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Īs̲h̲īk-Āḳāsī

(290 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, Ṣafawid administrative term = “usher”. The is̲h̲īk-āḳāsis were minor court officiais who operated in two different branches of the administrative System, namely, the dīwān [ q.v.] and the ḥaram [ q.v.]. The officers in charge of the two sections were known as is̲h̲ik-āḳāsī-bās̲h̲ī -yi dīwān-i aʿlā , and īs̲h̲īk-āḳāsī-bās̲h̲ī -yi ḥaram respectively. Both officers had categories of officiais other than īs̲h̲īk-āḳāsīs under their command. There was a great difference between the status and power of these two officers: īs̲h̲īk-āḳāsī-bās̲h̲ī -yi dīwān-i aʿlā. This officer, calle…

Ḳi̊zi̊l-Bās̲h̲

(2,829 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
(t. “Red-head”). The word is used in both a general and a specific sense. In general, it is used loosely to denote a wide variety of extremist S̲h̲īʿī sects [see g̲h̲ulāt ], which flourished in ¶ Anatolia and Kurdistān from the late 7th/13th century onwards, including such groups as the Alevis ( ʿAlawīs ; see A. S. Tritton, Islam: belief and practices, London 1951, 83). The ʿAlawīs were closely connected with the Nuṣayrīs [ q.v.] of northern Syria and Cicilia, and the tahtacis ( tak̲h̲tad̲j̲is [ q.v.]), in order to protect themselves from persecution by the Ottoman government as …

K̲h̲ōī

(352 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
K̲h̲ūy , Iranian town (population in 1951: 49,000), situated in long. 45° 02′ E., lat. 38° 32′ N., in the s̲h̲ahristān of the same name in the ustān of West Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān; the Kurdish district of Quṭūr is included in the s̲h̲ahristān of K̲h̲ōī. The town lies at an elevation of 1040 m./3,444 ft., in a plain known locally as K̲h̲ōī čukūri̊ (“the K̲h̲ōī depression”), because all the surrounding areas are at a higher elevation. The mountains surrounding the K̲h̲ōī plain protect the city from the cold winter winds (the Harāwīl range a…

Ṣafawids

(30,242 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Newman, A.J. | Welch, A.T. | Darley-Doran, R.E.
, a dynasty which ruled in Persia as “sovereigns 907-1135/1501-1722, as fainéants 1142-8/1729-36, and thereafter, existed as pretenders to the throne up to 1186/1773. I. Dynastic, political and military history. The establishment of the Ṣafawid state in 907/1501 by S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl I [ q.v.] (initially ruler of Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān only) marks an important turning-point in Persian history. In the first place, the Ṣafawids restored Persian sovereignty over the whole of the area traditionally regarded as the heartlands of Persia for the first ti…

Ḏj̲angalī

(595 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, the name of a nationalist and reformist movement in Persia which came into being in 1915 in the forests ( d̲j̲angal ) of Gīlān under the leadership of Mīrzā Kūčik K̲h̲ān, Iḥsān Allāh K̲h̲ān and a number of other liberals ( āzādik̲h̲wāhān ) and constitutionalists ( mud̲j̲āhidīn ). The D̲j̲angalīs (in Persian: d̲j̲angaliyān or aḥrār-i d̲j̲angal ), whose slogans were freedom from foreign influence and the independence of Irān under the banner of Islam, set up a revolutionary committee called Ittiḥād-i Islām , published a newspaper entitled D̲j̲angal . and engage…

Bārūd

(16,103 words)

Author(s): Colin, G.S. | Ayalon, D. | Parry, V.J. | Savory, R.M. | Khan, Yar Muhammad
i. — general In Arabic, the word nafṭ (Persian nafṭ) is applied to the purest form ( ṣafwa ) of Mesopotamian bitumen ( ḳīr —or ḳārbābilī ). Its natural colour is white. It occasionally occurs in a black form, but this can be rendered white by sublimation. Nafṭ is efficacious against cataract and leucoma; it has the property of attracting fire from a distance, without direct contact. Mixed with other products (fats, oil, sulphur etc.) which make it more combustible and more adhesive, it constituted the basic ingredient of “Greek fire”, a liquid incendiary compo…

