Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Parry, V.J." ) OR dc_contributor:( "Parry, V.J." )' returned 44 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Biled̲j̲ik

(270 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
(the Βηλόκωμα of Byzantine times) is a small town in north-western Asia Minor on the Ḳara Ṣu, an affluent of the Saḳāryā. It is thought that the site of the ancient Agrilion (Agrillum, in the Peutinger Tables) lies not far from Biled̲j̲ik. The Ottomans seized Biled̲j̲ik from the Byzantines in the reign of ʿOt̲h̲mān Beg. Biled̲j̲ik, under Ottoman rule, was included in the eyālet of Anadolu, but later became the administrative centre of the sand̲j̲aḳ of Erṭog̲h̲rul in the wilāyet of Ḵh̲udāvendigār (Brusa). It is now the centre of the present province of…

Balāṭ

(395 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
, now a small village on the site of the ancient Miletos in Caria. The word Balāṭ derives from "Παλάτια", the name used for this locality at least from the first years of the 13th century. Balāṭ ¶ came under the control of the Begs of Mentes̲h̲e [ q.v.] towards the close of this century and, because of its favourable situation near the mouth of the river Maiandros (Büyük Menderes), served them as a point of departure for their raids into the Aegean Sea and, later, as a commercial centre of some importance. The Venetians had a church and a con…

Ferhād Pas̲h̲a

(775 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
(? — 1004/1595), Ottoman Grand Vizier. One Venetian relazione of 1585 gives his then age as about 50 years, while other Venetian relazioni of 1590-4 describe him as a man of about 65 or 70 years. Ferhād Pas̲h̲a was of Albanian origin (some of the Venetian accounts refer to him as “di nazion schiavone”, “di nazione schiava”) and, according to Lazaro Soránzo, a native of “Andronici Castello dell’ Albania”. After he had gone out from the enderūn-i humāyūn towards the end of the reign of Sultan Süleymān Ḳānūnī (d. 974/1566), his career embraced the offices of Mīr Ak̲h̲or-i Kebīr, i.e.

Ḥāfiẓ Aḥmed Pas̲h̲a

(662 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
, (?-1041/1632), Ottoman Grand Vizier. The date of his birth is uncertain. Simone Contarini, in his relazione of 1612 to the ¶ Signoria of Venice, states that he was then about forty years of age (Barozzi and Berchet, i, 146: “... Cabil bassa già capitan del Mare che regge ora Damasco sarà di 40 anni...”). He rose in the enderūn-i humāyūn to the status of muṣāḥib , i.e., confidant of the sultan, and to the office of dog̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ bas̲h̲i̊ . On leaving the enderūn-i humāyūn he became a vizier and also Ḳapudān Pās̲h̲ā, i.e., High Admiral of the Ottoman fleet—an appointment that he filled…

Bozanti

(599 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
(Pozantı) lies on the Çakit Çay (called Pozantı Suyu in its higher reaches), about 13 km. to the N.N.E. of the celebrated pass through the Taurus mountains which is known as the Cilician Gates (Pylae Ciliciae: the Darb al-Salāma of Ibn Ḵh̲urradād̲h̲bih, and now, in Turkish, Külek Boğazı). It is the Podandos (Ποδανδός, Ποδενδός, Ποδυανδός, Ποδανδέυς, ‛Ρεγεποδανδός) of the Romans and the Byzantines, the al-Bad̲h̲andūn, (Badandūn, Budandūn) of the Arab geographers. The mediaeval Western sources present the name in a number of different forms, e.g., Podando, Poduando, Opodanda, Bot…

Bodrum

(705 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
, a small town situated on the west coast of Asia Minor, opposite the island of Istanköy (Kos). It stands near the site of the ancient Halicarnassus in Caria. When the Turks overran western Asia Minor in the years around 1300, this region came under the rule of the Begs of Mentes̲h̲e [ q.v.]. The Ottomans seized the emirate of Menteshe in 792/1390, lost it after their defeat in battle against Tīmūr Lang at Ankara in 804/1402 and did not recover full and direct possession of Mentes̲h̲e until 829/1425-1426. This second and definitive annexation of t…

