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Timetai dikai

(211 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (τιμηταὶ δίκαι/ timētaì díkai). Legal processes at Athens which, having completed the ballot on the issue of conviction, had to undergo a further 'assessment procedure' ( timetos agon ). In private cases concerning money ( dike [2]), it was the rule, in public cases ( eisangelia , graphe [1]) the exception. Recorded as TD are: the dike epitropes ( epitropos [2]), dike klopes ( klope ), aikeias dike , exhaireseos dike , pseudomartyrion dike , lipomartyriou dike , kakotechnion dike , biaion dike , exoules dike , blabes dike ([4. 98 f.] assumes fixed …

Gortyn

(1,324 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | Dark Ages | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Crete | Apollo | Limes | Macedonia, Macedones | Pompeius | Rome | Rome | Education / Culture [German version] I. Location One of the biggest and most important cities of Crete, in the Mesara plain on the river Lethaeus, between the villages of Agi Deka and Mitropolis, 16 km (Str. 10,4,7: 90 stadia) from the Libyan Sea, also transmitted as Gortyna and Gortyne. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] II. Historical development The earli…

Laographia, Laographos

(156 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (λαογραφία, λαογράφος; laographía, laográphos). From the Ptolemaic period onwards, censuses were conducted in Egypt ( laographíai: the people were ‘written down’). These took place from Augustus onwards on a 7-year cycle, and from Tiberius onwards every 14 years. In the Roman period, laographía also referred to the list compiled in the process of those liable for poll tax and the poll tax itself ( Taxes). Men between the ages of 14 and 60 were subject to it unless they were Roman citizens or citizens of privileged Greek p…

Amnestia

(252 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἀμνηστία; amnēstía). Legally established relinquishment of accusation, reopening of proceedings, execution of judgement and carrying out of punishment as means of reconciling the contending parties after internal or external wars. Plutarch (Mor. 814b) mentions the Athenian amnesty decree of 403 BC τὸ ψήφισμα τὸ τῆς ἀμνηστίας ἐπὶ τοῖς τριάκοντα, while Aristotle (Ath. Pol. 39,6) and the orators Andocides (1,90), Isocrates (18,3) and Aeschines (2,176; 3,208) use the original phrasing ‘not to think badly’, μὴ μνη…

Ekecheiria

(64 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἐκεχειρία; ekecheiría). Technical term for ‘armistice’, ‘court rest’, and the ‘divine peace’ as agreed upon by Iphitus of Elis and Lycurgus of Sparta for the games in Olympia (Plut. Lycurgus 1,2; Paus. 5,20,1), claimed by the other great festival locations as well. Thür, Gerhard (Graz) Bibliography StV II no. 185; III S. 414 (II A6)  L. Robert, Études Anatoliennes 2, 1937, 177ff.

Emporikai dikai

(109 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἐμπορικαὶ δίκαι; emporikaì díkai). Commercial suits in Athens involving maritime imports and exports. Traders and shipowners were the parties but also foreigners and   métoikoi . The emporikai dikai could be brought on only in winter months when maritime traffic was resting. First they came under the jurisdiction of the nautodíkai, then the   eisagogeís and finally (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 59,5) under that of the   thesmothétai . Under the jurisdiction of the eisagogeís they had to be completed speedily within one month. Execution of the judgement was assu…

Enklema

(172 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἔγκλημα; énklēma). In general Greek usage ‘reproach’, in the laws of Athens ‘suit’ in civil trials, in the criminal law of Egyptian papyri ‘charge’. Before the law, which in Athens required written form for the court file (presumably 378/7 BC), the enklema was a verbal application to the head of the court (  dikastḗrion 3.) to open the trial, which included the name of the parties, the suit and, if provided, (in the   tímētos agṓn ), an estimate of the judgement sum. Written enklḗmata are preserved in Dem. Or. 37,22-32; 45,46, and imprecisely called   graphḗ
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