Ismāʿīl I

(2,029 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M. | Gandjeï, T.
( Abu’ l-Muẓaffar ), born 25 Rad̲j̲ab 892/17 July 1487, died 19 Rad̲j̲ab 930/23 May 1524, shah of Persia (907/1501-930/1524) and founder of the Ṣafawid dynasty [see ṣafawids ]. 1. Biographical and historical: Under Ismāʿīl, Iran became a national state for the first time since the Arab conquest in the 1st/7th century. An important factor in this process was the proclamation by Ismāʿīl of the It̲h̲nā ʿAs̲h̲arī (D̲j̲aʿfarī) form of S̲h̲īʿism as the official religion of the Ṣafawid state. By this action, Ismāʿīl decisively differ…

Asīr

(127 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, the tak̲h̲alluṣ of Mīrzā Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Mīrzā Muʾmin, Persian poet and pupil of Faṣīḥī Harawī. Born at Iṣfahān: probable date of death 1049/1639-40, though some sources give later dates. Unlike many of his contemporaries, he did not migrate to the Mug̲h̲al court, but became a boon companion and close relative (according to one account the son-in-law) of S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās I. He composed most of his poetry under the influence of alcohol, from an excess of which he died. His dīwān , comprising ḳaṣīdas , mat̲h̲nawīs , tard̲j̲ʿ-bands and g̲h̲azals , was lithographed at Lucknow in 1880. (…

Iran

(85,490 words)

Author(s): McLachlan, K.S. | Coon, C.S. | Mokri, M. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Savory, R.M. | Et al.
i.—Geography The geological background: The alignments of Iran’s principal topographie features, represented by the Kūhhā-yi Alburz and the Zagros Chain, are west to east and north-west to south-east, respectively. In broad context, the Alburz is a continuation of the European Alpine structures, while the Zagros chain has been linked through Cyprus with the Dinaric Alps (Fisher, 1956). The structure of the mountain rim of the country has been influenced strongly by tectonic movements which have n…

Iʿtimād al-Dawla

(142 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, literally: “trusty support of the state”, a title of Persian wazīrs during the Ṣafawid period and subsequently. The title iʿtimād al-dawla does not occur during the reign of Ismaʿīl I (907-30/1501-24), and first appears towards the end of the reign of Ṭahmāsp I, ca. 976/1568-9 (see Tārīk̲h̲-i Īlčī-yi Niẓāms̲h̲āh , B. M. Ms. Add. 23,513, fol. 480a). The introduction of this title reflected the growing importance of the bureaucracy in an increasingly centralized administration, and marked a significant increase in the power of the wazīr at the expense of the wakīl [ q.v.]. Under the Ḳād…

Asad Allāh Iṣfahānī

(109 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, celebrated Persian sword-maker ( s̲h̲ams̲h̲īrsāz ) of the time of S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās I. It is said that the Ottoman Sultan presented a helmet to S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās, and offered a sum of money to anyone who could cleave the helmet in two with a sword. Asad made a sword with which he achieved this feat, and, as a reward, S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās remitted the tax of the sword-makers, who continued to obtain exemption until Ḳād̲j̲ār times (see A. K. S. Lambton, Islamic Society in Persia , London 1954, 25). For a description of Asad Allāh’s work, see Survey of Persian Art , iii, 2575. (R.M. Savory)

Ḳūrčī

(463 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
(from the Mongolian ḳorči , “an archer”, from ḳor , “quiver”; Tad̲h̲kirat al-mulūk , translated and explained by V. Minorsky, London 1943, 32, ¶ n. 2), a military term with a variety of different meanings: “he who bears arms, the sword, chief huntsman” (Pavet de Courteille, Dict . turc , or., 425; “armourer, sword-cutler, troop of cavalry, captain of the watch; leader of a patrol, commandant of a fort, gendarmerie in charge of a city’s security” (Sulaymān Buk̲h̲ārī, Lug̲h̲at-i Čag̲h̲atāy ve Türkī ʿOt̲h̲mānī , Istanbul 1298/1880-1, 233), “sentry, sentinel, guard, inspector” (Vambery, Ča…