Bāyazīd

(336 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
( doğu-bayazit ), a small town belonging to the Turkish Republic and situated a little to the south of Mount Ararat (Ag̲h̲ri̊-Dāg̲h̲), close to the frontier with Iran. It has been suggested that the town was named after the Ottoman Sulṭān Bāyazīd I (791-805/1389-1403), who, according to this view, fortified the site as a post of observation against Tīmūr Beg. A more recent interpretation is that the name derives in fact from a prince of the D̲j̲alāyirid dynasty, i.e., from Bāyazīd, the brother of Sulṭān Aḥmed (784-813/1382-1410). The Ottomans captured the town in 920/1514…

Bāybūrd

(510 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
(bayburt), known to the Byzantines in the time of Justinian as βαιβερδών, is situated on the Çoruh river, about 100 km. to the north-west of Erzurum. The Sald̲j̲ūḳ Turks overran this region in the years 446-447/1054-1055. After the battle of Manzikert in 463/1071 Bāybūrd came under Turkish rule, now of the Saltukids at Erzurum and now of the Dānis̲h̲mends at Sivas, although the Byzantines, who still held Trebizond, did in fact recapture the town for a time in the reign of Alexios I Komnenos. Dur…

Enderūn

(406 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
(pers. Andarūn, “inside”; turk. Enderūn). The term Enderūn (or Enderūn-i Humāyun) was used to designate the “Inside” Service (asopposed to Bīrūn [ q.v.], the “Outside” Service) of the Imperial Household of the Ottoman Sulṭān: i.e., to denote the complex of officials engaged in the personal and private service of the Sulṭān—included therein was the system of Palace Schools—and placed under the control of the Chief of the White Eunuchs, the Bāb al-Saʿādet Ag̲h̲asi̊ (the Ag̲h̲a of the Gate of Felicity— i.e., the gate leading from the second into the third court, proceeding inw…

Bālikesrī

(356 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
, Bali̊kesir, a town of north-western Asia Minor, in the region known in ancient times as Mysia. The name Bālikesrī derives from the Greek “Παλαιοκάστρον”. Al-ʿUmarī, in his Masālik alAbṣār , ¶ refers to this locality as “Akīrā” (= ‘‘ ’Oχυρά’’, a name current in the period of the Comneni). The Roman Hadrianuthera is believed to have been situated in this same district. Bālikesrī was one of the chief towns in the emirate of Ḳarasī [ q.v.], which came into being when the Turks wrested this area from the Byzantines in the years around 699-700/ 1300. Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, who travel…

Čirmen

(404 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
, located at the site of Burdipta, a fortress of the ancient Thracians (cf. Tomaschek, 325), is called Τζερνομιάνον in the chronicle of the Byzantine historian Kantakuzenos (cf. also Chalkokondyles, who mentions a Kερμιανόν χῶρον and Črŭnomêcĭ in the Serbian sources. It lies on the south side of the river Maritsa, not far above Adrianople (Edirne) and was, at the time of the earlier Ottoman conquests in the Balkans, a point of some strategic importance, since it commanded a ford across the river…

Dilāwar Pas̲h̲a

(558 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
(?-1031/1622), Ottoman Grand Vizier, was of Croat origin. He rose in the Palace service to the rank of Čās̲h̲nigīr Bas̲h̲i̊, ¶ becoming thereafter Beglerbeg of Cyprus and then, in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1022/January 1614, Beglerbeg of Bag̲h̲dād. As Beglerbeg of Diyārbekir—an appointment bestowed on him in 1024/1615—he shared in the Erivān campaign of 1025/1616 against the Ṣafawids of Persia. His subsequent career until 1030/1621 is somewhat obscure. The Ottoman chronicles (cf. Pečewī, ii, 366; Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī K̲h̲alīfa, …

D̲j̲erīd

(789 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
the wooden dart or javelin used in the game of D̲j̲erīd, i.e., D̲j̲erīd Oyunu in Turkish and, in the Arabic of Egypt, Laʿb al-D̲j̲erīd—a game which was popular and widespread in the Ottoman empire of the 10th/16th-13th/19th centuries. The actual form of the d̲j̲erīd or wooden javelin varied somewhat in the different parts of the empire; its length, moreover, seems to have ranged in general between ¾ and 1½ metres (von Oppenheim, 598-9). The d̲j̲erīd, in Egypt, consisted of a palm branch stripped bare of its leaves, such being indeed the ¶ original sense of the Arabic word d̲j̲arīd

Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a, Dāmād

(1,328 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
, (?-1010/1601), Ottoman Grand Vizier. Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a, according to Pečewī (ii, 284), was of Bosnian origin. The Venetian sources refer to him as “di nazione schiavone” (Alberi, iii, 241-2, 290, 367-8) or “di Chersego” (Alberi, iii, 432; cf. also Soranzo, 10: “nativo della Provincia di Herzecovina”). Perhaps the most exact indication is that of Minadoi, who describes Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a ( Historia , 266) as “di natione schiavona, del luoco detto Chianichii, una breve giornata discosto da Ragusi”. Minadoi obtained his information from “C…

Bergama

(495 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
, the ancient Pergamon in Mysia (on which cf. the data and references given in Pauly-Wissowa). Armenians who had fled before the Muslim raids into Asia Minor settled in Byzantine Pergamon during the course of the 7th century. The Byzantine emperor Philippikos (711-713) was of Armenian descent and came from Pergamon. Muslim forces under Maslama b. ʿAbd al-Malik sacked the town in 716, but it was rebuilt and refortified after the Arabs had abandoned their attempt to take Constantinople in 717-718.…

Ayās Pas̲h̲a

(922 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
(886-7?-946/1482?-1539), Ottoman Grand Vizier. Ayās Pas̲h̲a was an Albanian born in the region of Cimera (Himara) not far from Valona (ʿĀlī; Bragadino (9 June 1526); Geuffroy). According to Bragadino, Ayās Pas̲h̲a was 44 years old in 932/1526, had three brothers ("tre fradelli": not, as in Hammer, "tre fratelli monachi") and sent each month 100 ducats to his mother, "Christiana monacha a la Valona". The inscription on the gravestone of Ayās Pas̲h̲a at Istanbul refers to him as Ayās b. Meḥmed. Recruited through the devs̲h̲irme in the reign of Bāyazīd II (8…

Eǧri

(1,492 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
(Turk., Eǧri; Hung., Eger; Ger., Erlau; Lat. and Ital., Agria), an old Hungarian town, 110 km. to the north-east of Buda, situated close to the massif of Bükk, i.e., to the eastern foot-hills of the Matrá mountains, and on the river Eger, which flows into the Tisza (Theiss). Eǧri was subject to Ottoman rule from 1005/1596 to 1099/1687. The Ottomans, in 959/1552, captured Temesvár and Szolnok (important in the future as a base for ¶ the concentration of the men and supplies needed for the conquest and thereafter for the retention of Eǧri) and then laid siege to Eǧri it…

Ḳamāniča

(518 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
( Kamieniec , Kamenetz Podolski ), a fortress town of the Ukraine, situated in the region known as Podolia. Ḳamāniča rose to prominence as a stronghold guarding the southern border of Lithuania and (after 1432) of Poland against the incursions of the Tatars. It was important, too, as a station on the commercial route extending from the Black Sea and Moldavia to Poland and the Baltic. The fortress occupied a position of great strength on a high spur of rock, a little above the co…

D̲j̲aʿfar Beg

(231 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
( ?-926/1520)—the “Zafir agà, eunuco” listed in the index to Marino Sanuto, Diarii , xxv, col. 832—was Sand̲j̲aḳ Beg of Gallipoli, i.e., Ḳapudān or High Admiral of the Ottoman naval forces. He was appointed to this office, not (as Ḳāmūs al-aʿlām and Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī assert) in 917/1511 but in 922/1516. His tenure of the office coincided with the Ottoman conquest of Syria and Egypt (922-3/1516-7) and with the extensive naval preparations that Sultan Selīm I (918-26/1512-20) urged forward during the last of his …

