welch, A.T. | Darley-Doran, R.E.
, a dynasty which ruled in Persia as “sovereigns 907-1135/1501-1722, as fainéants 1142-8/1729-36, and thereafter, existed as pretenders to the throne up to 1186/1773. I. Dynastic, political and military history. The establishment of the Ṣafawid state in 907/1501 by S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl I [ q.v.] (initially ruler of Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān only) marks an important turning-point in Persian history. In the first place, the Ṣafawids restored Persian sovereignty over the whole of the area traditionally regarded as the heartlands of Persia for the first ti…