Ṣafī al-Dīn Audabīlī

(1,044 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Savory, R.M.
, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Abu ’l-Fatḥ Isḥāḳ, son of Amīn al-Dīn D̲j̲ibrāʾīl and Dawlatī, born 650/1252-3, died 12 Muḥarram 735/12 September 1334 at Ardabīl [ q.v.], eponymous founder of the Ṣafawid Order of Ṣūfīs and hence of the Ṣafawid dynasty, rulers of Persia 907-1148/1501-1736 [see ṣafawids ]. Traditional hagiographical accounts depict Ṣafī al-Dīn as being destined for future greatness from infancy. As a boy, he spent his time in religious exercises, experienced visions involving angelic beings, and was visited by the abdāl and awtād [ q.vv.]. As he grew up, he could find no murs̲h̲id

ʿAbbās I

(1,331 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, styled the Great, king of Persia of the Ṣafawī dynasty, second son and successor of Muḥammad Ḵh̲udābanda, was born on 1 Ramaḍān 978/27 January 1571, and died in Māzandarān on 24 Ḏj̲umāḍā I 1038/19 January 1629, after a reign of 42 solar (43 lunar) years. In 980/1572-3 he remained at Harāt when his father moved to S̲h̲īrāz. In 984/1576-7 Ismāʿīl II put to death the lala (tutor) of ʿAbbās, and appointed ʿAlī Ḳulī Ḵh̲ān S̲h̲āmlū governor of Harāt with orders to execute ʿAbbās himself. ʿAlī Ḳulī procrastinated, and, when the death of Ismāʿī…

Čūbānids

(830 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
( Čobanids ), a family of Mongol amīr s claiming descent from a certain Sūrg̲h̲ān ¶ S̲h̲īra of the Suldūz tribe who had once saved the I life of Čingiz Ḵh̲ān. The most notable members of this family were: (1) Amīr Čūbān . An able and experienced military commander, Amīr Čūbān, according to Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī, fought his first battle in Rabīʿ II 688/April-May 1289 ( Tāʾrīk̲h̲-i Guzīda (GMS), 588); thereafter he served with distinction under the Ilk̲h̲āns Arg̲h̲ūn, Gayk̲h̲ātū, G̲h̲āzān and Uld̲j̲āytū [ qq.v.]. He was appointed amīr al-umarāʾ by Abū Saʿīd in 717/…

Bast

(610 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
(Pers.), “sanctuary, asylum”, a term applied to certain places which were regarded as affording an inviolable sanctuary to any malefactor, however grave his crime; once within the protection of the bast , the malefactor could negotiate with his pursuers, and settle the ransom which would purchase his immunity when he left the bast. In Persia the idea of bast was connected in particular with (1) mosques and other sacred buildings, especially the tombs of saints (for example, in 806/1404 Tīmūr is said to have recognised the tomb ( mazār ) at Ardabīl of S̲h̲ayk̲h̲…

Kilāt (Kalāt)-i Nādirī

(300 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, “the most famous fort of Central Asia”, located some 70 miles north of Mas̲h̲had near the Irano-Soviet border, on a spur of the Ḳarād̲j̲a-Dāg̲h̲ Mts. Kalāt-i Nādirī consists of a high valley (altitude 2,500-3,000 feet), some twenty miles long and running west-east, which is converted into a natural fortress by walls of virtually unscalable rock to the north and south. The height of the southern rampart is 700-800 ft; the northern rampart is even higher. These walls are breached at only five po…

Kinkiwar

(482 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, Kankiwar , Kangāwar , a small town of western Persia (population in 1975, 13,144) situated in lat. 34°29′ N., long. 47°55′ E., and in the bak̲h̲s̲h̲ of the same time in the s̲h̲ahristān of Kirmāns̲h̲āhān. The town is almost equidistant from the cities of Kirmāns̲h̲āh and Hamadān [ qq.v.], and lies at an altitude of 1,467 m. ; it is first mentioned by Isidore of Charax under the name “Concobar”. The bak̲h̲s̲h̲ comprises (1975) four dihistāns , with a total of some sixty villages and a population of about 38,435. The economy of the region is based on agriculture and trade. The Kangāwar valley ha…