Bes̲h̲parmaḳ

(172 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
(“five fingers”), a Turkish name given sometimes to mountain ranges in Asia Minor and elsewhere. The best known example is the Bes̲h̲parmaḳ-dag̲h̲ in south-west Asia Minor, on the lower reaches of the Büyük-Menderes—a mountain chain rising at its loftiest elevation to a height of 1367 metres. This particular range was known in ancient times as ό Λάτμος. The region became, during the Middle Ages, an active centre of Christian religious life, which flourished until the Turks overran western Asia Minor in the 13th-14th centuries. (V.J. Parry) Bibliography Th. Wiegand, Der Latmos ( Königli…

Bīg̲h̲a

(249 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
(the Greek Πηγαί), a town in northwestern Asia Minor and now the centre of a ḳaḍāʾ in, the province of Çanāḳ-Ḳalʿe, is situated on the Ḳod̲j̲a Çāy, i.e., the ancient Granicus, about 15 miles from the Sea of Marmara. At the mouth of the Ḳod̲j̲a Çāy stands Ḳarā Bīg̲h̲a (the Πρίαπος of classical times), which is the port (“iskele”) of Bīg̲h̲a. Bīg̲h̲a, under Ottoman rule, was at different times a sand̲j̲aḳ of the eyālet-i Baḥr-i Sefīd (the province of the Ḳapudān Pās̲h̲ā or High Admiral of the Ottoman fleet), a sand̲j̲aḳ of the wilāyet of Ḵh̲udāwendigār (Brusa), and still later a ḳaḍāʾ in the Mute…

Čig̲h̲āla-Zāde (d̲j̲ig̲h̲āla-zāde) Yūsuf Sinān Pās̲h̲ā

(1,121 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
(c. 1545-1605), also known as Čag̲h̲al (Ḏj̲ag̲h̲āl)-og̲h̲lu, belonged to the Genoese house of Cicala. He was born at Messina in Sicily and received the Christian name Scipione Cicala. His father, the Visconte di Cicala, was, according to Gerlach, a "corsair" in the service of Spain, while his mother is said (cf. L’Ottomanno , of L. Soranzo) to have been "Turca da Castelnuovo". The Visconte and his son, captured at sea by Muslim corsairs in 968/1561 (some of the sources give the year as 967/1560), were taken first to Tripoli …

Istolnī (istōnī) Belg̲h̲rād

(638 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
(also Ustōlnī, Ustōnī Belg̲h̲rād)—cf. Serbian: Stolni Belgrad; German: Stuhlweissenburg; Latin: Alba Regia; Hungarian: ¶ Székesfehérvár—a fortress town to the south-west of Buda. Here, during the 10th-16th centuries, was held the coronation of the Hungarian kings in the Church of St. Stephen—a church which was also their burial place. Istolnī Belg̲h̲rād ( beyāẓ iskemle ḳalʿesi , to use the words of Ewliyā Čelebi, vii, 55) was located where the stream Sarvisius (Isthvanfius, 267—cf. Nehr-i S̲h̲arwīz in Ewliyā Čelebi, vii, 63), …

Derwīs̲h̲ Pas̲h̲ā

(394 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
(?-1012/1603)—the historian Pečewī refers to him (ii, 132) as Derwīs̲h̲ Ḥasan Pas̲h̲a—was born at Mostar in the Herzegovina and, in the reign of the Ottoman Sultan Selīm II (974-982/15 66-1574), entered the Palace service, where, in the course of his education, he revealed an interest and ability in literature and poetry. During the reign of Sulṭān Murād III (982-1003/1574-1595) he became one of the Imperial Falconers ( dog̲h̲and̲j̲i̊ ) and won the favour of the Sultan through the ḳaṣīdes and g̲h̲azels which he presented to him. At the order of Murād I…

Burdur

(505 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
, a town in S.W. Asia Minor, distant about 4 km. from the south-eastern shore of the lake which bears the same name, i.e., the Burdur Gölü. The view that the old Limobrama (interpreted as ? Limnobria: “the lake town”) was situated at or ¶ near the modern Burdur is of doubtful value (cf. Ramsay; Pauly-Wissowa, s.v. Limobrama; and Honigmann). The present name of the town, Burdur (“Buldur” in the speech of the local Turkish inhabitants and in the accounts of various travellers who have visited this region; also “Purdur’ (Πουρδούρ) amongst th…