Kur

(302 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Savory, R.M.
, the largest river in the Caucasus (according to Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī Ḳazwīnī, 200 farsak̲h̲ s = nearly 800 miles in length). The Ḳur, known as Cyrus to the Greeks; Nahr al-Kurr to the Arabs; Kura to the Russians (said to be derived from a-kuara, “river”, in the Abk̲h̲āzī tongue); and Mtkvari to the Georgians (said to be derived from mdinaré , “river” in the Kartlian dialect), rises in Georgia south of Ardahani (west of Ḳārṣ in the Poso district), and flows northwards to Akhaltzikhé, where it turns east (see map in V. Minorksy, A History of Sharvān and Darband in the 10th-11th centuries, Cambridg…

Ḥasan-i Rūmlū

(248 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, grandson of the ḳi̊zi̊lbās̲h̲ chief Amīr Sulṭān Rūmlū, the governor of Ḳazwīn and Sāud̲j̲ Bulāg̲h̲, who died in 946/1539-40. Ḥasan-i Rūmlū was born at Ḳumm in 937/1530-1, and was trained in the Ṣafawid army as a ḳūrčī . Ḥasan-i Rūmlū is chiefly remembered as the author of a twelve-volume general history entitled Aḥsan altawārīk̲h̲ . Only two volumes are extant, but these are probably the most valuable ones. Vol. x, covering the period 807-899/1405-1493, exists only in MS. in Leningrad (Dorn 287). C. N. Seddon published (Barod…

Takkalū

(570 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
(Täkkä-lü), the name of a group of Turcomans originating from the regions of Menteşe, Aydin, Saruhan, Hamit and Germiyan in southern Anatolia, an area known collectively as Tekeili [ q.v.] ( Tārīk̲h̲-i Ḳizilbās̲h̲ān , ed. Mīr Hās̲h̲im Muḥaddit̲h̲, Tehran 1361 AHS/1982, 27). The Turcoman tribes of Anatolia were one of the primary targets of Ṣafawid propaganda ( daʿwa ) [see bāyazīd ii ; ṣafawids. i ], and the Takkalūs responded early to this call and entered the service of the Ṣafawid s̲h̲ayk̲h̲s D̲j̲unayd and Ḥaydar [ q.v.]. In 905/1499, when Ismāʿīl [see ismāʿīl i …

As̲h̲raf

(560 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, town in the Persian province of Māzandarān, and chief town of a district ( bulūk ) of the same name, situated 36° 41ʹ 55ʺ N, 53° 32ʹ 30ʺ E, five miles from the shore of the Caspian Sea, 35 miles E. of Sārī and 43 miles W. of Astarābād on the road between these two towns. The town lies at the foot of wooded spurs of the lofty Alburz range, and commands a fine view northwards over the bay of Astarābād. Although the approaches to As̲h̲raf are fertile and produce excellent cotton and wheat, the plain of As̲h̲raf itself tends to be marshy. The cypress, the wild vine, the citron and the orange grow in profusion. F…

Gulistān

(183 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, the name of a place in the Caucasus where, on 12 October 1813, a peace treaty was signed between Russia and Persia. In 1800 the Russians had annexed Georgia, and the Persians, in an effort to check their further advance southward, had suffered two defeats in 1812, at Aslandūz and Lankurān, and had been forced to sue for peace. The terms of the Treaty of Gulistān, which was negotiated through the mediation of the British ambassador Sir Gore Ouseley, were disastrous for Persia. The regions of Georgia, Ḳarābāg̲h̲, S̲h̲akkī, S̲h̲īrwān, Darband, Bākū, Dāg̲h…

Muḥammad Riḍā (Riza) S̲h̲āh Pahlawī

(6,211 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, son of Riḍā K̲h̲ān [ q.v.] and Tād̲j̲ al-Mulūk, daughter of Tīmūr K̲h̲ān mīr-pand̲j̲ (“brigadier”); born 26 October 1919 (his twin sister, As̲h̲raf, was born later the same day), died Cairo 27 July 1980, second and last s̲h̲āh of the Pahlawī [ q.v.] ¶ dynasty of Iran. At the coronation of his father on 25 April 1926, Muḥammad Riḍā was formally invested as Crown Prince. After primary education at a school established by his father for the sons of government officials and military officers, he was sent in 1931 to a private school in Lausa…

Alḳāṣ Mīrzā

(416 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
(or alḳās , alḳāsp ), second son of S̲h̲āh Ismaʿīl I of the Ṣafawī dynasty, and younger brother of S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp I. Born Tabrīz 921/1515-6, he fought a successful action at Astarābād against the Uzbegs in 939/1532-3. In 945/1538-9 he subdued S̲h̲irwān, and was made governor of that province by Ṭahmāsp. He rebelled soon afterwards, but was granted a conditional pardon through the intercession of his mother Ḵh̲ān Begī Ḵh̲ānum. At the instance of Ṭahmāsp, he fought an inconclusive campaign against the Circassians, but again rebelled, minting his own coinage and including his name in the k̲h̲…

Bag̲h̲dād K̲h̲ātūn

(352 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, daughter of the amīr al-umarā Amīr Čūbān, niece of the Īlk̲h̲ānid ruler of Persia Abū Saʿīd ( regn . 717-736/1317-1335) (her mother was Abū Saʿīd’s sister), and wife of Amīr Ḥasan the D̲j̲alāʾirid, commonly known as S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Ḥasan Buzurg, whom she married in 723/1323. In 1325 A.D. Abū Saʿīd, quoting as precedent the yāsā of Čingiz Ḵh̲ān, attempted to force S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Ḥasan to divorce Bag̲h̲dād Ḵh̲ātūn in order that he might marry her himself, but was frustrated by Amīr Čūbān. In October or November 1327 A.D. Amīr Čūbān was…

Ḏj̲amāl al-Ḥusaynī

(124 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, a complimentary title of the Persian divine and historian Amīr d̲j̲amāl [al-dīn] ʿaṭāʾ allāh b. faḍl allāh al-ḥusaynī al-das̲h̲takī al-s̲h̲īrāzī , who flourished at Harāt during the reign of Sulṭān Ḥusayn the Tīmūrid (875-911/1470-1505); the probable date of his death is 926/1520. His known works are: (1) Rawḍat al-aḥbāb fī siyar al-Nabī wa ’l-āl wa ’l-aṣḥāb , a history of Muḥammad, his family and companions, written at the request of Mīr ʿAlī S̲h̲īr and completed in 900/1494-5 (Lucknow ed. 1297/1880-2, Turkish tr. Constantinople 1268/1852); (2) Tuḥfat al-aḥibbāʾ fī manāḳib Āl …

Ḥaydar

(598 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ , the 5th Ṣafawid s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ in line of descent from S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Ṣafī al-Dīn Isḥāḳ, the founder of the Ṣafawid ṭarīḳa . The son of D̲j̲unayd [ q.v.] and K̲h̲adīd̲j̲a Begum, the sister of the Aḳ Ḳoyunlu ruler Uzun Ḥasan, Ḥaydar succeeded his father as head of the Ṣafawid ṭarīḳa at Ardabīl in 864/1460. Ḥaydar, by his marriage to Ḥalīma Begī Āg̲h̲ā (or Marta; better known as ʿAlams̲h̲āh Begum), the daughter of Uzun Ḥasan and Despina K̲h̲ātūn, the latter the daughter of Calo Johannes, the Emperor of Trebizond, maintained the close alliance w…