Bandirma

(237 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
, a port on the Sea of Marmara, near the site of the ancient Cyzicus. The mediaeval Greek name for the town was Panormos. Villehardouin mentions a castle called “Palorme”, which the Latin Crusaders fortified in 1204. It was used thereafter as a base for their operations against the Greeks in north-west Asia Minor. Under Ottoman rule Bandirma was included in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Ḳarasi̊ [ q.v.]. According to the evidence of travellers who visited the town in the 16th-17th centuries, most of its inhabitants seem to have been not of Turkish, but of Greek or Armenian …

Derwīs̲h̲ Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a

(507 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
, (c. 993 ?-1065/1585 ?-1655), Ottoman Grand Vizier, was of Čerkes (Circassian) origin. As ketk̲h̲udā of Ṭabāni̊ Yassi̊ Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Grand Vizier (1041-6/1632-7) in the reign of Sulṭān Murād IV (1032-49/1623-40), he shared in the Eriwān campaign of 1044-5/1635 against the Ṣafawīds of Persia and became thereafter Beglerbeg of S̲h̲ām, an appointment that he held, according to Ibn D̲j̲umʿa, in 1046/1636-7. At the time of Murād IV’s campaign against Bag̲h̲dād in 1048/1638 he was Beglerbeg…

Baylān

(554 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
(belen), a village situated in the Amanus mountains (Elma-Dāg̲h̲) on the main line of communication from Iskenderun (Alexandretta) eastwards into northern Syria. The site seems to have had no great importance during the earlier centuries of Muslim rule, the chief town in this local area being then Bag̲h̲rās (Πάγραι). The neighbouring pass of Baylān, i.e., the ancient Σύριαι Πύλαι or ’Αμαυίδες Πύλαι, was included in the ʿawāṣim of northern Syria. It has received various names during the long period of Muslim domination, e.g., ʿaḳabat al-nisāʾ (Balād̲h̲urī), maḍīḳ Bag̲h̲rās , bāb-i Is…

Dāmād Ḥasan Pas̲h̲a

(551 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
, (? -1125/1713), Ottoman Grand Vizier. The sources refer to him sometimes as “Moralī”, i.e., “from the Morea” and sometimes as “Enis̲h̲te”, i.e., “brother-in-law” (of the sultan, in this instance). He became a čokadār and then, in 1095/1683-4, rose to the rank of silāḥdār . On the accession to the throne of Süleymān II in Muḥarrem 1099/November 1687 he was made governor of Egypt (with the status of vizier)—an appointment that he held until 1101/1689-90, when, according to the Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī, he became mutaṣarri̊f of Brusa and Nicomedia (Izmid). Ḥ…

Dāwūd Pas̲h̲a

(662 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
, Ḳara (? — 1032/1623), Ottoman Grand Vizier. The year of his birth is uncertain, but, in a “relazione” submitted to the Signoria in 1612, Simone Contarini, who had been Venetian Bailo at Istanbul, mentions a Dāwūd Pas̲h̲a, whom he describes as a Croat in origin and at that time about 46 years old. According to the Ottoman sources, however, Ḳara Dāwūd Pas̲h̲a was of Bosnian descent. He was trained in the Palace Schools, being appointed in due course to the office of čuḳadār ( čuhadar ). During the reign of Sulṭān Meḥemmed III (1003-1012/1595-1603) he became …

Bālṭa Līmānī

(309 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
, situated on the European shore of the Bosphorus between Boyaci̊-Köyü and Rumeli Hisari̊, takes its name from Bālṭa-og̲h̲lū Sulaymān Beg, the commander of the Ottoman fleet at the time of the conquest of Constantinople in 1453. It is in fact the ancient Phaidalia and was also known as Gynaikōn Limēn (Portus Mulierum). Gyllius (mid-16th cent.) refers to it as the “. . . . sinum Phidaliae, et portum mulierum . . . .”, which the Greeks called Sarantacopa from the wooden bridge there across the mar…

Čanaḳ-Ḳalʿe Bog̲h̲azi̊

(1,534 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
(Çanak-kale Boǧazı) is the name now given in Turkish to the Dardanelles. This narrow channel, which unites the Marmara and the Aegean Seas, has a length of about 62 km. (Gelibolu-Çardak to Seddülbahir-Kumkale) and a width ranging from 8 km. down to 1250 m. (Çanak-kale to Kilitbahir). The strait was known to the ancient Greeks as the Hellespont (ὁ ʿΕλλήσποντος, in Doric ʿΕλλάσποντος) a name that remained in usage amongst the Byzantines. It is called in some of the mediaeval Western sources and se…

Beys̲h̲ehir

(355 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
(Beys̲h̲ehri), now the centre of a ḳaḍāʾ in the province of Konya, lies on the south-eastern shore of a lake ( göl ) bearing the same name. This lake was known to the Ancients as Karalis (a village called Kirili is still found close to the north-eastern shore). The town of Karalleia in Pamphylia was situated near the lake in ancient times. Beys̲h̲ehir itself is believed to have been founded in the time of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultan of Rūm ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn I (616-634/1219-1237). When the Turks overran west…

Bāyazīd II

(2,632 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
, Ottoman Sulṭān (886-918/1481-1512), was born most probably in S̲h̲awwāl or D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 851/December 1447 or January 1448 (some sources give the date of his birth, however, as 856 or 857/1452 or 1453). During the lifetime of his father, Meḥemmed II, he was governor of the province of Amāsya and served in the war against Uzun Ḥasan, the leader of the Aḳ Ḳoyūnlu Turcomans, being present at the battle of Otluḳ Belī in 878/1473. On the death of Meḥemmed II in 886/1481 a conflict for the throne b…

Kanizsa

(448 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
(Turkish Kanizhe), a notable Hungarian fortress dominating the region between Lake Balaton and the River Mur. Kanizsa stood amidst marshes: “caenoso palus trique loco sita est, fluviolo stagnante, et nullis coercito ripis, sed magis late diffuso ac carectis, multaque alno et arundine impedito, endique cincta” (Isthvanfius, 774). The Ottomans conquered the fortress in 1009/1600 after a wearisome siege, demanding the construction of approach roads across the marshes which were built of reeds and h…

Bes̲h̲ike

(151 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
( beşike körfezi , besika ) is a bay on the western coast of Asia Minor opposite the island of Tenedos (Bozd̲j̲a Ada). It lies about 23 kilometres to the south of Ḳum Ḳalʿe, between the two capes of Ḳum Burnu and Bes̲h̲ik Burnu and, although open to the sea, affords good protection to shipping. Inland from the coast is situated the classical Troas and evidence of ancient remains has been found in the immediate neighbourhood of Bes̲h̲ike itself. The British and French fleets sail…

Birge

(492 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
(Birgi, sometimes also Bergi or Birki), a small town in western Asia Minor situated in the valley of the Küçük Menderes, is the centre of a nāḥiye belonging to the ḳaḍāʾ of Ödemis̲h̲ in the province of İzmir (Smyrna). Here stood the ancient Διὸς ‘Ιερόν in Lydia. The town was known in Byzantine times as Χριστούπολις and also as Πυργίον. It was raised to the status of a metropolitan see between 1193 and 1199, being thus freed from the ecclesiastical control of Ephesos, but it became once more a suffragan …

Bog̲h̲az-İči̇

(1,492 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
( boğaziçi ) (“interior of the strait”) is the expression used in Turkish to denote the Bosphorus, and especially the shores, waters, bays and promontories which constitute its middle section. The name Bosphorus (Gr. Bόσπορος, Lat. Bosporus, Bosphorus) derives from a word of Thracian origin (cf. Pauly-Wissowa). This narrow channel, the Thracian Bosphorus (so-called in order to distinguish it from the Cimmerian Bosphorus, i.e., the strait of Kertch between the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea) unites the Sea of Marmara (the ancient Propontis, Marmara Denizi in …

Derwīs̲h̲ Pas̲h̲a

(341 words)