Ṭahmāsp

(2,195 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M. | Bosworth, C.E.
(Ṭahmāsb), the name of two S̲h̲āhs of the Ṣafawid dynasty [ q.v.] in Persia. 1. Ṭahmāsp I, Abu ’l-Fatḥ, eldest son of S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl [see ismāʿīl i ], born at S̲h̲āhābād in the district of Iṣfahān on Wednesday, 26 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 919/22 February 1514 (Ḥasan-i Rūmlū, Aḥsan al-tawārīk̲h̲ (ed. C.N. Seddon, Baroda 1931, 142), died Monday, 15 Ṣafar 984/14 May 1576 ( Aḥsan al-tawārīk̲h̲, 464), second ruler of the Ṣafawid dynasty [see ṣafawids. i ]. Following the early Ṣafawid practice of appointing princes of the blood royal to be nominal governors of provinces, in the care of a Ḳi̊zi̊lbās̲h̲…

K̲h̲ūzistān

(1,842 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, a province of south-western Persia, and the land of the Hūz/Ḥūz/K̲h̲ūz (Hussi/Kussi), the Oὔξιοι/Uxii of Strabo and Pliny. The province of K̲h̲ūzistān corresponds more or less to the ancient Elam and to the classical Susiana, and the names of its present capital, Ahwāz [ q.v.], its ancient capital, Susa [ q.v.], and the town of Ḥawīza [ q.v.], all reflect the name of its inhabitants in Elamite times. Essentially, the province consists of alluvial fans formed by the Kark̲h̲a and the Kārūn [ qq.v.] rivers and situated between the Zagros mountains and the sea; near the Persian G…

K̲h̲urrams̲h̲ahr

(590 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, chief town (population in 1966: 88,536) of the s̲h̲ahristān of the same name (population in 1966: 156,281) in the Iranian province of K̲h̲ūzistān ( ustān 6), and situated in long. 48° 09′ E., lat. 30° 25′ N. Its elevation above sea-level is 8 m./26 ft., and the climate is hot and humid, with summer temperatures rising to 58° C./136° F., and a winter minimum of 8° C./46° F. The present town is the successor of a number of settlements which, since ancient times, have been located in the general area where the Kārūn (Dud̲j̲ayl) river and the combined Tigris and Eu…

Ibrāhīm b. S̲h̲āhruk̲h̲

(176 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
( Abu ’l-Fatḥ Mīrzā Ibrāhīm Sulṭān Bahādur ), Tīmurid prince, second son of S̲h̲āhruk̲h̲ [ q.v.], born 28 S̲h̲awwāl 796/26 August 1394. In 812/1409, Ibrāhīm was appointed governor of Balk̲h̲ and Ṭuk̲h̲āristān up to the borders of Kābul and Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān, and in 817/1414 he was appointed governor of Fārs, a position which he held for over twenty years up to his death ¶ on 4 Shawwāl 838/3 May 1435. In 823-4/1420-1, and in 832/1429, he took part in S̲h̲āhruk̲h̲’s campaigns in Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān. In 824/1421 he annexed K̲h̲ūzistān to the Tīmūrid empire. Ibrāhīm had two sons: Ismaʿīl (died ca. 83…

K̲h̲urramābād

(264 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, chief town of the s̲h̲ahristān of the same name in the Iranian province of Luristān ( ustān 6), situated in long. 48° 21′ E., lat. 33° 29′ N.; population of the s̲h̲ahristān (1966): 259,000, elevation above sea-level: 4,700 feet. The town is first mentioned under its present name in the 8th/14th century by Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī, who states: “this was fine town, but it is now in ruins” ( Nuzhat al-ḳulūb , 74). To the south-east of the town, along the banks of the K̲h̲urramābād river, and also to the south-west, are remains dating from the time w…

Ṣadr al-Dīn Ardabīlī

(324 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
(S̲h̲aykh Ṣadr al-Milla wa ’l-Dīn Mūsā), second son of Ṣafī al-Dīn Ardabīlī [ q.v.], born 1 S̲h̲awwāl 704/26 April 1305 (S̲h̲aykh Ḥusayn b. Abdāl Zāhidī, Silsilat al-nasab-i Ṣafawiyya , Iranschähr Publications no. 6, Berlin 1924-5, 39). Designated by his father as his successor and vicegerent ( k̲h̲alīfa wa nāʾib-munāb ), Ṣadr al-Dīn assumed the leadership of the Ṣafawid Order in 735/1334. He expanded the Ṣafawid mausoleum complex at Ardabīl, adding rooms for private meditation ( k̲h̲alwat-k̲h̲āna ), a residence for Ḳurʾān-readers ( dār al-ḥuffāẓ ), and a room ( čīnī-k̲h̲āna

Ḥamza Mīrzā

(339 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, Ṣafawid prince, second son of Muḥammad K̲h̲udābanda, born ca. 973/1565-6. In 985/1577 S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl II ordered that Ḥamza Mīrzā be put to death at S̲h̲īrāz, together with his father and brother, Abū Ṭālib, but Ismaʿīl II was assassinated before the order could be carried out. After the accession of his weak and purblind father, as Sulṭan Muḥammad S̲h̲āh, in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 985/February 1578, Ḥamza Mīrzā was made heir-apparent at the instance of his mother, Mahd-i ʿUlyā, who, until her murder by the ḳi̊zi̊lbās̲h̲ [ q.v.] in 987/1579, was the real power behind the throne; …

Iskandar Beg al-s̲h̲ahīr bi-Muns̲h̲ī

(249 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, born ca. 968/1560, died probably ca. 1042/1632, author of the Tārīk̲h̲-i ʿĀlam-ārā-yi ʿAbbāsī , one of the greatest works of Persian historiography. The muḳaddima , on the origins of the Ṣafawids and the reigns of Ismaʿīl I and Ṭahmāsp I, is followed by a detailed history of the reign of S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās I. The bulk of the work ( Ṣaḥīfas I and II, or, according to another reckoning, Ṣaḥīfa I and Ṣaḥīfa II, Maḳṣad i) was completed in 1025/1616. A later portion, variously termed Ṣaḥīfa III, or Ṣaḥīfa II, Maḳṣad ii, was completed in 1038/1629, the year of S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās’s death. In the sa…

Ismāʿīl II

(641 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, born 940/1533-4 (this is conjectured from the available evidence; 110 chronicle gives his date of birth), died 13 Ramaḍān 985/24 November 1577, second son of S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp [ q.v.], shah of Persia (984-5/1576-7) of the Ṣafawid dynasty. After the rebellion of his uncle Alḳāṣ [ q.v.], Ismāʿīl was appointed governor of S̲h̲īrwān (954/1547), and conducted several successful campaigns against the Ottomans in the Caucasus and eastern Anatolia. In 962/1555 he married a daughter of the marriage between a sister of Ṭahmāsp and S̲h̲āh Niʿmat Allāh Walī [ q.v.]. The following year, in S̲h̲a…

Ḳāsim-i Anwār

(898 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, the laḳab of muʿīn al-dīn ʿalī ḥusaynī sarābī tabrīzī , mystic, poet and leading Ṣafawid dāʿi . Born in 757/1356 in the Sarāb district of Tabrīz in Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān, Muʿīn al-Dīn ʿAlī became at an early age the disciple ( murīd ) of the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of the Ṣafawid ṭarīḳa Ṣadr al-Dīn Mūsā [ q.v.], who bestowed on him the laḳab of Ḳāsim-i Anwār, “Distributor of Lights”, as the result of a vision experienced by his disciple. Muʿīn al-Dīn ʿAlī saw himself standing in the Masd̲j̲id-i D̲j̲āmiʿ at Ardabīl, holding in his hand a great candle from which the memb…

Faraḥābād

(464 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, the name of a place in Māzandarān, situated 36° 50′ N., 53° 2′ 38″ E., 17 m. north of Sārī and 26 m. north-west of As̲h̲raf [ q.v.], near the mouth of the Tid̲j̲in (or Tīd̲j̲ān, or Tid̲j̲īna) river. Formerly known as Ṭāhān, the site was renamed Faraḥābād by S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās I, who in 1020/1611-2 or 1021/1612-3 ordered the construction of a royal palace there. Around the palace were built residences, gardens, baths, bazaars, mosques and caravanserais. The new town, according to Pietro della Valle, was peopled by S̲h̲āh ʿAbbā…
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