Author(s): Parry, V.J.
(?-1015/1606), Ottoman Grand Vizier, was of Bosnian origin. He served in the corps of Bostānd̲j̲i̊s , becoming ketk̲h̲udā of the corps and then being raised, through the favour of the Wālide Sulṭān, to the office of Bostānd̲j̲i̊ bas̲h̲i̊ in 1013/1604. Derwīs̲h̲ Pas̲h̲a was set in charge of affairs at Istanbul, when Aḥmed I visited Bursa in 1014/1605. He was made Ḳapudān Pas̲h̲a, with the rank of Vizier, in Ramaḍān 1014/January 1606 and became Grand Vizier in Ṣafar 1015/J une 1606. His tenure of the office was,…

Ismāʿīl

(1,004 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th. | Parry, V.J.
( Izmail ), an Ottoman fortress town situated in the Bud̲j̲ak [ q.v.] region of Bessarabia, on the left bank of the Kilya arm of the river Danube. Ewliyā Čelebī states that a certain ḳapudān named Ismāʿīl brought this area under Ottoman domination ¶ in 889/1484 at the time when Sultan Bāyazīd II took Kilya and Aḳ-Kermān from Moldavia. Evidence dating from 997/1588-9. (cf. Uzunçarşili, IV/i, 576, note I) indicates that a small fort (palanka) was built at Ismāʿīl in that year, craftsmen from Wallachia and Moldavia being summoned to share i…

Bīred̲j̲ik

(1,088 words)

Author(s): Streck, M. | Parry, V.J.
, a town in Mesopotamia, on the left bank of the Euphrates. The name Bīred̲j̲ik (amongst the local population, Beled̲j̲ik; also, according to Sachau, Bārād̲j̲īk in the Ḥalabī (Aleppo) dialect) means “little Bīra”, i.e., “small fortress” (Arabic bīra , with the Turkish diminutive suffix). The Arabic name “al-Bīra” ([ q.v.]; Bīreh in the later Syriac writers) derives from the Aramaic “Bīrt̲h̲ā” = “fortress”. Bīred̲j̲ik, known to the Romans as “Birtha”, is to be identified (according to Cumont) with a certain Makedonopolis mentioned in some of th…

Bārūd

(16,103 words)

Author(s): Colin, G.S. | Ayalon, D. | Parry, V.J. | Savory, R.M. | Khan, Yar Muhammad
i. — general In Arabic, the word nafṭ (Persian nafṭ) is applied to the purest form ( ṣafwa ) of Mesopotamian bitumen ( ḳīr —or ḳārbābilī ). Its natural colour is white. It occasionally occurs in a black form, but this can be rendered white by sublimation. Nafṭ is efficacious against cataract and leucoma; it has the property of attracting fire from a distance, without direct contact. Mixed with other products (fats, oil, sulphur etc.) which make it more combustible and more adhesive, it constituted the basic ingredient of “Greek fire”, a liquid incendiary compo…

Ḥarb

(27,665 words)

Author(s): Khadduri, M. | Cahen, Cl. | Ayalon, D. | Parry, V.J. | Bosworth, C.E. | Et al.
, war. i.— Legal Aspect Ḥarb may mean either fighting ( ḳitāl ) in the material sense or a “state of war” between two or more groups; both meanings were implied in the legal order of pre-Islamic Arabia. Owing to lack of organized authority, war became the basis of inter-tribal relationship. Peace reigned only when agreed upon between two or more tribes. Moreover, war fulfilled such purposes as vendetta and retaliation. The desert, adapted to distant raids and without natural frontiers, rendered the Arabs habituated to warfare and fighting became a function of society. Islam, prohibiting …

Ḥiṣār

(16,216 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Colin, G.S. | Bosworth, C.E. | Ayalon, D. | Parry, V.J. | Et al.
, siege. The following articles deal with siegecraft and siege warfare. On fortification see burd̲j̲ , ḥiṣn , ḳalʿa and sūr . i.— General Remarks Siege warfare was one of the essential forms of warfare when it was a matter of conquest, and not merely of plundering raids, in countries in which, from ancient times, most of the large towns had been protected by walls and where, during the Middle Ages, the open countryside was to an ever increasing extent held by fortresses [see ḥiṣn and ḳalʿa ]. Although the forces available were rarely sufficient to impose a co…
▲   Back to top   ▲